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RESPIRATION
RESPIRATION
RESPIRATION
RESPIRATION
RESPIRATION

RESPIRATION

 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  State that all living processes require energy  Identify the main
 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  State that all living processes require energy  Identify the main

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

State that all living processes require energy

Identify the main substrate for producing energy

State 2 types of respiration

Explain what cellular respiration is

Explain energy production from glucose during the process of aerobic respiration

State the conditions leading to anaerobic

respiration in cells

Explain the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast and human muscles

 LEARNING OUTCOMES…….  Write the chemical equations for aerobic and anaerobic respiration  Compare
 LEARNING OUTCOMES…….  Write the chemical equations for aerobic and anaerobic respiration  Compare

LEARNING OUTCOMES…….

Write the chemical equations for aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Compare and contrast aerobic respiration and

anaerobic respiration

1. Respiration is important living process that occurs in 2 main stages: a) External respiration

1. Respiration is important living process that

occurs in 2 main stages:

a)

External respiration / breathing

b)

Internal respiration / cellular respiration

that occurs in 2 main stages: a) External respiration / breathing b) Internal respiration / cellular
that occurs in 2 main stages: a) External respiration / breathing b) Internal respiration / cellular

2. External respiration ??

Is a mechanical process of taking air into the lungs and vise versa

3. Internal respiration ??

Is a biochemical process that occurs in living cells to release energy in the form of ATP

4. Respiration is a process to obtain energy by organisms / living things

5.

All living processs that take place in the

body

6.

Required energy for ???

muscular contraction

active transport of biochemical substances

transmission of nerve impulse

synthesis proteins
cell division

7.

Main substrate produce ATP is GLUCOSE

8.

Green plants capture & store energy of sunlight in GLUCOSE through photosynthesis

9.

For human and animals, GLUCOSE obtained from digestion of Carbohydrate

1. Is the process of oxidising glucose molecules to CO 2 , water and energy

1.

Is the process of oxidising glucose molecules to CO 2 , water and energy in form of ATP

2.

Energy is released during cellular respiration.

3.

2 types of cellular respiration:

AEROBIC RESPIRATION

ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

 Require O 2  Chemical equation: C 6 H 1 2 O 6 +

Require O 2

Chemical equation:

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 +6H 2 O + E

Occurs in mitochondria (muscle)

ADP + phosphate + energy ATP

Most of energy released,used to synthesise ATP

from ADP and phosphate.

ATP, consists of phosphate bond can easily broken down to release energy when required by the body

ATP ADP + phosphate + energy

 Not require O2  During vigorous activities such as running, swimming and cycling we

Not require O2

During vigorous activities such as running, swimming and cycling we need more O2 to be

delivered to the muscle cells to produce more

energy

When the muscle cells used all the available O2

supply, muscle cells carry out anaerobic

respiration

Anaerobic respiration is a process used to produce energy stored in glucose without using

O2.

Occurs in cytoplasm

Prolonged physical activities such as running, rate of respiration and rate of heartbeat increase

Prolonged physical activities such as running, rate of

respiration and rate of heartbeat increase

Muscles are in a state of oxygen deficiency or oxygen debt

So glucose molecules breakdown partially to

lactic acid

Due to incomplete breakdown of glucose, energy released is much less compared aerobic respiration. WHY??

Most of energy is still trapped within the molecules of lactic acid

Chemical equation for anaerobic respiration:

C 6 H 12 O 6 2C 3 O 6 O 3 + ENERGY (150 KJ / 2 ATP )

For every glucose molecules, only 2 ATP or 150 KJ of energy produced compared to 38 ATP or 2889 KJ energy produced in aerobic respiration

molecules, only 2 ATP or 150 KJ of energy produced compared to 38 ATP or 2889

High conc of lactic acid may cause muscular cramps and fatique

So body need rest and recover by doing fast and deep breathing.

Excess O2 is used to oxidized lactic acid to CO2 and water. Oxidation takes place in liver.

Thus, oxygen demand is the amount of oxygen

needed to recover the lactic acid.

