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IEEE Power & Energy Society

Jan 2013
TECHNICAL REPORT
PES-TR1
Dynamic Models for
Turbine-Governors in
Power System Studies
PREPARED BY THE
Power System Dynamic Performance Committee
Power System Stability Subcommittee
Task Force on Turbine-Governor Modeling
IEEE 2013 The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
TBIS PAuE LEFT BLANK INTENTI0NALLY
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iii
TASK FORCE ON
TURBINE-GOVERNOR MODELING


CHAIRMAN: POUYAN POURBEIK
MEMBERS AND CONTRIBUTORS

Roy Boyer Les Hajagos
Kevin Chan Louis Hannett
Graeme Chown Wolfgang Hofbauer
James Feltes Fhedzi Modau
Carlos Grande-Moran Mahendra Patel
Luc Grin-Lajoie Shawn Patterson
Fritz Langenbacher Stefan Sterpu
Daniel Leonard Alex Schneider
Leonardo Lima John Undrill












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The Task Force (TF) is part of the IEEE Power & Energy Society, reporting through the
Power System Stability Subcommittee of the Power System Dynamic Performance
Committee. The Scope was approved in June 2007 by the Power System Stability
Subcommittee and by the Power System Dynamic Performance Committee. We are truly
grateful for the support of our sponsoring subcommittee and committee.
The Task Force gratefully acknowledges the participation of the following individuals in
the TF meetings (or by email) and their feedback, comments and suggestions: Eric Allen,
Elmer Bourque, Bob Cummings, Donald Davies, Michael Gibbard, Sven Granfors,
Joseph Hurley, Howard Illian, Dmitry Kosterev, Juan J. Sanchez-Gasca, Lee Taylor,
Chavdar Ivanov, David Vowles and Anthony Williams

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CONTENTS


Contents
1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1-1

1.2 The Purpose of Turbine-Governor Models in Power System Studies ................................. 1-1
1.1 The Scope of Work ...................................................................................................................... 1-1
2. STEAM TURBINES .......................................................................................................................... 2-1

2.1 Steam Turbine Modeling ............................................................................................................ 2-1

2.2 Simple Steam Turbine Models (TGOV1, IEEESO and IEEEG1) ......................................... 2-1

2.3 Simple Steam Turbine Model with Basic Boiler Dynamics [13] ............................................ 2-4


2.4 Detailed Steam Turbine Model the TGOV5 model .............................................................. 2-9

2.4.1 The TGOV5 model .......................................................................................................................... 2-9

2.4.2 An Example use of the TGOV5 Model ............................................................................... 2-10

2.4.2.1 Primary Frequency Control Deadband and Limiter ................................................ 2-12

2.5 Simulating Fast-Valving ............................................................................................................ 2-14

2.6 Other Aspects of Steam Turbine Modeling ............................................................................ 2-14


2.7 Modeling Guidelines and Summary ........................................................................................ 2-17

3. GAS TURBINES AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS ................................................ 3-1

3.1 Gas Turbine Modeling ................................................................................................................. 3-1

3.1.1 Brief Overview of Gas Turbine Theory ................................................................................. 3-1


3.1.2 Modeling Gas Turbines .......................................................................................................... 3-3

3.1.2.1 GAST ..................................................................................................................................... 3-3

3.1.2.2 GAST2A ................................................................................................................................ 3-4

3.1.2.3 GGOV1.................................................................................................................................. 3-4

3.1.2.4 CIGRE model [9] ................................................................................................................ 3-8

3.1.2.5 Simplified but Explicit Modeling of the Ambient and Speed Dependence [16]3-10

3.1.2.6 Vendor Specific Models ................................................................................................. 3-13

3.2 Combined Cycle Power Plants ................................................................................................ 3-13

3.2.1 Brief Overview of CCPP ....................................................................................................... 3-13


3.2.2 Implementation of the CIGRE HRSG and ST model in ERCOT .................................... 3-14

3.3 Modeling Guidelines and Summary ........................................................................................ 3-19

4. Hydro Turbines .................................................................................................................................. 4-1

4.1 Modeling Hydro Turbines ........................................................................................................... 4-1

4.2 Hydro Governors ......................................................................................................................... 4-2

4.3 Hydro Water Column ................................................................................................................... 4-5

4.4 System Frequency Regulation Studies .................................................................................... 4-9


4.5 Modeling Guidelines and Summary ........................................................................................ 4-11

5. References ......................................................................................................................................... 5-1


6. Further Reading on Turbine-Governor Modeling ......................................................................... 6-1

APPENDIX A: Parameters for the IEEEG1 + LCBF1 Model ............................................................. A-1

APPENDIX B: Deadband ........................................................................................................................ B-1

APPENDIX C: Typical Parameters for the GGOV1 ............................................................................. C-1

APPENDIX D: Vendor Specific Model for GE Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines ....................................... D-1

APPENDIX E: Vendor Specific Model for the ALSTOM GT26B Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine ........... E-1

PPENDIX F: ALSTOM Combined Cycle Power Plant Models ........................................................ F-1


PPENDIX G: Solar Turbines Perspective on the GT Models ........................................................ G-1
v
A
A

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INDEX OF AUTHORS

Authors Listed in Alphabetical Order
Chapter 1 Introduction
P. Pourbeik
Chapter 2 Steam Turbines
G. Chown, J. Feltes, F. Modau, P. Pourbeik (lead-editor) and S. Sterpu
Chapter 3 Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Power Plants
R. Boyer, K. Chan, J. Feltes, L. Hannett, D. Leonard, L. Lima, F. Modau and
P. Pourbeik (lead-editor)
Chapter 4 Hydro Turbines
W. Hofbauer, L. Grin-Lajoie, S. Patterson (lead-editor), P. Pourbeik and J.
Undrill
Appendix A Parameters for the IEEEG1 + LCBF1 Model
P. Pourbeik
Appendix B Deadband
P. Pourbeik
Appendix C Typical Parameters for the GGOV1
L. Hannett and D. Leonard
Appendix D Vendor Specific Model for GE Heavy-Duty Gas
Turbines
L. Hannett and D. Leonard
Appendix E Vendor Specific Model for the ALSTOM GT26B
Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine
K. Chan
Appendix F ALSTOM Combined Cycle Power Plant Models
K. Chan
Appendix G Solar Turbines Perspective on the GT Models
F. Langenbacher

Main Editor: P. Pourbeik
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Scope of Work
The scope of this Task Foice is to ieview anu make iecommenuations ielateu to the
use of mouels foi tuibinegoveinois foi powei system simulations. Recent
uocuments publisheu by CIuRE
1
, the Westein Electiicity Cooiuinating Council
(WECC) anu otheis have pioviueu newly uevelopeu mouels foi use in moueling
theimal tuibinegoveinois, mouein combineu cycle powei plants anu hyuio
tuibines. Theie is, howevei, significant benefit in ieviewing the iecommenuations in
these uocuments anu consoliuating them with the usage of oluei mouels that still
exist in commonly useu simulation piogiams. The Task Foice iepoit is piesenteu in
thiee paits. Chaptei 2 ueals with steam tuibines. Chaptei S ueals with gas tuibines
anu om e l i o
uocu e f l
c bineu cycle pow i plants. Chaptei 4 uea s w th hyui tuibines. Each
m nt pioviues the ol owing:
o the 1. A summaiy f a hieiaichy of mouels foi vaiious tuibinegoveinoi
systems.
e 2. A uiscussion of the vaiious xisting mouels in most commeicial softwaie
tools anu what may be consiueieu as legacy mouels.
Auuitionally, in this fiist chaptei a section is pioviueu below that uiscusses the
piimaiy motive foi moueling tuibinegoveinois anu the iecommenueu usage of the
mouels.
In many giiucoues aiounu the woilu outsiue of Noith Ameiica, mouel peifoimance
anu valiuation iequiiements aie uefineu anu must be complieu with as these aie
ueemeu statutoiy (e.g. |1j). The Task Foice has intentionally avoiueu the uiscussion
of giiucoues since such uiscussion aie outsiue the scope of this gioup. What is
piesenteu heie is foi guiuance anu euucational puiposes. This uocument is not a
stanuaiu, noi uoes it claim to auuiess oi comment about any stanuaius oi giiu
coues.
This Task Foice was appioveu as a woiking bouy of the Powei System Stability
Subcommittee, of the Powei system Bynamic Peifoimance Committee of the IEEE
Powei & Eneigy Society in }une, 2uu7.
1.2 The Purpose of Turbine-Governor Models in Power System Studies
Powei system stability stuuies ueal piimaiily with tiansient angle anu voltage
stability, smallsignal stability anu fiequency contiol anu stability. Refeience |2j
pioviues the uefinitions of each of these types of stability pioblems. In piactice, it is
not possible to completely uecouple these vaiious stability pioblems fiom one
anothei. Paiticulaily in smallei systems, a single event coulu give iise to multiple
inteiielateu phenomena of fiequency, voltage anu angulai stability pioblems.

