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# ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION

## Question Bank Subjective -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNIT 1
1. (a) Draw the Dual characteristics of an antenna. (b) Explain the Radiation from Two wires. 2. (a) Distinguish between Directive Gain and Power Gain. (b) An antenna has a radiation resistance of 73 ohms and a lossy resistance of 7 ohms. If the power gain is 20, calculate the directivity and the efficiency of the antenna. 3. (a) Define the terms: i. Beam Width ii. Side Lobe Level iii. Polarization iv. Effective Aperture Area. (b) What is the effective length of an antenna. Determine the effective length of a half wave dipole antenna. 4. (a) Define antenna beam width and directivity and obtain the relation between them. (b) Calculate the electric field (Erms) due to an isotropic radiator radiating 3KW power at a distance of 2 Km from it. 5. (a) Explain the following terms: i. Beam Width ii. Omni Directional pattern iii. Side Lobe Level iv. Radiation resistance v. Field Pattern of antenna. (b) Define the terms Directivity and Power Gain. Show that the Directivity of a short current element is 1.5. 6. Find the effective length of a /2 dipole and /4 monopole. Hence calculate their directivities, using the appropriate radiation resistances. 7. (a) As related to Antennas, define and explain the following terms: i. Directivity ii. Radiation Resistance iii. Beam Width iv. Band Width. (b) Evaluate the directivity of i. An Isotropic Source ii. Source with Bi-Directional cos power pattern. 8. (a) Explain the terms Isotropic, Directional and Omni directional pattern, Radiation Intensity. (b) Define Effective Aperture and calculate the effective aperture of a 0.25 di-pole. 9. (a) Derive the expressions for electric field in case of short current element and hence obtain the conditions for the field to be in Franhofer region. (b) Find the distance from a radiating element with 60Hz current such that radiation and induction fields are equal.

10. (a) Derive an expression for radiance resistance of current element starting from the expression for radiation fields. (b) Prove that the impedance of an isolated antenna when used for receiving is same as when used for transmitting. 11. (a) Show that the radiation resistance of a small loop is equal to 320 4(A/2) ohms where A is loop area. (b) What is Folded Dipole ? Find its Radiation Resistance. 12. (a) State the following antenna theorems and bring out their importance in antenna measurements : i. Reciprocity theorem. ii. Maximum power transfer theorem. (b) A half wave transmitting antenna radiates 10KW of power at 100MHz.If the heights of transmitting and receiving antennas are 100m and 9m, calculate the power received at a distance of 10kms from the transmitting antenna. 13. (a) Starting from the fundamentals, derive an expression for radiated electric field for half wave dipole and sketch the field strength pattern. (b) Prove that leff(transmitting) is same as leff(receiving) for any antenna where leff is effective length of an antenna. 14. (a) Derive expressions for the electric and magnetic fields radiated by a half wave length dipole antenna. (b) A grounded vertical antenna has an effective height of 111.3 mts and operates at a wavelength of 18.8kms,with base current of 725 amps, Find the E and H fields at a distance of 150kms and power radiated by it. 15. (a) What is Retarded Potential? Explain different approaches to solve radiation Problems. (b) Explain the Lorentz Gauge Condition and show that where A is magnetic vector potential. 16. (a) State the Reciprocity Theorem for Antennas? Prove that the Self Impedance of an Antenna in transmitting and receiving mode is same. (b) Define Directivity. Obtain the Directivity of an Isotropic Antenna, Short Dipole and Half-Wave Dipole.

## ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION

Year : IV B.Tech ECE Semester: VII

## Question Bank Subjective -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNIT 2
1. (a) A linear broadside array consist of 4 identical equal in phase point source with /3 spacing. Calculate and plot the field pattern. Also find the directivity and beam width. (b) What is optimum spacing used in parasitic array? Why. 2. (a) In order to scan the beam of a linear array to 300 off broadside. Calculate the inner element phase shift required if the elements are spaced at 3 cms and the frequency is 64 KHz. (b) What are linear arrays. Compare Broadside array and End fire array. 3. (a) Explain the procedure for measuring the radiation pattern of a half wave dipole. (b) What is the requirement for tapering of arrays. (c) State the applications of arrays. 4. (a) Calculate i. HPBW ii. Solid Angle if a linear array having 10 isotropic point source with /2 spacing and phase difference =90 . (b) Write short notes on Hansen-Wood yard end fire array.
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5. (a) How an unidirectional pattern is obtained in an end fire array? Explain in detail. (b) List out the mathematical relations for a N element half wavelength spaced binomial array. Hence find the directivity, HPBW for N=20. 6. (a) What is the necessity of an Array? Explain the three different types of arrays with regard to beam pointing direction. (b) 64 isotropic elements are to be arranged in a binomial array form. Determine the current ratios and find polar plot of the array. 7. (a) Explain the principle of pattern multiplication.What is the effect of earth on the radiation pattern of antennas. (b) A uniform linear array consists of 16 isotropic point source with a spacing of /4 if the phase difference =-90 . Find i. HPBW. ii. Directivity. iii. Effective aperture.
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8. (a) What are the various differences between binomial and linear arrays. (b) Design a 8 element broadside array of isotropic sources of /2 spacing between elements. The pattern is to be optimum with a side lobe level 26db down the main lobe maximum.

## ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION

Year : IV B.Tech ECE Semester: VII

## Question Bank Subjective -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNIT 3
1. (a) Write short notes on Helical Antenna. (b) Derive an expression for radiated electric field strength of a traveling wave radiation of length l. 2. (a) Derive an expression for electric field of a Non Resonant antenna of length l carrying current. (b) Sketch and explain the constructional features of a Helical Antenna. 3. (a) State the advantages and disadvantages of Rhombic Antenna. (b) Draw the radiation pattern for traveling wave antenna for L=/2, , 2 , 4 and 8 . 4. (a) Distinguish between Traveling wave and Standing wave antennas. (b) Compare Resonant and Non Resonant antennas. (c) Explain the working of Rhombic antenna. 5. (a) Explain how a rhombic Antenna is formed by a V antenna and an inverted V Antenna. (b) Explain the reason why length of a traveling wave radiation is multiple of half wave length. 6. (a) Describe the construction and properties of Rhombic Antenna. (b) Describe the characteristics of long wire traveling wave antenna. Sketch their pattern for lengths of i. /2 ii. 5 iii. 20 . 7. (a) Explain the construction and radiation characteristics of Helical Antenna. (b) What is a V antenna? Explain its characteristics. 8. (a) Distinguish between i. Resonant and Non Resonant antennas. ii. Narrow Band and Wide Band antennas. (b) Show that a single wire excited with a traveling wave current is an end fire antenna with a sharp null along the direction of extension of the wire. 9. (a) Sketch the current distribution of folded dipole and find out input impedance when two legs have unequal diameters. (b) A Parabolic dish provides a power gain of 50dB at 10GHz, with 70% efficiency. Find out i. HPBW. ii. BWFN, diameter. 10. (a) What is a Parasitic Element? Describe the use of different types of parasites in TV receiving antennas. (b) Derive an expression for aperture field distribution of a parabolidal reflector. 11 . (a) Compute the gain, principle beam width and HPBW of a 10m diameter parabolic dish with a half wave length dipole feed in focus at 10GHz. (b) Explain the Cassegrain mechanism in transmission mode. List out the advantages and disadvantages of Cassegrain feed. 12. What is a parabolic cylinder antenna? Derive an expression for field distributions on the surface of reflector.

13. (a) With reference to paraboloids,explain the following: i. Aperture Efficiency ii. Front toBack Ratio iii. Types of Feeds. (b) Design Yagi-Uda antenna of six elements to provide a gain of 12dB if the operating frequency is 200MHz. 14. Explain how the radiation pattern of folded dipole will be modified with the addition of a reflector and two directors parasitic elements. 15. A Paraboloid reflector of 1.8m diameter is used at 6GHz. Calculate the beam width between the nulls and gains in dBs. 16. Describe the method of measuring the gain and radiation pattern of an antenna. 17. A standard gain horn antenna with a power gain of 12.5, is used to measure the gain of a large directional antenna by comparison method. The test antenna is connected to the receiver and an attenuator adjusted to 23dB in order to have the same receiver output. Find out the gain of the large antenna. 18. What is an electromagnetic horn antenna? What are its applications? The length of an E-plane sectoral horn is 15cms. Design the horn dimensions such that it is optimum at 10GHz. 19. Calculate the minimum distance required to measure the field pattern of an antenna of diameter 2m at a frequency of 3GHz. Derive the necessary equation. 20. Discuss the applications of Horn Antenna. Sketch the sectoral horns. 21. (a) What is the principle of equality of path length? How is it applicable to horn antenna? (b) Discuss how the directivity of horn antenna can be measured. 22. (a) Explain the principle of operation of Dielectric Lens Antenna. (b) Write short notes on Radiation from Sectoral Horn. 23. With a neat setup, explain the absolute method of measuring the gain of an antenna.

## ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION

Year : IV B.Tech ECE Semester: VII

## Question Bank Subjective -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNIT 4
1. Describe the following: i. Space wave propagation. ii. Duct propagation. 2. VHF communication is to be established with a 50watt transmitter at 100MHz. Calculate the LOS distance if the heights of transmitting and receiving antennas are respectively 50m and 10m. Assuming the capture area of the transmitting antenna is 25sqmts, calculate the field strength at the receiving neglecting ground reflected wave. 3. Define MUF and Critical frequency. Derive the expressions for the same. What is Secant law? 4. Describe the Ground wave propagation. 5. It is defined to establish short wave communication between two points on earths surface(assumed flat) separated by 1200km. Calculate MUF and angle of take off of the transmitted wave from the following: Highest signal frequency returned to earth after vertically upward propagation=7.2MHz. Virtual height of the ionized layer=200kms. Deduce the working formula. 6. (a) Show that Ionosphere act as a variable refractive index medium. (b) A radio link has to be established between two earth station at a distance of 25000kms. If the height of ionosphere is 200kms and its critical frequency is 5MHz. Calculate the MUF for the given path. Also calculate the electron density in the ionosphere layer. 7. (a) What are different mechanisms of propagation of electromagnetic waves? Explain. (b) What is Critical Frequency? What is Virtual Height? Find the maximum distance that can be covered if the virtual height of the ionospheric layer is 250kms. 8. (a) Describe the salient features of Ground wave propagation. Discuss the effect of frequency earth constants and curvature of earth on ground wave propagation. (b) Communication by ionosphere propagation is required for a distance of 200kms. height of the layer is 220kms and the critical frequency is 5MHz. Find MUF.

## ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION

Year : III / IV B.Tech ECE Semester: 1

UNIT 5