Oxygen debt is paid off when all the lactic acid eliminated

Yeast is able to undergo both aerobic and anaerobic respiration

It carries out aerobic respiration in the presence of O2

Yeast carried out anaerobic respiration when there is a lack of O2 in the environment

Anaerobic respiration in yeast is known as

fermentation

Yeast ferments in warm condition to produce

CO2

CO 2 bubbles are trapped in the dough and when baked, the CO 2 bubbles give the bread a spongy texture This anaerobic reaction catalysed by enzyme zymase.

C 6 H 12 O 6 2C 2 O 5 OH + 2 CO 2 + ENERGY (210 KJ)

Ethanol can be used in wine and beer production

 SIMILARITIES  Form cellular respiration  Produce oxidation of glucose  Involve in breakdown
 SIMILARITIES  Form cellular respiration  Produce oxidation of glucose  Involve in breakdown

SIMILARITIES

Form cellular respiration

Produce oxidation of glucose Involve in breakdown of glucose

Produces energy

Catalysed by enzymes

Occurs in animals amd plants

DIFFERENCES

AEROBIC

ITEMS

ANAEROBIC

RESPIRATION

RESPIRATION

Almost every living

Work by

Certain plant cell ,

things

yeast , bacteria and muscle

Required

Oxygen requirement

Not required

Complete oxidation

Oxidation of glucose

Incomplete oxidation

CO 2 , water and energy

Product

Lactic acid & energy

(muscle) Ethanol , CO 2 & energy (yeast)

Large amount

Energy released

Small amount

DIFFERENCES

AEROBIC

ITEMS

ANAEROBIC

RESPIRATION

RESPIRATION

Mitochondria

Site

Cytoplasm

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 2898 KJ

Chemical equation

In muscle cell C 6 H 12 O 6 2C 3 H 6 O 3 + 150 KJ

In yeast C 6 H 12 O 6 2C 2 H 5 OH +2CO 2 + 210 KJ

38 molecules

No of ATP

2 molecules

 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  State the respiratory structures in humans and some animals  Describe
 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  State the respiratory structures in humans and some animals  Describe

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

State the respiratory structures in humans and some animals

Describe the characteristics of respiratory

surfaces in humans and other organisms

Describe breathing mechanisms in human and other organisms

Compare and contrast the human respiratory system with other organisms

1. Respiratory structures involve in gaseous exchange: a) Across plasma membrane b) Tracheal system -
1. Respiratory structures involve in gaseous exchange: a) Across plasma membrane b) Tracheal system -

1. Respiratory structures involve in gaseous

exchange:

a)

Across plasma membrane

b)

Tracheal system - insects

c)

Gills - fish

d)

Skin

e)

Lungs

2 . To ensure adequate gaseous exchange,

respiratory structures of most organisms have common characteristics:

a) The respiratory surface is moist

b) Cells lining the respiratory surface are thin

c) Respiratory structures has a large surface

area

 Small aquatic organisms such as amoeba and paramecium does not require specialized respiratory system
 Small aquatic organisms such as amoeba and paramecium does not require specialized respiratory system

Small aquatic organisms such as amoeba and paramecium does not require specialized respiratory system

 Small aquatic organisms such as amoeba and paramecium does not require specialized respiratory system

The respiration of amoeba and paramecium occurs across the plasma membrane.

Plasma membrane is moist and thin enough to allow diffusion of gases

Diffusion of gases take place easily because amoeba and paramecium have a large surface area compared to the volume of their bodies

1. Respiratory system of insects is tracheal system.

2. Tracheal system of insect consists of

spiracle, trachea, air sac and tracheoles

system of insects is tracheal system. 2. Tracheal system of insect consists of spiracle, trachea, air

3.

Tracheal system consists of air tubes called

tracheae

4.

Air enters the tracheae through spiracles

5.

Spiracles have valves which allow air, go in and out of the body

6.

Tracheae reinforced with rings of chitin which

prevent them from collapsing

7.

Trachea split into numerous finer tubes called tracheoles

8.

Large number of tracheoles provides large

surface area for diffusion of gases

9.