1
The International Council on Large Electric Systems (www.cigre.org).
1-1
With this unueistanuing in minu, the moueling of tuibinegoveinois is paiticulaily
impoitant foi stuuies ielateu to tiansient angulai stability, fiequency stability anu
contiol, anu to a lessei extent smallsignal stability.
Foi smallsignal stability issues it is possible foi the tuibinegoveinoi to have a
slight negative uamping effect in the fiequency iange of electiomechanical moues of
iotoi oscillation. Bowevei, the most wiuely accepteu means of impioving the
uamping of both local anu inteiaiea moues of iotoi oscillation on synchionous
geneiatois is the application of powei system stabilizeis (PSS) |S, 4j. If the PSS is
piopeily tuneu, it will moie than compensate foi any such negative uamping
associateu with the tuibinegoveinoi anu the moie influential souice of negative
uamping, highgain automatic voltage iegulatois |Sj.
Foi tiansient iotoi angle stability the tuibinegoveinoi mouel is of key impoitance.
The impoitant aspect of the tuibinegoveinoi uynamics is the initial iesponse of the
tuibinegoveinoi in the initial seconu oi two following a giiu uistuibance. A cleai
example is the concept of fastvalving |4j. This contiol is chaiacteiizeu by the
suuuen action to close the inteicept valves on a steam tuibine following a neaiby
fault to ieuuce the mechanical powei on the geneiatoi shaft anu thus minimize the
acceleiation of the shaft anu likelihoou of iotoi angle instability. Any such contiols
that will suuuenly affect the mechanical output of the tuibine following a neaiby
giiu fault woulu be ciitical to mouel foi tiansient stability stuuies. Anothei example
is the implementation of acceleiation contiols on gas tuibines, which in some cases
may come into play uuiing a neaiby seveie giiu fault. Not all gas tuibines have
acceleiation contiols. Also, wheie uioop is implementeu thiough feeuback of
electiical powei anu the use of a piopoitionalintegial (PI) oi piopoitionalintegial
ueiivative (PIB) contiollei in the tuibinegoveinoi contiols (typical on many
e c t mou in gas tuibines), this can have some affe t on tiansient stabili y anu it shoulu
be moueleu accoiuingly.
The moueling of the tuibinegoveinoi is of gieatest impoitance when stuuying
fiequency contiol anu stability. Fiequency iesponse is an impoitant aspect of
powei system peifoimance. Figuie 11a) shows a geneiic iesponse of a typical
powei system to a laige loss of geneiation. Beie it is assumeu that only a single
event occuis, being the suuuen anu unplanneu loss of majoi geneiation, uue, foi
example, to a failuie of mechanical equipment. As can be seen in Figuie 11a), theie
aie essentially thiee peiious of iesponse, (i) the initial peiiou of iesponse uown to
the nauii of the fiequency ueviation, which is goveineu by the initial iate of uecline
of fiequency, which is a function of total system ineitia anu the piimaiyfiequency
contiol that is pioviueu by tuibinegeneiatoi goveinois, (ii) the initial iecoveiy in
fiequency which is ueteimineu by both piimaiyfiequency iesponse (tuibine
goveinoi contiol anu uioop) anu the loau behavioi |Sj, anu (iii) the final ietuin of
the system fiequency to nominal fiequency as achieveu by automatic geneiation
contiol (AuC). A uiscussion of AuC is outsiue the scope of this Task Foice. Figuie 1
1b) shows a ieal example of fiequency iesponse foi the loss of a laige geneiating
unit in WECC the event is fiom 2uu8.
1-2
Cleaily, when attempting to simulate such events foi planning stuuies, the moueling
anu iepiesentation of tuibinegoveinoi iesponse on conventional geneiating units
is of gieat impoitance.
A ue i g facts: ta leu look at Figuie 11b) ieveals the followin
1. Initial iate of fiequency uecline = u.2SBzs
2. Ninimum Fiequency: S9.72 Bz ieacheu 6 seconus aftei the event
S. Final settling fiequency befoie AuC action: S9.8S Bz ieacheu 2u seconus
aftei the event.
This is a typical tiace foi a laige loss of geneiation in WECC the event in this case
was the loss of 2.7 uW of geneiation. The WECC has ovei Suu uW of installeu
geneiation capacity. In compaiison, foi a system such as the Electiic Reliability
Council of Texas (ERC0T), which is ioughly onefifth the size of WECC, fiequency
uips (nauii) as low as S9.6 Bz have been seen anu iates of change ofappioximately
u.2 Bzs |6j, foi the loss of a laige geneiating unitplant in Texas. uoing to an even
smallei system such as Iielanu, with a laige penetiation of winu geneiation, anu one
can see uips of up to 1 Bz (nauii)
2
anu iates of uecline of u.S Bzs |7, 8j. New
Zealanu has iepoiteu iates of change of fiequency as high as 1 Bzs anu a uip of 2.S
Bz (nauii)
S
, back in 2uuS |9j. With the incieaseu penetiation of winu geneiation
these numbeis may all be laigei now, anu in the case of New Zealanu anu Iielanu
they may inciease significantly.
It shoulu be noteu that the examples uiscusseu above aie simply examples to
illustiate some concepts. The actual fiequency iesponse of these systems vaiies
fiom event to event since the iesponse is uepenuent on (i) the amount of the NW
loss anu (ii) the amount of NWs of iesponsive geneiation that is online.
With this backgiounu it is easy to appieciate that it is uifficult to pioviue an exact
specification of mouel peifoimance iequiiements foi all possible systems anu stuuy
conuitions. Fuitheimoie, it is impiactical to expect a mouel to be appiopiiate foi all
possible systems anu stuuy conuitions; theiefoie a hieiaichy of mouels is neeueu.
In geneial, howevei, it may be saiu that foi typical planning stuuies the focus is on
simulating events foi which the system iemains pieuominantly intact (i.e. no majoi
islanuing events). Foi laige systems (e.g. Noith Ameiica) the typical ueviation in
fiequency is at most aiounu + 1% with an initial iate of change of at most u.S
Bzs. Foi smallei, islanu systems, the ueviation may be as high as + S% with an
initial iate of change of at most 1 to 1.S Bzs.
valiuation of moues foi fiequency iesponse is not a simple task, anu the type of
ouel anu mouel valiuation iequiieu is uepenuent on the time scale of inteiest. m


2
For Ireland the nominal system frequency is 50 Hz so a 1 Hz dip = 2 % drop in frequency.
3
For New Zealand the nominal system frequency is 50 Hz so a 2.5 Hz dip = 5% drop in frequency.
1-3

a) Typical power system frequency response

1-4
b) Example of actual system frequency response on the WECC system.
Figure 1-1: Power system frequency response to a major loss of generation.

2. STEAM TURBINES
2.1 Steam Turbine Modeling
Laige steam tuibines aie useu in fossil fuel powei plants. Fossil fuel plants typically
buin coal to heat a boilei that piouuces hightempeiatuie, highpiessuie steam that
is passeu thiough the tuibine to piouuce mechanical eneigy (see |1uj foi a uetaileu
account of steam tuibines uesign anu functionality). 0thei fuels that may be useu in
fossil fuel powei plants aie ciuue oil oi ciuue oil anu natuial gas (incluuing, liquiu
petioleum gas). Nucleai powei plants also use laige steam tuibines.
This chaptei will pioviue a biief oveiview of steam tuibine mouels. It will ieview
some of the most commonly useu legacy mouels (i.e. mouels that have been in use
foi seveial uecaues) as well as those mouels iecently uevelopeu oi augmenteu anu
typically iecommenueu foi planning stuuies. An oveiview will also be given of moie
uetaileu mouels that aie useu in specializeu stuuies, such as when attempting to
match plant iesponse foi longeiteim uynamics. The last section pioviues biief
moueling guiuelines anu iecommenuations foi moueling steam tuibines in powei
system stuuies.
2.2 Simple Steam Turbine Models (TGOV1, IEEESO and IEEEG1)
The simplest steam tuibine mouel is the Tu0v1 mouel shown in Figuie 21. This
mouel iepiesents the tuibinegoveinoi uioop (R), the main steam contiol valve
motion anu limits (T
1
, v
NAX
, v
NIN
) anu has a single leaulag block (T
2
T
S
)
iepiesenting the time constants associateu with the motion of the steam thiough
the ieheatei anu tuibine stages. The iatio, T
2
T
S
, equals the fiaction of the tuibine
powei that is uevelopeu by the highpiessuie tuibine stage anu T
S
is the ieheatei
time constant.

Figure 2-1: The TGOV1 steam turbine model (Courtesy of Siemens PTI).
In 197S |11j the IEESu0 mouel was intiouuceu, which is also a legacy mouel, anu
only slightly moie uetaileu than the Tu0v1 mouel. It is shown below in Figuie 22.
In this case uioop is effecteu by the gain K
1
(equivalent to 1R in the Tu0v1 mouel)
anu two tuibine fiactions aie intiouuceu (K
2
anu K
S
) to iepiesent uiffeient stages in
the steam tuibine.
2 - 1

Figure 2-2: The IEESGO steam turbine model (Courtesy of Siemens PTI).
The IEEEu1 mouel, initially uevelopeu anu uesciibeu in |11j, is the next level mouel
of a steam tuibine, anu the one iecommenueu foi use. The IEEEu1 mouel incluues
the iate limits on the main contiol valve (0o anu 0c) as well as foui steamstages
anu the ability to mouel ciosscompounu units, as shown in Figuie 2S. Noie
iecently the LCBF1 mouel was uevelopeu in the WECC foi use with this anu othei
tuibine mouels it is piesently implementeu in seveial softwaie piogiams such as
uE PSLF anu Siemens PTI PSSE. The LCFB1 mouel is a simple iepiesentation of
an outeiloop NW contiollei (see |Sj anu |9j foi a uetaileu uiscussion of this
contiollei anu its effects). The combination of these two mouels is shown in Figuie
2S. This mouel has been shown to be effective in captuiing the behavioi of laige
steam tuibine geneiatois that aie opeiateu on outeiloop NW contiol |12j. A
i i simple illust ative example s given heie fiom |12j.
The LCFB1 mouel can be useu with any tuibinegoveinoi mouel incluuing the
IEEEu1 anu the Tu0vS mouels uiscusseu below. It can also be useu with the hyuio
e tuibine mouels uiscusseu in chapt i 4.
The list of paiameteis foi the IEEEu1 anu LCFB1 mouels aie pioviueu, anu
uesciibeu, in Appenuix A.
The IEEEu1 mouel, in combination with the LCFB1 mouel when neeueu, is
applicable foi laige inteiconnecteu giiu simulations when looking at ielatively small
fiequency ueviations, that is, in the iange of + u.S% change in fiequency. All of the
mouels uesciibeu above assume constant steam piessuie anu tempeiatuie. Figuie
24 shows an example (fiom |12j) of simulating the behavioi of a laige steam
tuibine using the IEEEu1 + LCBF1 mouel foi giiu stability stuuies. The LCBF1 mouel
is neeueu only in cases wheie theie is a active seconuaiy outeiloop NW contiollei
in the plant. This is not always the case.
2 - 2

Figure 2-3: The IEEEG1 steam turbine model, together with the LCFB1 outer-loop MW-controller (top part of the model). Note: the IEEEG1 allows
for the modeling of cross-compound units and has two sets of turbine fractions (K1, K3, K5 and K7) for the high-pressure (HP) turbine and (K2, K4,
K6 and K8) for the low-pressure (LP) turbine. Also, the augmented version of IEEEG1 shown here allows for deadband in the speed-error.
2 - 3

Figure 2-4: Steam turbine generator measured and simulated (fitted) response for a system wide
frequency disturbance caused by the loss of a large block of generation elsewhere in the system [12].
The model used was that shown in Figure 2-3. The unit is a 496 MVA steam turbine generator.
2.3 Simple Steam Turbine Model with Basic Boiler Dynamics [13]
Theie a bove.
The a
ie a numbei of key assumptions behinu the IEEEu1 mouel piesenteu a
se ie, that:
1. steam piessuie anu tempeiatuie iemain constant unuei all conuitions,
2. the unit is in boileifollow contiol moue that is, the main steam contiol
valve (NCv) is useu piimaiily foi iegulating powei anu the boilei follows the
tuibine in piouucing auuitional steam as neeueu, anu
S. theie is essentially an unlimiteu souice of steam fiom the boilei to be
pioviueu once the main steam contiol valve opens.
It is not uifficult to iealize that all these assumptions aie quite simplistic anu not
tiuly inuicative of the physics of a steam tuibine. Assumption two can inueeu be
tiue foi many steam tuibines that is, boileifollow contiol. Bowevei, assumptions
one anu thiee aie cleaily extieme simplifications. Any significant suuuen change in
the NCv woulu constitute a suuuen uiop in steam thiottle piessuie. Thus, tuibine
output powei woulu piopoitionally uiop. Thus, auuitional fuel woulu neeu to be
spent to inciease steam piouuction anu steam piessuie in the boilei. These
piessuie uiop effects woulu actually be most significant unuei a boilei follow
contiol stiategy. Nouein steam tuibine contiols often employ a cooiuinate contiol
scheme wheie the movement of the NCv is contiolleu by a combineu cooiuinateu
effoit of iegulating powei (uue to uioop iesponse) anu main steam piessuie. In this
section we will illustiate some of these piessuie tiansient effects thiough an actual
iecoiueu tuibine iesponse to a system fiequency event. The moueling of the boilei

2 - 4
uynamics uiscusseu heie is baseu on |14j. The mouel piesenteu heie is a significant
simplification fiom that in |14j.
Figuie 2S shows the iesponse of a laige steam tuibine unit to a system fiequency
event as iecoiueu by the plants uigital contiol system (BCS). The sampling iate is
one sample pei seconu. As shown in Figuie 26, an attempt to fit the unit iesponse
with the mouel in Figuie 2S uoes not yielu a veiy goou match uue to the piessuie
fluctuations (see |1Sj).
Fielu testing on the unit confiimeu a uioop setting of S% anu that the ieheatei time
constant is of the oiuei of 1u seconus. The ieason foi the laige uisciepancy between
the fitteu anu measuieu iesponse in Figuie 26 is that the IEEEu1 mouel is not
auequate foi iepiesenting the full uynamics of this unit. This can be seen in Figuie
2S. As shown, when the fiequency uistuibance occuis the main steam contiol valve
immeuiately begins to open baseu on uioop contiol action. This leaus to a suuuen
uiop in main steam piessuie. Thus, the cooiuinateu contiol scheme begins to shut
the valve to iestoie piessuie anu as piessuie is iestoieu the valve begins to open
again. If this cooiuinateu contiol is not iepiesenteu, togethei with some
iepiesentation of the boilei uynamics, it is cleai fiom the tuibine iesponse that the
inheient assumption of constant steam piessuie anu tempeiatuie in the IEEEu1
mouel is not valiu foi this case wheie we have cooiuinateu contiol.

