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When psychologists speak of life-span development, they are referring to an approach that emphasizes:

 
child development, specifically.

child development, specifically.

A)

A) humanity's historical development.

humanity's historical development.

B)

B) only the periods of the human life span involving growth.

only the periods of the human life span involving growth.

C)

C) the periods of the human life span involving both growth and decline.

the periods of the human life span involving both growth and decline.

D)

D)

2

Whether or not intellectual skills can still be improved through education for individuals in their 70s is a question of

 
normative age-graded influence

normative age-graded influence

A)

A) plasticity

plasticity

B)

B) multidirectionality

multidirectionality

C)

C) normative life events

normative life events

D)

D)

3

Developmental psychologists suggest that some characteristics develop and change over time. Which characteristic of development does this suggest?

 
Development is contextual.

Development is contextual.

A)

A) Development is plastic.

Development is plastic.

B)

B) Development is studied by a number of disciplines.

Development is studied by a number of disciplines.

C)

C) Development is multidirectional.

Development is multidirectional.

D)

D)

4

Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life and are usually not applicable to many people are called

 
normative history-graded influences

normative history-graded influences

A)

A) normative age-graded influences

normative age-graded influences

B)

B) nonnormative life events

nonnormative life events

C)

C) none of these

none of these

D) B) nonnormative life events C) none of these 5 Sociocultural contexts include five important concepts:

5

Sociocultural contexts include five important concepts: context, culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. Which of these five concepts could be defined as "the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are

passed on from generation to generation"?  context A) culture B) ethnicity C) none of these D) 6 Psychologists have learned

 
context

context

A)

A) culture

culture

B)

B) ethnicity

ethnicity

C)

C) none of these

none of these

D)

D)

6

Psychologists have learned that the ability to control one's environment can have a powerful

effect on a person's health. They have also learned that poor health can influence intellectual functioning. This is an example of:

 
a biological process.

a biological process.

A)

A) a cognitive process.

a cognitive process.

B)

B) a social process.

a social process.

C)

C) the joint influence of biological and cognitive processes.

the joint influence of biological and cognitive processes.

D)

D)

7

Which of the following is NOT an example of a cognitive process?

 
an infant watching a colorful mobile swing above his crib

an infant watching a colorful mobile swing above his crib

A)

A) an adolescent solving a crossword puzzle

an adolescent solving a crossword puzzle

B)

B) an infant's smile in response to her mother's touch

an infant's smile in response to her mother's touch

C)

C) a child memorizing a poem

a child memorizing a poem

D)

D)

8

Which of the following statements regarding developmentalists and their positions on the issues of naturenurture, continuitydiscontinuity, and stabilitychange is TRUE?

 
Most developmentalists recognize that taking extreme positions on these issues is

Most developmentalists recognize that taking extreme positions on these issues is

A)

unwise.

Developmentalists are in agreement regarding how strongly development is influenced

Developmentalists are in agreement regarding how strongly development is influenced

B)

B) by each of these factors. There is little debate among developmentalists on these issues.

by each of these factors.

There is little debate among developmentalists on these issues.

C)

C) all of these

all of these

D)

D)

9

The process we refer to when we speak of changes in an individual's thought, intelligence,

and language is the

process.

 
cognitive

cognitive

A)

 
socioemotional

socioemotional

B)

B) intellectual

intellectual

C)

C) conceptual

conceptual

D)

D)

10

The most important issues in the study of development include all of the following EXCEPT

 
nature and nurture

nature and nurture

A)

A) continuity and discontinuity

continuity and discontinuity

B)

B) stability and change

stability and change

C)

C) masculinity and femininity

masculinity and femininity

D)

D)

11

Freud is associated with which theoretical perspective?

 
psychoanalytic

psychoanalytic

A)

A) cognitive

cognitive

B)

B) behavioral and social cognitive

behavioral and social cognitive

C)

C) ecological

ecological

D)

D)

12

Which psychologist contended that "trust versus mistrust" is the first psychological stage?

 
Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget

A)

A) Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson

B)

B) Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud

C)

C) Lev Vygotsky

Lev Vygotsky

D)

D)

13

The criticisms of psychoanalytic theory include all of the following EXCEPT:

 
the sexual underpinnings of development are given too much importance.

the sexual underpinnings of development are given too much importance.

A)

A) the unconscious mind is given too much credit for influencing development.

the unconscious mind is given too much credit for influencing development.

B)

B) much of the data used to support its theories comes from individual's reconstruction of

much of the data used to support its theories comes from individual's reconstruction of

C)

the past and are of unknown accuracy.

of C) the past and are of unknown accuracy. there is skepticism about the pureness of

there is skepticism about the pureness of Piaget's stages.

D)

14

14

 

The theory that emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and

strategize about it is called the

theory.

 
situated and collaborative

situated and collaborative

A)

A) information-processing

information-processing

B)

B) cognitive

cognitive

C)

C) behaviorist

behaviorist

D)

D)

15

Which of the following is an assumption of Vygotsky's perspective on development?

 
Children do not adapt their thinking to new ideas via the processes of assimilation and

Children do not adapt their thinking to new ideas via the processes of assimilation and

A)

accommodation.

Children's cognitive skills cannot be understood when they are only developmentally

Children's cognitive skills cannot be understood when they are only developmentally

B)

B) analyzed and interpreted. Cognitive skills are not mediated by words, language, and forms of discourse.

analyzed and interpreted.

Cognitive skills are not mediated by words, language, and forms of discourse.

C)

C) Cognitive skills do not have their origins in social relations.

Cognitive skills do not have their origins in social relations.

D)

D)

16

Who was the psychologist responsible for originating the theory of attachment?

 
Konrad Lorenz

Konrad Lorenz

A)

A) John Bowlby

John Bowlby

B)

B) Urie Bronfenbrenner

Urie Bronfenbrenner

C)

C) none of these

none of these

D)

D)

17

is to operant conditioning, as

is to social cognitive theory.

 
Skinner; Bandura

Skinner; Bandura

A)

A) Skinner; Pavlov

Skinner; Pavlov

B)

B) Pavlov; Watson

Pavlov; Watson

C)

C) Pavlov; Bandura

Pavlov; Bandura

D)

D)

18

According to Bronfenbrenner's theory, the macrosystem is

 
 
the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course

the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course

A)

the culture in which individuals live

patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course A) the culture in which individuals

B)

B) involved when experiences in another social setting influence what the individual   C) experiences in

involved when experiences in another social setting influence what the individual

 

C)

C) experiences in an immediate context the overarching system which includes all of these factors and

experiences in an immediate context

the overarching system which includes all of these factors and more

D)

D)

19

Which type of research method involves an in-depth look at one individual?

 
longitudinal approach

longitudinal approach

A)

A) case study

case study

B)

B) experiment

experiment

C)

C) scientific method

scientific method

D)

D)

20

Which research strategy simultaneously compares individuals of different ages?

cross-sectional

cross-sectional

A)

A) longitudinal

longitudinal

B)

B) experimental

experimental

C)

C) correlational

correlational

D)

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