Tracheoles :

So tiny, can channel O2 directly to the cells in the different parts of body

Are numerous , increase total surface area

Have thin and moist wall at the end of tip , make it easy for respiratory gases to be dissolved

10. Larger insects like grasshoppers have air sacs

in their tracheal system to speed up movement

of gases to and from the insect’s tissue

1.

Amphibians such as frog live on land and in

water

2. Gaseous exchange occur through skin and lungs

3. Adaptation of the skin for gaseous exchange:

o skin is thin and highly permeable allow the

absorption of respiratory gases into the blood

capillaries

o beneath the skin is a network of blood

capillaries to receive O2 and transport it to

body cells

o skin is moist by secretion of mucus

facilitate rapid and efficient exchange of gases

between the skin and the environment

is moist by secretion of mucus – facilitate rapid and efficient exchange of gases between the

4.

Adaptation of the lung for gaseous exchange:

Surface area for gases exchange is increased by

numerous inner partition facilitate the efficient diffusion of respiratory gases in and out rapidly

Covered with a rich network of blood

capillaries to receive O2 and transport it to

body cells

Membrane of the lungs are thin and moist

Increase the surface area for gases exchange

1. Respiratory structures of fish – gills 2. Bony fish hv 4 pairs of gills

1. Respiratory structures of fish gills

2. Bony fish hv 4 pairs of gills which are protected by operculum

3. Gill consist of filaments which supported by gill arch

4. Filament s hv a thin

by operculum 3. Gill consist of filaments which supported by gill arch 4. Filament s hv

wall called lamellae

1.

Structural adaptation of the gills:

Thin membranes allow the absorption of respiratory gases into the blood capillaries

Rich of blood capillaries efficient and

transport of respiratory gases

Surrounded by water enable respiratory gases to be dissolve

Large surface area of filaments and lamellae for efficient gases exchange

2.

Efficiency of gaseous exchange is further enhanced

by countercurrent exchange mechanism

2. Efficiency of gaseous exchange is further enhanced by countercurrent exchange mechanism
 Water flows over the gills in one direction  Blood flows in the opposite
 Water flows over the gills in one direction  Blood flows in the opposite

Water flows over the gills in one direction

Blood flows in the opposite direction through blood capillaries in the lamellae

As deoxygenated blood enters the blood capillaries, it encounters water with higher O2 content

Along the blood capillaries, conc gradient allows

the transfer of O2 into the blood

However, conc of CO2 in blood is hingher than in

water. So CO2 diffused from blood into water

1.

Gaseous exchange in humans take place in the lungs

2. Air enters lungs through :

trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli

3. Trachea is supported by cartilage to prevent it from collapse during inhalation

bronchi  bronchioles  alveoli 3. Trachea is supported by cartilage to prevent it from collapse
bronchi  bronchioles  alveoli 3. Trachea is supported by cartilage to prevent it from collapse
 A large number of alveoli in the lungs – increase the surface area for
 A large number of alveoli in the lungs – increase the surface area for

A large number of alveoli in the lungs increase

the surface area for exchange of gases

Walls are made up of a single layer of cells gases can diffuse easily across the thin walls

Walls secrete a thin lining of moisture gases can

dissolve in moisture and diffuse easily across

walls

Surrounded by a network of blood capillaries

can transport O2 to and CO2 away from the cells

INHALATION EXHALATION External intercostal muscles External intercostal muscles relax contract Internal

INHALATION

EXHALATION

External intercostal muscles

External intercostal muscles relax

contract

Internal intercostal muscles relax

Internal intercostal muscles contract

Rib cage move upwards and outwards

Rib cage move downwards and inwards

Diaphragm contracts and flattens

Diaphragm relaxes and returns to dome-shaped

Volume of thoracic cavity increase resulting in reduced air pressure in alveoli

Volume of thoracic cavity decrease resulting in higher air pressure in alveoli

Higher atmospheric pressure outside causes air to rush in

Air is force out of lungs

SIMILARITIES 1. Have large surface area to volume ratio 2. Cells lining the respiratory structures
SIMILARITIES 1. Have large surface area to volume ratio 2. Cells lining the respiratory structures