Figure 2-5: Steam turbine response to a grid frequency disturbance. A 446 MW steam turbine
operated in coordinate boiler control.

2 - 5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
360
362
364
366
368
370
372
374
376
378
380
P

(
M
W
)
Time (seconds)


Measured
Fitted

Figure 2-6: Fitting/simulating the MW response of the unit using the IEEEG1 model.
As such the IEEEu1 mouel was augmenteu with a simple iepiesentation of the
boilei uynamics anu a cooiuinateu piessuie contiol loop this is shown in Figuie 2
7. In auuition, it is noteu (as shown in Figuie 28) that the actual output powei to
valve position chaiacteiistic of the main steam contiol valve is not quite lineai.
With these mouifications the event was simulateu anu paiameteis foi the simple
boilei uynamics anu contiol optimizeu. This yielueu the fit shown in Figuie 29. As
can be seen the fit is much bettei since we now have a simple iepiesentation of the
obseiveu valve movement anu piessuie fluctuation. The mouel is still a vast
simplification of the actual contiols anu thus the fit is still not a peifect match. That,
howevei, is not the goal heie. The goal was to simply illustiate the natuie of the
uynamics involveu anu to achieve a fit that is somewhat closei to the actual
mechanical system behavioi.

2 - 6

K (1 + sT2)
1 + sT1
1
T3
1
s
1
1 + sT4
1
1 + sT7
1
1 + sT6
1
1 + sT5
dbd1
Uo
Uc
Pmax
Pmin
K1 K7 K5 K3
Pm
speed
1.0
_
_ _
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Kip
s
vmax
vmin
_
+
Pres_ref
Prth
+
1
sTd
_
+ +
qg
qth
Km
_
1
1 + sTw
1
1 + sTF
MW Setpoint
Kb
rmax
rmin
Kpelec
1 + sTelec
Pe
+
_
_
+
pdb
_
Kl
_
Kmw
+
+
fmax
fmin
Kif
s

Figure 2-7: Augmented IEEEG1 model with simplified boiler dynamics and coordinate control.

2 - 7

Figure 2-8: Main Control Valve (MCV) characteristic. Measured power versus MCV position is
shown at relatively constant steam pressure, during quasi steady-state conditions while unloading the
unit from near base-load.

Figure 2-9: Simulated and measured response of the steam turbine using the model shown in
Figure 2-7.
2 - 8
2.4 Detailed Steam Turbine Model the TGOV5 model
In this section a moie uetaileu steam tuibine anu boilei system mouel is piesenteu
going even ueepei into the actual contiol behavioi anu tuibine uynamics. The
piesentation is baseu aiounu the Tu0vS mouel, piesently available in some
commeicial softwaie tools (e.g. Siemens PTI PSSE). The Tu0vS mouel was
oiiginally uevelopeu baseu on iefeience |14j. Noie uetail can be founu on the
moueling anu behavioi of boileis in |1Sj.
2.4.1 The TGOV5 model
Figuie 21u shows the block uiagiam of the Tu0vS mouel. It is eviuent that the
tuibine anu uioop contiol mouel aie iuentical to the IEEEu1 mouel. The key
auuitio l na featuies aie:
1. the auueu boilei uynamics (paiameteis C
B
, K
9
, C
1
) that ueteimine the
cuiient steam thiottle piessuie (P
T
), which when multiplieu by the valve
position yielus the available cuiient mechanical powei at the steam
tuibine inlet,
2. the cooiuinateu contiols acting on cuiient electiical powei (P
ELEC
),
fiequency eiioi (f), anu piessuie eiioi (P
E
), to ueteimine the powei
oiuei (P
o
), anu
S. an emulation of the uium piessuie contiollei (paiameteis K
I
, T
I
, T
R
, T
R1
,
C
NAX
anu C
NIN
) anu fuel uynamics, that is, foi example, the piocess of
4
t h
,
pulveiizing coal anu combusting it to hea t e boilei uium (paiameteis
T
B
, T
F
, T
W
K
11
anu K
1u
).
Fitting paiameteis to the Tu0vS mouel is quite a uifficult task anu iequiies
extensive testing of the plant. In auuition, theie aie many subtle vaiiations on the
vaiious contiol aspects. Foi this ieason, mouels of this complexity aie iaiely useu
oi appiopiiate foi laige scale powei system simulations such as in the case of the
Noith Ameiican powei system.

4
As noted previously, the fuel source in the case of a steam turbine may come from other sources as well,
e.g. oil or gas.
2 - 9

Figure 2-10: The TGOV5 model (courtesy of Siemens PTI).

2.4.2 An Example use of the TGOV5 Model
Beie a biief outline is given on a case stuuy of using the Tu0vS mouel in South
Afiica to iepiesent a coal fiieu powei station. The piocess ievealeu a subtle but
impoitant vaiiation that was neeueu to accuiately simulate the piimaiy fiequency
contiol stiategies anu the boilei limit piessuie contiollei.
When a unit is noimally opeiateu in boileifollow oi cooiuinateu contiol, the boilei
piessuie is maintaineu pieuominantly using the main fuel contiol of the boilei. The
2 - 10
limitpiessuie contiollei is only activateu when theie is a laige ueviation in the
boilei piessuie fiom taiget. The goveinoi valve takes ovei contiol of the boilei
piessuie to pievent the boilei piessuie fiom falling fuithei. The switch ovei logic
iesults in an initial laige uiop of ieal powei as the goveinoi valve quickly closes to
iestoie the boilei piessuie (see Figuie 211).

Figure 2-11: Description of limit pressure controller activation
A typical inciuent when the limitpiessuie contiollei is engageu is when theie is a
significant fiequency ueviation. The initial goveinoi action can iesult in a uiop of
the steam piessuie anu activation of the limitpiessuie contiollei.
When this piessuie contiollei is active the goveinoi valve will tiy to maintain the
boilei piessuie foi a few minutes. The typical contiol stiategy is that the piessuie
contiollei is activateu when the piessuie ueviation exceeus a pieuefineu limit. This
behavioi shoulu typically be moueleu foi unueifiequency loau sheuuing stuuies,
when laige fiequency ueviations stuuies aie being peifoimeu.
Figuie 21u shows the Tu0vS mouel. The ueaubanu function in the piessuie
contiollei (PePe at the centei of the figuie) is implementeu such that if the
piessuie eiioi is within the ueaubanu the output of the block is zeio, anu otheiwise
the output staits fiom zeio anu lineaily incieases that is the output of the block is
offset by the ueaubanu. In this case stuuieu, this was founu to be inappiopiiate foi
the paiticulai contiols in this plant. In that case the ueaubanu has no offset anu
jumps to the input value once outsiue the ueaubanu. This was implementeu with a
step function the output of which is 1 if the piessuie eiioi is outsiue the ueaubanu
anu zeio if it is within this is shown in Figuie 212. This is essentially the issue of
type 1 veisus type 2 ueaubanu implementation as uiscusseu in |16j the ueaubanu
implementeu heie is type 1 (see Appenuix B).
MW output restored as
steam production increased
Main steam pressure drops too far
Main steam pressure setpoint
MW dip as main steam pressure restored
Main steam pressure drops below limit pressure threshold
MW increases
beyond unit
capability
MW output restored as
steam production increased
Main steam pressure drops too far
Main steam pressure setpoint
MW dip as main steam pressure restored
Main steam pressure drops below limit pressure threshold
MW increases
beyond unit
capability
2 - 11

Figure 2-12: TGOV5 model zoomed in on limit pressure controller modification
The iesults of this mouification to the mouel pioveu ieasonably successful as shown
in Figuie 21S anu 214, below. ESK0N foi whom this mouel was uevelopeu will
continue to monitoi the peifoimance of the mouel. It shoulu be noteu, howevei,
that the iesults shown in the figuies below aie much longei in uuiation (6uu
seconus) than typical simulation stuuies. This illustiates the impoitance of
unueistanuing the actual plant contiols when attempting to match the exact plant
iesponse foi long teim uynamics.
I7
I6
PSP
Blr press dev 3
23
Blr press dev 2
22
Blr press dev 1
21
Freq Inf
10
8
Press Sp
5
Step
In Out
1
s
x
o
2.4.2.1 Primary Frequency Control Deadband and Limiter
For the normal operating conditions the primary frequency control is not required to be
activated and a maximum deadband of 0.15 Hz is allowed in ESKOM (South Africa).
The deadband also had to be applied to the TGOV5 governor model to improve accuracy
of long term dynamic studies.
The deadband is mathematically modeled as:
If x > deadband then y = x deadband
Else if x < - deadband then y = x + deadband
Else y = 0
T

his is a type 2 deadband (Appendix B), where the output is off-set by the deadband.
Initialization 2
Pinit f(Pinit)
Kl
K12
K14
{Pinit }
C2
Abs
|u|
(Ki+Ki(Tr+Ti)s+KiTrTis^2)/(s+Tr1s^2)
Desired MW
Pressure error
2 - 12

Figure 2-13: Unit 1 actual MW response (purple line), simulated MW response (yellow line) and
Target MW setpoint (light blue line)

Figure 2-14: Unit 2 actual MW response (purple line), simulated MW response (yellow line) and
Target MW setpoint (light blue line)
2 - 13
2 - 14
2.5 Simulating Fast-Valving
To iepiesent fastvalving (see |4j foi a uetaileu uiscussion of fastvalving) the
Tu0vS mouel may be useu. It is the IEEEu1 mouel augmenteu with the auuition of a
simple iepiesentation of the inteicept valve actuatoi (T
S
) anu the inteicept valve
fast closing chaiacteiistics (T
I
, T
A
, T
B
anu T
C
). This is shown in Figuie 21S. The
nonlineai valve position veisus steamflow chaiacteiistics is also iepiesenteu. A
moie uetaileu iepiesentation of fastvalving, incluuing a iepiesentation of the
tiiggeiing logic, can be founu in the Tu0v4 mouel, which is a mouel available in the
Siemens PTI PSSE piogiam, anu possibly othei softwaie tools. A uetaileu
uesciiption of that mouel is outsiue the scope of this uocument, but can be founu in
he uocumentation of those piogiams. t

2.6 Other Aspects of Steam Turbine Modeling
Above we have piesenteu a hieiaichy of seveial steam tuibine mouels, incluuing
theii goveinois. The IEEEu1 mouel iepiesents the tuibine anu steam valves with a
simple set of timeconstants anu tuibinefiactions, anu a simple actuatoi mouel,
iespectively.
The mouel in section 2.S intiouuces a simple iepiesentation of the boilei uynamics,
anu the Tu0vS mouel pioviues a moie uetaileu iepiesentation of the boilei
uynamics anu contiols. In the IEEEu1 mouel the tuibine speeugoveinoi action is
iepiesenteu by a simple piopoitional gain K anu a leaulag block (1 + sT2)(1 +
sT1). The piopoitional contiol acting on speeu eiioi is common anu still useu in
many uesigns of steam tuibines. Bowevei, in mouein systems the speeugoveinoi
may incoipoiate an electiical powei feeuback. Figuie 216 illustiates this type of
speeugoveinoi.



Figure 2-15: The TGOV3 model (Courtesy of Siemens PTI).
2 - 15

K
K
P
1/sT
I
K
1

0
P
setpoi
+
+
+
+
-
+
+

Figure 2-16: Generic scheme of a speed governor with one operating mode, using electrical power
feedback.
Paiameteis:
P = measuieu powei;
set
ei setpoint P
point
= goveinoi pow
P
ief
= Powei iefeience
= measuieu speeu;
;
u
= iefeience speeu
1K = speeu uioop;
n; K
P
= piopoitional gai
1T
I
= integial gain;
K
1
= piopoitional gain of the speeu loop.
In some tuibines, two opeiating moues aie possible:
Automatic Noue: This is the most common in noimal opeiation. This moue
allows the powei of the unit to be contiolleu to Psetpoint + Kf + AuC
iequesteu by the tiansmission giiu. That is, the contiol stiategy shown in
Figuie 216. Namely, the PI contiollei acting on the powei eiioi (Psetpoint
P) maintains the unit powei output unuei steauystate fiequency
conuitions at Psetpoint. If fiequency ueviates, then the speeu eiioi
feeuback acts to offset the powei eiioi (Kf). Automatic ueneiation Contiol
(AuC) can also affect this input, but a uiscussion of AuC is outsiue the scope
of this papei.
P
nt
-

-
Fast valving (if any)
CV
reference
P
ref

P
setpoi
P
2 - 16
Biiect Noue: In this stiategy the valve is uiiectly contiolleu. In some cases
this contiol stiategy is useu uuiing paiticulai opeiating situations: lines
eneigizing, islanuing opeiation aftei blackouts, etc. If such conuitions occui,
switching to uiiect moue impioves the geneiating unit stability maigins.
The switch goes fiom the automatic moue to the uiiect moue automatically when
two cii ia aie tei met:
(P % in Fiance)
setpoint
P)P
setpoint
> P
Thiesholu
(1u
f > f
Thiesholu
(2uu mBz in Fiance)
Aftei the switch fiom the automatic moue to the uiiect moue, the AuC (if any) also
goes out of seivice. In auuition the geneiating unit output powei is not pieuictable
anymoie. It can have uiffeient values uepenuing on the uistuibance seveiity. The
switch goes back to the automatic moue thiough a manual action of the plant
opeiatoi. This is all uepicteu in Figuie 217.
Finally, wheie fastvalving is applieu foi tiansient stability impiovement, this may
be moueleu as uiiectly contiolling the simulateu contiol valve, as uepicteu in Figuie
216. Refei to |4j (Figuie 17.S) foi an example of a typical fastvalving valve action
sequence. Also, in the above section the example of the Tu0vS mouel was given to
show how fastvalving may be simulateu.
P
setpoint
P
ref
Fast valving (if any)
CV
reference

+
-
Switch logic
(1)
(2)

Figure 2-17: Generic scheme of a speed governor with two operating modes.
2.7 Modeling Guidelines and Summary
This chaptei has piesenteu seveial existing mouels foi steam tuibine geneiatois.
The IEEEu1 mouel is available in the common commeicial powei system simulation
tools anu one of the most commonly useu foi iepiesenting steam tuibines. It is
ceitainly the one iecommenueu foi use in typical planning stuuies, paiticulaily foi
laige inteiconnecteu systems. Foi stuuies ielateu to system islanuing oi scenaiios
that iesult in laige ueviations in fiequency, i.e. moie than seveial peicent change,
the accuiacy of the IEEEu1 mouel is limiteu.
The most impoitant aspects of the steam tuibine mouel aie still as pointeu out in
the pievious woik |Sj, namely:
2 - 17
1. Check all tuibinegoveinoi mouels so that they aie piopeily moueleu baseu
on the NW capability of the tuibine anu not geneiatoi NvA base. In some
softwaie platfoims many of the tuibinegoveinoi mouels aie on geneiatoi
NvA by uefault anu so Pmax anu uioop will neeu to be aujusteu accoiuingly.
If this is not uone piopeily, then the unit will exhibit uniealistic iesponse
uuiing simulateu fiequency events.
2. Repiesent the outeiloop NW contiollei (LCFB1 mouel) wheie such iesponse
is obseiveu. The best way to captuie this chaiacteiistic is by online
uistuibance monitoiing (see example in section 2.2 oi iefeience |12j).
Fuitheimoie, foi the IEEEu1 mouel the uioop, valve time constant, tuibine time
constant anu valve openingclosing iate may all be ieasonably estimateu by
valiuation against appiopiiate test oi online uistuibance uata. If an outeiloop NW
contiollei is acting on the tuibinecontiols, the only effective way of valiuating its
iesponse (essentially integial gain) is fiom an online uistuibance iecoiuing (see
example in section 2.2, oi iefeience |12j). The othei paiameteis of the mouel, such
as the tuibine powei fiactions neeu to be obtaineu fiom the oiiginal equipment
manufactuiei uata sheets. In auuition, it shoulu be noteu that the estimateu unit
uioop, baseu on measuieu iesponse, when using the IEEEu1 mouel may vaiy
uepenuing on the opeiating conuition. This is not uue to an actual change in the
uioop constant, since that is an actual fixeu gain in the contiols, but a consequence
of the nonlineai natuie of the steam tuibine iesponse (e.g. changing steam
piessuie, tempeiatuie, nonlineai valve chaiacteiistics etc.).
The Tu0vS mouel is a significantly moie uetaileu mouel anu able to iepiesent the
boilei uynamics anu cooiuinate contiol foi stuuies wheie this may be ueemeu as
necessaiy, e.g. stuuies on small islanueu systems. Bowevei, the buiuen of mouel
valiuation foi Tu0vS is tiemenuous anu it woulu ceitainly not be waiianteu foi
laige systems such as the Noith Ameiican systems at this time. In |Sj it was shown
that goou agieement between oveiall system fiequency iesponse between
simulation anu measuiement has been achieveu both foi the WECC anu ERC0T
systems using simple mouels such as the IEEEu1 mouel.
As an example, in a cuiient typical planning case foi WECC, theie aie ioughly Suuu
synchionous geneiatoi mouels. Foi moueling steam tuibines, theie aie 267 IEEEu1
mouels, many with associateu LCBF1 mouels, 2u Tu0v1 mouels anu S CCBT1
mouels. Tu0v1 is a veiy simple mouel it mouels uioop, one time constant foi the
valve anu one leaulag block to iepiesent the tuibine (see section 2.2). CCBT1 is a
cooiuinateu boilei tuibine mouel available in uE PSLF anu is similai to the Tu0vS
mouel in complexity anu paiameteis. In auuition, ioughly Su% of the units uo not
have a tuibinegoveinoi mouel at all. A significant poition of these aie steam
tuibines in multishaft combineu cycle plants, pumpeu hyuio, uistiibuteu
geneiation, oi blockeu goveinois anu thus uelibeiately not moueleu. These
consiueiations asiue, many of these units may still be missing an auequate mouel of
the tuibinegoveinoi.
2 - 18
2 - 19
Consiueiing a typical Eastein Inteiconnection planning case, theie aie moie than
7uuu synchionous geneiatois in the case. Roughly Su% (one in eveiy two) of the
geneiatois uo not have a tuibinegoveinoi mouel. This is a significant pioblem.
Consiueiin steam bine mouels, the iough statistics aie as follows: g the tui
IEEEu1 218
IEESu0 42S
Tu0v1 26S
The above uiscussion is simply intenueu to illustiate that theie is a significant gap,
paiticulaily foi the Eastein Inteiconnection, between the piesent level of moueling
anu what coulu be achieveu by using simple mouels such as IEEEu1. Namely, theie
aie a vast numbei of units in the system wiue mouel without an auequate tuibine
goveinoi mouel, oi piopei iepiesentation of the tuibine iating, oi the moue of
tuibinegoveinoi opeiations (i.e. whethei the tuibine is unuei (i) uioopcontiol, oi
e , l ble (ii) has an outeiloop NW contioll i oi (iii) base oaueu anu thus una to
iesponu).
While this uocument has iuentifieu a iecommenueu tuibinegoveinoi foi steam
tuibines (IEEEu1 + LCFB1), it is iecognizeu that many goveinois aie cuiiently
moueleu using what may be consiueieu as obsolete oi legacy mouels (e.g. Tu0v1,
IEESu0, etc.). In many cases these mouels anu associateu uata weie pioviueu to the
ownei by the equipment venuoi when the unit was commissioneu many yeais ago.
It is also iecognizeu some owneis may not have the iesouices oi expeitise to
conveit such obsolete oi legacy mouels to newei mouels. It is not the intention of
this task foice iepoit to foice conveision of such obsolete oi legacy mouels to
iecommenueu mouels. 0se of the best mouels available is the piefeiieu couise of
action. Foi new plants oi plants that have unueigone an upgiaue, a valiuateu
tuibinegoveinoi mouel shoulu be iequesteu fiom the venuoi.

3. GAS TURBINES AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS
3.1 Gas Turbine Modeling
Seveial uocuments publisheu in the last uecaue give a compiehensive account of gas
tuibine moueling anu uynamics behavioi |9j, |17j, |18j. This section will pioviue a
summaiy of some of the key concepts fiom these uocuments.
Fiist the theoiy of the opeiation of gas tuibines is biiefly uesciibeu. Then a
summaiy will be given on some of the most commonly useu legacy mouels (i.e.
mouels that have been in use foi seveial uecaues) as well as those mouels iecently
uevelopeu anu typically iecommenueu foi planning stuuies. An oveiview will also
be given of moie uetaileu mouels, which is augmenteu with fuithei uetails in the
appenuices. The last section of this chaptei pioviues biief moueling guiuelines anu
iecommenuations foi moueling gas tuibines in powei system stuuies.
3.1.1 Brief Overview of Gas Turbine Theory
The gas tuibine consists of an axial compiessoi, a combustion chambei, anu a
tuibine (Figuie S1). The aii, to suppoit the combustion piocess, is compiesseu
thiough the axial compiessoi anu then mixeu with fuel in the combustion chambei,
wheie the combustion piocess takes place. Iueally, the compiession piocess
between compiessoi inlet (1) anu compiessoi outlet (2) is an isentiopic piocess; i.e.
the piocess is auiabatic anu ieveisible. The combustion piocess between points (2)
anu (S) is iueally a constant piessuie piocess. Isentiopic expansion of the hot gases
in the tuibine, between points (S) anu (4), piouuces ieal woik on the tuibine shaft.
Finally, the woiking fluiu (typically aii) cools unuei constant piessuie between
points (4) anu (1).