SIMILARITIES

1. Have large surface area to volume ratio

2. Cells lining the respiratory structures are thin

3. The surfaces for gaseous exchange are constantly moist

DIFFERENCES

Respiratory organ

respiratory structures are thin 3. The surfaces for gaseous exchange are constantly moist DIFFERENCES Respiratory organ

Network of blood capillaries

Network of blood capillaries Respiratory openings

Respiratory openings

Air passages
Air passages
Air passages
Air passages
Air passages
 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Describe process of gaseous exchange across the surface of alveolus and
 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Describe process of gaseous exchange across the surface of alveolus and
 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Describe process of gaseous exchange across the surface of alveolus and

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Describe process of gaseous exchange across the surface of alveolus and blood capillaries in lungs

Explain the transport of respiratory gaseous

Explain process of gaseous exchange between the

blood and body cells

Distinguish the composition of inhaled and exhaled air

a) Transport of O2 from lungs to body cell
a) Transport of O2 from lungs to body cell

a) Transport of O2 from lungs to body cell

a) Transport of O2 from lungs to body cell
a) Transport of O2 from lungs to body cell

a) Transport of CO2 from body cells to lungs

a) Transport of CO2 from body cells to lungs
a) Transport of CO2 from body cells to lungs
 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Describe the change in the rate of respiration after completing vigorous
 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Describe the change in the rate of respiration after completing vigorous
 LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Describe the change in the rate of respiration after completing vigorous

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Describe the change in the rate of respiration after completing vigorous exercises

Correlate the rate of respiration with the O 2 and CO 2 contents in the body

Explain regulatory mechanism of O2 and CO2 contents in the body

Explain human respiratory response and the rate of respiration in different situations

Correlate the rate of respiration with the rate of heartbeat

1. During vigorous exercise, muscles require more O2 and glucose to release E during cellular

1. During vigorous exercise, muscles require more O2 and glucose to release E during cellular respiration. So, rate of respiration increase.

2. Thus, to supply more O2, rate and depth of breathing increase.

3. At the same time, the heartbeat increase to pump more blood into circulation.

o this enable more O2 and glucose to be supplied for cellular

respiration and more CO2 removed from the cells.

o rate of ventilation increase.rate of ventilation is the rate

of gaseous exchange between alveoli and blood capillaries

Ph value in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood drops Detected by CENTRAL CHEMORECEPTORS ## respiratory
Ph value in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood drops Detected by CENTRAL CHEMORECEPTORS ## respiratory
Ph value in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood drops Detected by CENTRAL CHEMORECEPTORS ## respiratory
Ph value in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood drops Detected by CENTRAL CHEMORECEPTORS
Ph value in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood drops
Detected by CENTRAL CHEMORECEPTORS

## respiratory centre is located in medula oblongata

## central chemoreceptor is a specific cell which is found in the respiratory centre

Plant require energy from cellular respiration

During cellular respiration, plant cells take in O2 and produce CO2.

Photosynthesis only occur in the presence of light.

In darkness, plants carry out respiration. Plants need energy continuously to sustain their living process

1. Types of respiration in plants : a) aerobic respiration b) anaerobic respiration
1. Types of respiration in plants : a) aerobic respiration b) anaerobic respiration
1. Types of respiration in plants : a) aerobic respiration b) anaerobic respiration

1. Types of respiration in plants :

a) aerobic respiration

b) anaerobic respiration

1. Types of respiration in plants : a) aerobic respiration b) anaerobic respiration
1. Types of respiration in plants : a) aerobic respiration b) anaerobic respiration
1. Types of respiration in plants : a) aerobic respiration b) anaerobic respiration
1. The similarities of photosynthesis and respiration are:

1. The similarities of photosynthesis and respiration are:

1. The similarities of photosynthesis and respiration are:
1. The similarities of photosynthesis and respiration are:
1. The similarities of photosynthesis and respiration are:

1. The differences of photosynthesis and respiration are:

1. The differences of photosynthesis and respiration are:
1. The differences of photosynthesis and respiration are:

Graph shows CO2 uptake in plants related to light intensity

Graph shows CO2 uptake in plants related to light intensity