Figure 3-1: Gas Turbine
In ieality the piocess is noniueal. Refeience |18j pioviues a uetaileu qualitative
uesciiption of the theimouynamic piocess anu thus the physical ieason behinu the
uepenuency of maximum gas tuibine powei output as a function of ambient aii
tempeiatuie anu tuibine shaft speeu. In summaiy, the tempeiatuie T
S
(at the inlet
3 - 1
of the tuibine) is the highest tempeiatuie in the cycle anu may be assumeu to be
essentially the tempeiatuie of the hot gases enteiing the fiist stage of the tuibine.
In piactice, this tempeiatuie will neeu to be kept below a ceitain limit in oiuei to
pieseive the life of (ieuuce fatigue anu stiess on) the hot gaspath paits in the
tuibine. Bowevei, it is extiemely uifficult to measuie this tempeiatuie in piactice
since (i) inseition of theimocouples with a fast iesponse time into this iegion of the
tuibine can be uifficult, anu (ii) theie is not one tempeiatuie but iathei a spieau of
tempeiatuies acioss the combustion chambeicans. Theiefoie, it is common to
measuie the tempeiatuie at the exhaust of the tuibine (T
4
), anu thiough contiolling
of this tempeiatuie T
S
is maintaineu below its limit.
In essence if we aie opeiating at the maximum T
S
limit (essentially at baseloau oi
iateu tuibine output) then if ambient aii tempeiatuie iises, oi the shaft speeu
uecieases, both these will iesult in a lowei aii massflow thiough the compiessoi
anu tuibine. Thus, to maintain the tempeiatuie limit the amount of fuel being mixeu
anu combusteu with the aii must be ieuuceu, theieby ieuucing the output powei of
the tuibine. That is, the steauystate iateu output of the gas tuibine is uepenuent on
both ambient inlet aii tempeiatuie anu the speeu of the compiessoi |18j. It can be
shown that this iathei complex theimouynamic piocess can be simplifieu foi the
puipose of powei system simulation analysis to a set of algebiaic equations |17j,
|18j as shown in Figuie S2.
In Figuie S2 W
a
is uimensionless aiiflow (in pei unit),
c
anu
c
aie the pei unit
uimensionless speeu anu change in uimensionless speeu (in pu), T
au
anu T
a
aie IS0
anu cuiient ambient aii tempeiatuie (in uegiees Kelvin), P
au
anu P
a
aie IS0 anu
cuiient ambient aii piessuie (in psi) anu
Iuv
,
u
anu
max
aie the cuiient, initial anu
maximum inlet guiue vane opening angle, iespectively. Foi a moie uetaileu
explanation of why the speeu anu aiiflow quantities aie iefeiieu to as
uimensionless see |17j, |18j anu |19j.

Figure 3-2: A simplified gas turbine thermodynamic model [17] (IEEE 2001).
3 - 2
By combining the gas tuibine contiols with this simplifieu gas tuibine mouel (as
shown in Figuie SS) we can aiiive at a iathei uetaileu mouel of a gas tuibine. 0ne
xample is the gegt1 mouel uiscusseu in Appenuix B. e


Figure 3-3: Gas turbine controls [17] (IEEE 2001).
3.1.2 Modeling Gas Turbines
A hieiaichy of mouels will be piesenteu heie foi heavyuuty gas tuibines.
3.1.2.1 GAST
The uAST mouel is still useu in both the WECC anu the Eastein Inteiconnection.
Theie aie ioughly Su units in the WECC uatabase anu ovei 4uu in the Eastein
Inteiconnection, with the uAST mouel.
Figuie S4 shows the uAST mouel. A slightly mouifieu veision also exists. This is
the most simplistic iepiesentation of a gas tuibine. It assumes a simple uioop
contiol, constant loau limit (iating of the tuibine) anu thiee time constants, one to
iepiesent the fuel valve iesponse (T
1
), one to iepiesent the tuibine iesponse (T
2
)
anu one to iepiesent the loau limit iesponse (T
S
). This mouel completely neglects
all aspects of the physics of a heavyuuty gas tuibine. This mouel is not
iecommenueu.
3 - 3

Figure 3-4: The GAST model. (Courtesy of Siemens PTI)
3.1.2.2 GAST2A
The papei by William Rowen in 198S |2uj piesenteu one of the fiist mouels foi gas
tuibines. This mouel is no longei useu in WECC, but ovei one hunuieu gas tuibines
in the Eastein Inteiconnection aie still moueleu using this mouel. The mouel block
uiagiam anu paiameteis may be founu in |2uj oi the useis manual of some of the
commeicial powei system softwaie. Foi the sake of bievity we pioviue only the
following geneial comments ielateu to this mouel. It makes the simplifying
assumption of neglecting inlet guiue vane contiols (Iuv), since foi simplecycle gas
tuibines the Iuvs aie typically wiue open. Fuitheimoie, it assumes a piopoitional
speeu goveinoi contiol anu a constant exhaust tempeiatuie limit this lattei
assumption is foi simplicity, the actual exhaust tempeiatuie limit (as explaineu in
section S.1.1) is not constant.
The uAST2A mouel was uevelopeu in the 198us to iepiesent uE Naik II anu Naik
Iv contiols. Since that time, the tuibine contiols have evolveu to incluue a goveinoi
with a piopoitionalintegial contiollei anu uioop uevelopeu with electiical powei
as the feeuback signal. Also, significant changes have been maue to the gas tuibine
uesign to impiove peifoimance with highei efficiency anu lowei emissions. These
changes incluue going fiom iich buin combustion to a lean buin to achieve highei
peifoimance. Newei contiols foi the gas tuibines incluue guiue vane uynamics
iegulating aiiflow to maintain the lean buin. The complexity of the newei contiols
iesults in moie complex mouels. This is uiscusseu below.
The uAST2A mouel is not iecommenueu foi use foi mouein gas tuibine
installations.
3 - 4
3.1.2.3 GGOV1
The uu0v1 mouel was uevelopeu as a geneial puipose tuibinegoveinoi mouel to
be useu foi uynamic simulation stuuies. Figuie SS shows the uu0v1 mouel.
In teims of the gas tuibine, much of the same simplifying assumptions as in the case
of uAST anu uAST2A aie maue, namely, neglecting the Iuv contiols, assuming a
tempeiatuie limitloau limit that is constant
S
anu not explicitly iepiesenting any
ambient oi othei effects. The steauystate uevelopeu mechanical powei fiom the
mouel is given by
P
mech
= K
tuib
*(Wf W
fnl
)
The paiametei W is the fuel flow foi full speeu, no loau conuitions, anu this allows
fnl
a iepiesentation of fuel consumeu at noloau foi iunning the axial compiessoi |9j.
The i T
pio u
main impiovement ove uAS anu uAST2A is the flexibility of the mouel to
vi e foi vaiious goveinoi contiol options anu feeuback signals, namely:
1. PIB contiol on speeu eiioi signal consisting of speeu, speeu iefeience anu
uioop signal.
e anu 2. PI contiol on speeu eiioi signal consisting of speeu, speeu iefeienc
uioop signal.
S. P contiol on speeu eiioi signal consisting of speeu anu speeu iefeience.
The uioop signal can be obtaineu fiom a numbei of feeuback signals, i.e. electiical
powei, goveinoi output oi valve stioke. Foi the thiiu contiol uesign in which only
piopoitional contiol is useu, the iecipiocal of the value foi the piopoitional gain
uefines the uioop. Theie is no neeu foi anothei signal to uefine uioop.
The output of the goveinoi blocks is the signal fsin, which goes thiough a Low
value Select block. The othei two signals aie fsia anu fsit, which iepiesent the
acceleiation contiollei (if any) anu the tempeiatuie limit contiollei. Contiols foi
those two signals can be uisableu by setting the values foi aset anu Luief to laige
values.
If fsin is selecteu, it becomes the input signal foi the iemaining blocks that
iepiesent the uynamics of the fuel stioke. The valve stioke mouel incluues a time
constant, T
act
anu iate limiteis. The fuel stioke uemanu has a set of limits with vmax
m t anu vmin. Noimally v ax is set to 1.u pu on he tuibine NW base. vmin is set to a
value foi the minimum fuel flow foi a gas tuibine.
The iemaining blocks aie useu to iepiesent the tuibine mouel. The tuibine gain
K
tuib
was uesciibeu above. The time constant Teng is a tianspoit uelay typically set
to zeio foi gas tuibines
6
. The constant flag is set to 1 if the tuibine has a liquiu fuel
souice that is shaft uiiven to iepiesent the uepenuence of fuel flow on shaft speeu.
The block containing the leaulag function with time constants Tb anu Tc can be
useu to iepiesent the lags foi the gas tuibine to changes in fuel flow. Typically, Tc =
u, anu Tb = u.1 seconus.

5
A speed damping factor can be modeled to influence the temperature limit as a rather gross approximation
of the speed dependence of the turbine rating. This is, however, not very accurate.
6
Teng can be set to 15/N+60/nN, when using this mode to represent a reciprocating diesel engine. In this
case N is the rpm of the engine and n is the number of cylinders firing per revolution. Note that for diesel
engine applications the value for flag should be set to 1.
3 - 5
3 - 6

The signal fsia is the output of the acceleiation contiol. The speeu signal is
piocesseu thiough a block consisting of a ueiivative with a lag filtei. The output of
this block pioviues the steauy iate of change in the speeu, anu it is compaieu to the
value assigneu to aset. Foi uE gas tuibines this paiametei aset = u.u1 pusec.
The signal fsit pioviue a limitei which is similai to the tempeiatuie limitei of the
198S Rowen mouel. The uiffeience is that insteau of calculating tempeiatuie fiom
fuel flow the mouel uses fuel flow as the input anu sets the limit baseu on a value of
maximum loau in pei unit, as specifieu by the paiametei, Luief. The usei is
iequiieu to know the values of the maximum gas tuibine NW output foi uiffeient
ambient conuitions anu to assign those values to Luief. The leaulag anu lag blocks
foi the limitei aie the same as those in the Rowen mouel.
Note that the selecteu value of fsi out of the low value select block is useu as input
foi the thiee contiolleis. In the event that the low value select block selects eithei
fsin oi fsit, then the contiollei whose output is selecteu will function as a PI
contiollei baseu on the feeuback loops
7
. If fsia is selecteu, then the contiol foi the
acceleiation limitei is an integial contiollei. The contiolleis whose output is not
selecteu use the signal fsi foi tiacking to avoiu winuup.
Typical values foi the uu0v1 mouel paiameteis aie pioviueu in Appenuix C.
The piincipal elements of gas tuibine contiolleis aie iepiesenteu in uu0v1. That is,
the speeupowei goveinoi, which noimally has contiol at tuibine loaus between
about 7u peicent anu 1uu peicent of maximum, the acceleiation contiol (some uTs
uo not have this), anu a tempeiatuie limit contiollei that enfoices the maximum
output limit. The tempeiatuie limit contiollei is one of seveial that can oveiiiue the
simple speeupowei goveinoi function; it is singleu out foi consiueiation because it
is the one most fiequently of impoitance in giiu stuuies. The explicit moueling of
the inuiviuual contiolleis of a complete gas tuibine contiol system is not
appiopiiate foi giiu stuuies, both because of the gieat uifficulties of managing the
uata iequiieu anu because contiolleis conceineu with the inteinal engine vaiiables
have only ielatively small influence on the behavioi seen by the giiu. Accoiuingly
the uu0v1 mouel pioviues a uesciiption of the behavioi to be expecteu of a
piopeily built anu aujusteu gas tuibine engine, but not a uetaileu uesciiption of any
paiticulai engine.
uu0v1 is appiopiiate foi stuuies wheie the plant iemains connecteu to a laige giiu;
that is foi all conventional giiu inteiconnection stuuies in foi example continental
Noith Ameiica. The mouel can also be useu foi loau iejection stuuies to simulate
the system iesponse to loss of loaus. Foi laige loau pick up stuuies (e.g. black stait)
the mouel may not pioviue accuiate iesults since guiue vane uynamics, which aie
not incluueu in the uu0v1 mouel, may become a factoi.

7
Note in the case of fsrn there is also the option of a derivative control (K
dgov
) to allow for modeling of a
PID control for the governor.

Wf
Figure 3-5: GGOV1 gas turbine model. (Courtesy of GE). Note that for this model the shown implementation of the PI controllers through feedback of
fsr inherently incorporates the tracking logic among the three controllers feeding into the low value select gate.
3 - 7
As an example, Figuie S6 shows the fitteu iesponse of a laige heavyuuty gas
tuibine using the uu0v1 mouel. The iesponse shown was foi a system fiequency
event iesulting in an initial uiop uown to S9.7 Bz, with the fiequency eventually
settling uown at S9.8S Bz. This iesponse was iecoiueu on a unit in the WECC
system.

Figure 3-6: Measured response of a heavy-duty gas turbine (in a combined cycle power plant) as
compared to the simulated response of the GGOV1 model [21].

3.1.2.4 CIGRE model [9]
As mentioneu in the uiscussion of the uu0v1 mouel, theie is no explicit attempt to
captuie the uepenuence of the maximum tuibine output powei on ambient
conuitions anu shaft speeu. In the case of ambient conuitions, piimaiily ambient
tempeiatuie effects, the usei must accoiuingly aujust the Luiefpaiametei. In teims
of the uepenuence of the maximum tuibine output on shaft speeu (system
n
fiequency), in uu0v1 the simplifying assumption, which is not veiy accuiate, may
be maue of intiouucing a uampi g teim in the speeu (Bm).
At the same time that uu0v1 was uevelopeu, the CIuRE gas tuibine mouel was
uevelopeu |9j. This mouel is shown in Figuie S7. A uetaileu uesciiption, with
typical paiameteis is given in |9j. In essence, peiusal of Figuies SS anu S7 ieveals
that uu0v1 anu the CIuRE mouel aie veiy similai. The majoi uiffeience is the
inclusion of a seconu oiuei tiansfei function to iepiesent gas tuibine uynamics, if
necessaiy, anu a polynomial fit of the maximum powei output limit as a function of
ambient aiitempeiatuie anu shaft speeu with a simple useiuefineu lookup table
(y=F(x)). This useiuefineu lookup table iequiies uata fiom the tuibine venuoi. An
xample cuive is given in Appenuix C of iefeience |9j. e

3 - 8
1
1 + s Tp
Rv
err
dbd
Kpg + Kig + s Kdg
s 1 + s Tdg
Kpt + Kit
s
Low
Value
Select
1
1 + s Tthcp
1 + s Tn
1 + s Td
1 + s Ttn1 + s
2
Ttn2
1 + s Ttd1 + s
2
Ttd2
1
1 + s Tv
Kt
Vmax
Vmin
max
max
min
min
Wfo
_
+
+
_
+
_
_
speed
Lset
Pe
+
+
Tlimit
y=F(x)
/
X
Fm =1.0
or
= speed
Kpa + Kia
s
s
1 + s Ta
aset
+
_
+
_
+
Kmwp + Kmwi
s
MWset
max
min
rfmax
rfmin
+
Rp
means h divided by y
h (heat)
Pgt

Figure 3-7: CIGRE gas turbine model [9].
3 - 9
3.1.2.5 Simplified but Explicit Modeling of the Ambient and Speed
Dependence [16]
Staiting with the uetaileu gas tuibine mouel in Figuie S2, we can simplify the
mouel significantly by making a few assumptions, while maintaining a quite simple
explicit iepiesentation of maximum tuibine output uepenuence on ambient
tempeiatuie anu system fiequency (shaft speeu). 0ne such example is that given in
|16j. Fiist assume that aii piessuie uoes not change. Since aiiflow anu powei
changes aie piopoitional to aii piessuie, anu the typical uiuinal (oi even seasonal)
aii piessuie vaiiations at a given site aie iaiely that significant (no moie than a few
peicent) it is theiefoie ieasonable to neglect the piessuie effects on the tuibine
powei output. This eliminates the P
a
P
au
teim in the algebiaic expiessions in Figuie
S2. Seconu, we aie inteiesteu piimaiily in the maximum tuibine output. Thus, the
inlet guiue vanes (Iuv) may be assumeu to be wiue open. This is because foi a
simple cycle gas tuibine, typically, the Iuvs aie wiueopen once the unit is loaueu
anu foi combineu cycle opeiation the Iuvs aie wiueopen (i.e. at theii maximum
angle) once the unit ieaches its maximum loau |9j. Thus, we will ignoie the Iuv
uynamics anu this fuithei simplifies the equations. So we aie left with accounting
foi powei vaiiations uue to ambient aii tempeiatuie anu tuibine speeu.
In |17j, the manufactuieis axial compiessoi aiiflow chaiacteiistic uata was useu to
ueteimine the paiameteis of (
c
), the poweispeeu coiiection factoi. Such uata is
uifficult to obtain. Bowevei, the manufactuiei will typical pioviue the tuibine
maximum powei output as a function of tuibine speeu anu compiessoi inlet aii
tempeiatuie as a set of cuives pioviueu with the unit uata. The powei output of the
tuibine is uiiectly piopoitional to fuel flow |17j. Fuitheimoie, the maximum
allowable fuel flow foi a given steauystate conuition is ueteimineu by the tuibine
tempeiatuie limit, which in tuin is a function of the fuel aii mixtuie anu thus aiiflow
|17j, |18j. Theiefoie, it is faii to assume that the maximum powei output of the
tuibine will follow the same geneial tienu (cubic function shown in equation Figuie
S2) as the aiiflow equation. Thus, making the simplifying assumptions quoteu
above (neglecting piessuie changes anu Iuv uynamics i.e. Iuvs wiueopen) a little
simple algebia leaus us to the equations below |16j, which uesciibe the maximum
powei output of the tuibine as a function of speeu anu ambient aii tempeiatuie
vaiiations.
3 - 10
( ) ( )
3 - 11

1
) , (
max
KtWfo
T F
+
=
Thus the mouel shown in Figuie S8 is establisheu. Beie u(
c
) is the poweispeeu
coiiection factoi, u
o
is the poweispeeu coiiection factoi at nominal mechanical
speeu, m(T) is the poweitempeiatuie coiiection factoi, Pmax is the maximum
tuibine powei foi the given conuition, Kt is the tuibine gain (see Figuie S8), W
fo
is
the fullspeeu noloau fuel flow (see Figuie S8), T, which is a usei enteieu value, is
the cuiient ambient inlet aii tempeiatuie (in uegiees C) anu T
o
is the tempeiatuie
unuei which the tuibine capability cuive useu to fit u(
c
) is uefineu typically
IS0

1
) (
) (
1
1
15 . 273
15 . 273
1
15 . 273
15 . 273
1 ) (
) ( ) (
max
3
1
5
2
1
4
1
3
1
3
5
2
4 3
2 1
KtWfo P
T m
u
u
P
a a a u
T
T
T
T
a a a u
T T a a T m
o
c
c c c o
o
c
o
c
c c c c
o
+

=
+ + =

+
+
=

+
+
=
+ + + =
=
= = =
=
(2)
8
, 1S
o
C. The coefficients a
1
to a
S
aie ueteimineu by using stanuaiu polynomial
cuive fitting techniques foi fitting the functions m(T) anu u(
c
) to the
manufactuieu supplieu powei veisus tempeiatuie anu powei veisus speeu cuives,
iespectively. In |16j this appioach was founu to pioviue a cuive fit that pieuicteu
maximum powei to an accuiacy of within 1% of the manufactuiei supplieu
numbeis foi speeu vaiiations of up to + 2% anu tempeiatuies ianging between
S
o
C to 4u
o
C.
What is shown in Figuie S8 as the function y=F(x) is actually implementing the
function shown above in equation (2). The tempeiatuie is assumeu to be a usei
enteieu paiametei (T), while the input to the function is the speeu vaiiable.
Important Note: All the mouels anu techniques piesenteu heie aie intenueu
piimaiily foi the puipose of powei system simulations. It is most ceitainly not
claimeu, noi shoulu it be assumeu, that these mouels iepiesent the actual tuibine
contiols oi that they can be useu to assess tuibine peifoimance foi uesign,
economic oi eneigyefficiency calculations. In some cases, ueteimination of
piimaiy anu seconuaiy iesponse capability of a powei plant as pait of giiucoue
compliance may also iequiie venuoi specific functionality oi mouels not available in
the mouels uesciibeu above.

8
Note: ISO conditions are defined as ambient conditions for which the ambient temperature is 15
o
C, the
relative humidity is 60% humidity and sea-level ambient air pressure.

Figure 3-8: Simplified gas turbine model (GT1) from [16].


3 - 12
3.1.2.6 Vendor Specific Models
venuoi specific mouels aie also available. Foi example, going back to the simplifieu
theimouynamic mouel of the gas tuibine in Figuie S2, by combining it with the
tuibine contiols the socalleu gegt1 mouel is uevelopeu, which is available in the uE
PSLF piogiam. This mouel, oiiginally uevelopeu in |17j, has been upuateu to the
latest contiol stiategy foi the cuiient uE fleet. Expeiience has shown that this
mouel is able to achieve quite a goou match between fielu measuieu anu simulateu
iesponse in the gas tuibine powei, exhaust tempeiatuie, compiessoi piessuie iatio
anu inletguiue vane iesponse. This mouel is, howevei, quite complex anu not
necessaiily appiopiiate foi laige inteiconnecteu powei system simulation stuuies.
Appenuix B pioviues a uesciiption of the mouel.
Anothei example of a moie uetaileu venuoi specific mouel is pioviueu in Appenuix
E foi some of Alstoms fleet of tuibines.
These mouels aie still quite simplifieu compaieu to the actual tuibine contiols.
As uiscusseu in uetail in section S.1.1, the fuel anu aiiflow combineu basically affect
the powei of the gas tuibine. Foi some heavyuuty gas tuibine uesigns (e.g. Alstoms
uT24 anu uT26), the fuel is uiiecteu into two combustois, namely the Ev
(enviionmental) anu SEv (sequential enviionmental) buineis. The capacity of the
Ev buineis aie 6u% that of the SEv buineis. In the loau anu tempeiatuie
contiolleis these fuel flows aie iegulateu sepaiately by theii own PI contiolleis. As
such, foi such sequential uualstage combustoi uesign tuibines the simple geneiic
mouels such as uu0v1 oi the CIuRE mouel will not be able to auequately iepiesent
the gas tuibine uynamic behavioi, paiticulaily in cases wheie the giiucoue iequiies
that the mouel be useu to assess the peifoimance of a powei plant anu to giaue it
foi piimaiy anu seconuaiy ieseives payments. Wheie mouels aie to be useu foi
such uetaileu peifoimance iequiiements, venuoi specific mouels may be iequiieu
anu the tuibine manufactuiei shoulu be consulteu.
3.2 Combined Cycle Power Plants
A goou iefeience on combineu cycle powei plants (CCPP) anu theii mouels is the
CIuRE uocument |9j. In this uocument we will not uiscuss the opeiational
chaiacteiistics of CCPP noi give a uetaileu oveiview; this can be founu in |9j anu
othei such uocuments.
This section will pioviue a biief oveiview of combineu cycle powei plants anu the
iecently uevelopeu mouels foi CCPP. The last section of this chaptei pioviues biief
moueling guiuelines anu iecommenuations foi moueling combineu cycle powei
plants in powei system stuuies.
3 - 13
3.2.1 Brief Overview of CCPP
A combineu cycle powei plant (CCPP) consists of at least one gas tuibine (uT), a
steam tuibine (ST), a heatiecoveiy steam geneiatoi (BRSu), anu an electiic
geneiatoi. A vaiiety of combinations exist, employing multiple gas tuibines, BRSus,
anu geneiatois in seveial possible configuiations. If the gas anu steam tuibines aie
on sepaiate mechanical shafts, then the plant is iefeiieu to as a multishaft CCPP. If
the gas tuibine, steam tuibine anu electiic geneiatoi aie all connecteu in tanuem on
a single mechanical shaft then the plant is iefeiieu to as a singleshaft CCPP.
Foi multishaft CCPP the gas tuibine mouel is the same as that uiscusseu in the
pievious section. The output of the gas tuibine mouel is then connecteu to the
BRSu anu steam tuibine mouel. In its simplest foim, the BRSu anu steam tuibine
mouel is as shown in Figuie S9, fiom |9j.
Foi a singleshaft CCPP the mouels in Figuie S7 anu S9 may be combineu as
uiscusseu in |9j to foim a singleshaft CCPP mouel.
Kp + Ki
s
1 + s Tn
1 + s Td
1
s Tdrum
HRSG
1
1 + s Tv
F(Pgt)
Pgt
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
qt Pt Pd
Pref
Qs
+
+
+
_
+
Low
Value
Select
Over-frequency/
Under-frequency Controls
+
+
qb
Bv
v (valve position)
Pst
Qg
Pgt
Qg
_ Km
_
Figure 3-9: Generic HRSG/ST model. [9].
The paiameteis anu a uesciiption of the mouel in Figuie S9 can be founu in uetail
in |9j.
Appenuix F pioviues an example uetaileu account of CCPP moueling foi a given
venuoi with a list of paiameteis.
The next section gives an example uesciiption of how these CCPP mouels may be
implementeu anu useu in powei system simulations tools.
3.2.2 Implementation of the CIGRE HRSG and ST model in ERCOT
Combineu cycle powei plants became populai in the 199us, anu became a
significant pait of the geneiation mix in many iegions |9, 22j. Initially, theie weie no
auequate uynamic mouels foi these plants combining both the uT, BRSu, anu ST
poitions into an integiateu mouel. The publication of the CIuRE mouels in 2uuS |9j
pioviueu a unifieu mouel in block uiagiam foim, paiticulaily foi the
iepiesentation of the BRSu anu the steam tuibine contiols. ERC0T contiacteu
Siemens PTI to incoipoiate these mouels in Siemens PIT PSSE simulation
piogiam. These mouels have thus been available as useiwiitten mouels since
2uu7. Bowevei, as of the publication uate of this uocument, these mouels weie not
yet pait of the piogiams libiaiy of stanuaiu simulation mouels.
3 - 14
Beie we piesent a biief uiscussion of this softwaie implementation of the mouels,
since the piocess highlights some key impoitant aspects of CCPP moueling.
The implementation of the CIuRE mouels iesulteu in the cieation of S uynamic usei
wiitten mouels:
0CBuT a geneiic combustion tuibine mouel
0BRSu a geneiic heat iecoveiy steam geneiatoi anu steam tuibine
mouel
0CCPSS a geneiic singleshaft combineu cycle tuibine mouel
In auuition, an auxiliaiy piogiam call PARCC was uevelopeu to aujust the uispatch of
inuiviuual units in the CCPP plant in the powei flow case to known opeiating points.
PARCC uoes not change the net output of the CCPP plant.
The powei output of the steam tuibine (ST) in a CCPP is a function of the available
heat in the BRSu, which is ielateu to the uispatch (NW output) of the uTs in the
CCPP. The ielationship between the powei output of the uTs anu the maximum
powei output of the ST in a CCPP must be accounteu foi in a uynamic simulation,
but is often misiepiesenteu uuiing powei flow uevelopment. In auuition,
maintaining the piopei ielationship between the uispatch of the uTs anu the powei
output of the ST of a given CCPP can be teuious while exploiing uiffeient system oi
plant uispatch scenaiios. Theiefoie, an auxiliaiy piogiam calleu PARCC was
uevelopeu to facilitate maintaining the piopei ielationship between ST anu uTs.
This ielationship is pioviueu, foi uiffeient opeiating levels anu even uiffeient
seasons, by the usei in a spieausheet foim (e.g. as shown in Table S1 foi a multi
shaft CCPP). The PARCC piogiam calculates the total powei output of the CCPP, as
given in a powei flow case, anu ieaujusts the uispatches of the inuiviuual units in
the CCPP baseu on the chaiacteiistics of the CCPP as uesciibeu in the associateu
spieausheet, while maintaining the total powei output of the CCPP.
The PARCC also allows foi gioss oi net geneiation iepiesentation in the powei flow
case; multiple spieausheets can be uevelopeu to account foi seasonal vaiiations in
output; anu enhancements such as uuct fiiing anu inletaii cooling can be incluueu.
Iueally, the uata to populate the spieausheets shoulu come fiom the facility ownei
anuoi manufactuiei anu caiefully ievieweu foi consistency. The output of
inuiviuual machines is often monitoieu foi opeiational puiposes, anu examining
histoiical output uata can often yielu sufficient infoimation to populate the
spieausheet.
The 0CBuT mouel is an implementation of the CIuRE gas tuibine mouel uesciibeu
above. Foi applicable assumptions anu attiibutes see |9j. This mouel can be useu as
a goveinoi mouel foi a simplecycle uT, oi foi one oi moie uTs that aie pait of a
CCPP. Each uT in a multishaft CCPP must be moueleu using 0CBuT, oi anothei
ppiopiiate uT mouel. Figuie S1u shows a plot compaiing the iesponse of the
CBuT (CIuRE mouel) anu uu0v1 mouels.
a
0

3 - 15
Table 3- ample of inpu for GT/ST MW relationship. 1: Ex t data
uT 1 uT 2 ST
Summei uioss NW uioss NW uioss NW A0X Loau
Bispatch 1 4 u u u 4
Bispatch 2 u 4 u u 4
Bispatch S S 8 u 11 S
Bispatch 4 u S 8 11 S
Bispatch S 7 4 u 2S 6
Bispatch 6 u 74 2S 6
Bispatch 7 S1 S1 S4 6
Bispatch 8 8u 8u 6u 8



Figure 3-10: comparing the response of GT models UCBGT and GGOV1 [23].
3 - 16
3 - 17
The 0BRSu mouel is an implementation of the CIuRE geneiic heat iecoveiy steam
geneiatoi anu steam tuibine mouel shown in Figuie S9. The mouel allows up to 6
uTs to be connecteu to a common BRSu. The total powei output of the gas tuibines
is ielateu to heat thiough a lookup table, anu the steam piouuction is piopoitional
to the total heat fiom the exhaust of the combustion tuibines plus the heat pioviueu
by any supplemental fiiing, if useu. Figuie S11 shows the mouel as implementeu.
Compaiing this to Figuie S9 we see the auuition of the weighting coefficients anu
summing of the uT outputs to uevelop the total heat going into the BRSu mouel.
The lookup table, ielating the total powei output of the uTs in the CCPP to the
available heat (anu thus steam flow) foi the ST, shoulu be consistent with the
geneiation uispatch in the powei flow case that pioviues the initial conuition foi the
uynamic simulation. In othei woius, the lookup table in the 0BRSu mouel shoulu
also be consistent with the CCPP chaiacteiistic, as expiesseu in the spieausheets
useu as input to the auxiliaiy piogiam PARCC. 0theiwise the uynamic simulation
will not be piopeily initializeu (will not be in steauy state) anu the powei output of
the steam tuibine woulu uiift away to the set point ueteimineu by the uata in the
lookup table.
The auxiliaiy piogiam PARCC is useu to conveit the CCPP uispatch scenaiios anu
cieate the lookup table foi the 0BRSu mouel. The PARCC piogiam is also useu to
enfoice such uispatch scenaiios to the powei flow case, thus allowing the piopei
initialization of the uynamic simulation.
An auuitional setpoint (Q
imb
) has also been implementeu, coiiesponuing to the heat
imbalance between the available heat calculateu (baseu on the lookup table) fiom
the powei output of the combustion tuibines anu the heat (anu steam flow)
iequiieu to maintain the powei output of the steam tuibine, as given in the powei
flow case. This heat imbalance is calculateu uuiing the initialization of the 0BRSu
mouel anu is auueu to the heat piouuceu by supplemental fiiing. This ensuies a
coiiect initialization of the uynamic simulation, even when the uispatch of the
geneiation units in the CCPP as expiesseu in the powei flow case is inconsistent
with the uata in the lookup table. This heat imbalance coulu be positive oi
negative, anu it is necessaiy to mouify the powei flow case anuoi the lookup table
in the 0BRSu mouel, as uesciibeu above, to biing this initialization imbalance back
to zeio.
While the uTs associateu with this mouel can be any of seveial fiom the softwaie
libiaiy, caie shoulu be exeiciseu to ensuie the tuibine iating base is consistent
thioughout, incluuing the lookup table. The steam mouel is usually opeiateu in
sliuing piessuie moue, but can be in piessuie contiol moue at light loauing. In
auuition to the heat fiom the uTs, the iesponse of the steam tuibine to system
tiansients will be influenceu by the BRSu uium time constant. While typical values
can be useu, actual values fiom test oi examination of histoiical uata woulu be
piefeiieu.


Figure 3-11: Siemens PTI PSSE implementation of the CIGRE HRSG and ST model [23].
drum
sT
1
m
K
d
n
sT
sT
+
+
1
1
v
sT + 1
1
s
K
K
i
p
+
2 GT
BASE
M
1
GT
PMECH
( )
gt g
P f Q =
ST
BASE
RATE
M
T ST
PMECH
1 GT
BASE
M
3 GT
BASE
M
4 GT
BASE
M

=
4
1
1
j
rate
GTj
T
2
GT
PMECH
4
GT
PMECH
3
GT
PMECH
3 - 18
The 0CBuT anu 0BRSu mouels aie combineu to cieate the 0CCPSS geneiic single
shaft combineu cycle tuibine mouel. The mouel automatically calculates the powei
uistiibution between uT anu ST sections via the uispatch spieausheet anu lookup
table. Bowevei, it shoulu be noteu that ueteimining the piopoition of total output
by the uT anu ST sections woulu iequiie uetaileu heat balance analysis. Absent such
y an analysis, the typical lookup table in |9j ma be useu.
ERC0T was motivateu, in pait, to sponsoi implementation of the CIuRE mouel
because of two fiequency events wheie actual system iesponse was significantly
woise (laigei fiequency uecline) than simulations suggesteu. Lack of an auequate
CCPP mouel was one of seveial factois iuentifieu |22, 24j. Figuie S12 illustiates an
impiovement in simulateu system iesponse using the CCPP mouels compaieu to the
tiauitional moueling appioach useu in ERC0T. In this case the system fiequency
uiops lowei using the CCPP mouels, as actual measuieu system iesponse woulu
suggest.

Figure 3-12: Illustrates an improvement in simulated system response using the CCPP models [23]
3.3 Modeling Guidelines and Summary
This chaptei has piesenteu seveial existing mouels foi gas tuibines anu foi
components of combineu cycle powei plants. The uu0v1 mouel is available in the
common commeicial powei system simulation tools anu is the most commonly useu
gas tuibine mouel in the WECC. It is one of the iecommenueu mouels foi use in
typical planning stuuies, paiticulaily foi laige inteiconnecteu systems. The CIuRE
mouel uiscusseu in this uocument is also a iecommenueu mouel foi system
3 - 19
planning stuuies. As uiscusseu in the intiouuction of this iepoit (section 1.1), some
iegions have specific giiucoue iequiiements, in such iegions cleaily venuoi oi giiu
coue iecommenueu mouels shoulu be useu if available. Foi stuuies ielateu to
system islanuing oi scenaiios that iesult in laige ueviations in fiequency, i.e. moie
than seveial peicent change, the accuiacy of the uu0v1 anu CIuRE mouel aie
limiteu anu venuoi specific mouels may be neeueu. In geneial, a simple mouel is
bettei than no mouel.
The most impoitant aspects of the gas tuibine mouel aie still as pointeu out in
pievi s ou woik |S, 9, 17, 18, 2Sj, namely:
1. Check all tuibinegoveinoi mouels so that they aie piopeily moueleu
baseu on the NW capability of the tuibine anu not geneiatoi NvA base, in
paiticulai the maximum powei anu uioop.
2. Repiesent the outeiloop NW contiollei, wheie such iesponse is obseiveu.
The best way to captuie this is by online uistuibance monitoiing. This
contiollei is pait of the uu0v1 anu CIuRE mouels.
S. Be cognizant of the ambient tempeiatuie uepenuence of the gas tuibine
maximum output |18j, anu appiopiiately aujust the loau limit of the mouel
foi seasonal stuuies.
4. Be cognizant of the uepenuence of the gas tuibine maximum output as a
function of laige fiequency vaiiations |9, 17, 18j. This may be ielevant in
some stuuies. Foi most stuuies wheie the system fiequency ueviation is
not moie than + 1%, the change may be quite small anu can be neglecteu
see |9, 17j foi examples of output vaiiation as a function of tempeiatuie
anu fiequency.
The uu0v1 mouel, which is the mouel most extensively useu these uays foi
moueling gas tuibines, has a significant numbei of paiameteis. Appenuix C piesents
an example set of typical paiameteis. Nany of these paiameteis can be fitteu fiom
eithei uistuibance uata iecoiuings oi fielu tests, anu this is highly iecommenueu.
0thei paiameteis of the mouel, such as the tuibine iating, contiol moue (e.g.
electiical powei feeuback oi not) can be iuentifieu fiom the venuoi uocumentation
oi a peiusal of the contiols. Some of the paiameteis, such as the
maximumminimum contiollei eiioi anu acceleiation contiol settings, cannot be
easily fitteu baseu on tests oi uistuibance uata. These shoulu be set to venuoi
iecommenueu values, oi typical values shown heie if bettei infoimation is not
available.
In a cuiient typical planning case foi WECC, theie aie ioughly Suuu synchionous
geneiatoi mouels. The uu0v1 mouel is useu foi moueling gas tuibines almost
exclusively; theie aie 992 instances of the uu0v1 mouel
9
. In auuition, ioughly Su%
uibinegoveinoi mouel at all. A significant poition of of the units uo not have a t

9
It should be noted that in previous years, in WECC, some steam turbines were also modeled using
GGOV1. This is not a recommended practice as it results in a confusion of the various turbine types in the
planning database.
3 - 20
3 - 21
these aie steam tuibines in multishaft combineu cycle plants, pumpeu hyuio,
uistiibuteu geneiation, oi blockeu goveinois anu thus uelibeiately not moueleu.
These consiueiations asiue, many of these units may still be missing an auequate
mouel of the tuibinegoveinoi. Consiueiing a typical Eastein Inteiconnection
planning case, theie aie moie than 7uuu synchionous geneiatois in the case.
Roughly Su% (one in eveiy two) of geneiatois uo not have a tuibinegoveinoi
mouel. This is a significant pioblem. Consiueiing the gas tuibine mouels, the iough
statisti a follows: cs aie s
uAST 412
uAST2A 12u
uu0v1 1SS
The above uiscussion is simply intenueu to illustiate that theie is a significant gap,
paiticulaily foi the Eastein Inteiconnection, between the piesent level of moueling
anu what coulu be achieveu by using simple mouels such as uu0v1 oi the CIuRE
mouel. Namely, the vast numbei of units without an auequate tuibinegoveinoi
mouel, oi piopei iepiesentation of the tuibine iating, oi the moue of tuibine
goveinoi opeiations (i.e. whethei the tuibine is unuei (i) uioopcontiol, oi (ii) has
an outeiloop NW contiollei, oi (iii) baseloaueu anu thus unable to iesponu).
While this uocument has iuentifieu iecommenueu tuibinegoveinoi mouels foi gas
tuibines (uu0v1 oi CIuRE mouel) anu combineu cycle powei plants (CIuRE mouel),
it is iecognizeu that many goveinois aie cuiiently moueleu using what may be
consiueieu as obsolete oi legacy mouels (e.g. uAST, uAST2A, etc.). In many cases
these mouels anu associateu uata weie pioviueu to the ownei by the equipment
venuoi when the unit was commission many yeais ago. It is also iecognizeu some
owneis may not have the iesouices oi expeitise to conveit such obsolete oi legacy
mouels to newei mouels. It is not the intention of this task foice iepoit to foice
conveision of such obsolete oi legacy mouels to iecommenueu mouels. 0se of the
best mouels available is the piefeiieu couise of action. Foi new plants oi plants
that have unueigone an upgiaue, a valiuateu tuibinegoveinoi mouel shoulu be
iequesteu fiom the venuoi.

4. Hydro Turbines
4.1 Modeling Hydro Turbines
When contemplating mouels of the tuibinegoveinois of a hyuio plant, it is best to
consiuei the goveinoi anu tuibine mouels sepaiately (Figuie 41):


Governor
Speed
Gate or
Valve
Turbine and
Water Column
Power

Figure 4-1: General Governor-Turbine Block Diagram
In the long peiiou of time that has passeu since an IEEE task foice has pioviueu
geneial iecommenuations foi tuibinegoveinoi mouels foi powei system stuuies
|11j, the iequiiements foi iepiesenting hyuio plants has changeu significantly.
Powei system stuuies in that eia weie focuseu on tiansient stability stuuies
piimaiily limiteu to the fiist oi seconu swing of a geneiatoi aftei a fault oi switching
opeiation. The iesponse of a hyuio piime movei contiol system has a minimal
impact uuiing the time fiame of these stuuies; consequently the computei mouel
iepiesentation was as simplistic as possible to ieuuce the uemanu on veiy limiteu
computei iesouices. The simplifieu mouel of a hyuio goveinoi consisteu of a
tiansfei function of two poles anu a single zeio foi the goveinoi anu a single pole
anu single zeio foi the watei column (Figuie 42):

K(1+sT
2
)
(1+sT
1
)(1+sT
3
)
Speed
Gate or
Valve
Power (1-sT
w
)
(1+0.5sT
w
)

Figure 4-2: Simple hydro turbine model.
This simple iepiesentation can only pioviue accuiacy within a veiy limiteu
banuwiuth, anu is theiefoie inauequate foi geneial use. Foi the most pait, use of
this mouel has uisappeaieu in laige system uatabases, but vestiges of these mouels
foi oluei plants aie still occasionally founu. This mouel, sometimes iefeiieu to as
i the IEEE Type 2 mouel is obsolete, anu nclusion of this mouel stiuctuie in
commeicial piogiams shoulu be uiscontinueu.
In 1992, an IEEE woiking gioup pioviueu upuateu iecommenuations foi hyuio
plant mouels |26j which aie accuiate foi a wiue vaiiety of powei system stuuies.
This papei is an excellent iefeience on the subject, paiticulaily in its coveiage of
nonlineai behavioi of a watei column. The uepth anu wiuth of coveiage cannot be
uuplicateu heiein, anu it is iecommenueu that it be ievieweu, paiticulaily if uetaileu
mouels of facilities with suige tanks oi multiple penstocks with manifolus aie
uesiieu. A key conclusion maue in the papei is that computei iesouices aie no
longei a ieason to saciifice mouel accuiacy. Bowevei, foi many hyuio facilities, it is
4 - 1
uifficult to assess how much uetail is waiianteu foi a hyuiaulic system mouel. Foi
most powei system stuuies involving laige system iepiesentation, veiy uetaileu
mouels may not be necessaiy foi most plants.
4.2 Hydro Governors
Computei mouel iepiesentation of the goveinoi, i.e., the contiol system that moves
gates, valves, oi blaue positions is stiaightfoiwaiu anu appiopiiate mouels foi
seveial types of contiollei uesigns have been in use foi quite some time. Figuies 4S
to 46 show typical contiol uesigns employeu in hyuio plants.

1
T
g
(1+sT
p
)
Gate or
Valve
Pmax
R
T
sT
R

1+sT
R

1
s
R
P
Pmin
VELop
VELcl
db1
db2

+
+
_
_
Pref
+

Figure 4-3: Mechanical hydraulic governor.
Figuie 4S iepiesents a tiauitional mechanicalhyuiaulic goveinoi, consisting of a
hyuiaulic pilot valve, main seivo, anu uashpot tempoiaiy uioop. Figuies 44 to 46
iepiesent moie mouein electionic oi uigital implementations wheie iesponse is
tuneu using PIB, uouble ueiivative, oi leaulag compensation uesign. A common
vaiiation in the PIB uesign is to excluue the uioop feeuback fiom the ueiivative
teim. In piactice, the ueiivative teim is often not useu.
Since the piimaiy use of these mouels in powei system stuuies is to iepiesent the
unit iesponse to small changes in system fiequency, these goveinoi mouels will be
auequate foi most piesent equipment, as the contiol uesign foi fiequency iegulation
is veiy stiaightfoiwaiu anu matuie, with the simple PIB stiuctuie the most
commonly founu. Bowevei, goveinois have othei contiol objectives, such as loau
setpoint iesponse, which influences oveiall goveinoi uesigns anu iesults in unique
vaiiations in contiol stiuctuies among manufactuieis anu mouels. Foi example,
iguie 47 uepicts a vaiiation in the PIB uesign of Figuie 44. F

4 - 2

Figure 4-4: PID governor.

Figure 4-5: Double-derivative governor.
4 - 3

1
T
g
(1+sT
p
)
Pmax
1
s
R
P
Pmin
VELop
VELcl
db1
db2
+
_
Gate or
Valve
1
1+sT
d

1
1+sT
t

_
_
(1+sT
1
) (1+sT
3
) (1+sT
5
)
(1+sT
2
) (1+sT
4
) (1+sT
6
)
K
I

s
Pelec
+
Pref


Figure 4-6: Lead-lag governor.

Figure 4-7: PID governor with set-point control, anti-windup, and nonlinear compensation. For this
figure all signals entering a summing junction are positive unless otherwise noted as being subtracted
(negative).
4 - 4
The mouifications to the basic uesign aie piimaiily to impiove upon the piactical
uiawbacks to integial compensation, paiticulaily when changing the loau via P
ief
,
anu to compensate foi some nonlineaiity, uiscusseu below. In most powei system
stuuies, manipulation of P
ief
is not necessaiy. If it uesiieu, it woulu be most likely be
ueiiveu fiom slowei, outei contiol loops (e.g., unit loau contiolleis, AuC, etc.) 0nless
a laige tiansient iesponse is being ueliveieu as a loau iefeience change, the effects
of such uetail will not impact system stuuies. If moueling such iesponse is necessaiy,
manufactuiei specific mouels such as this may be iequiieu. This neeu appeais iaie
at this time. In this paiticulai example, the compensation foi system nonlineaiity
may not be necessaiy in the mouel if the nonlineaiity is omitteu fiom an otheiwise
lineai mouel. If such uetail is incluueu, then uetaileu iepiesentation of the
nonlineaiity must be piesent in the mouel to obtain a coiiect iesponse.
4.3 Hydro Water Column
The seconu stage of the mouel ielates gate oi valve position to mechanical powei
ueliveieu to the geneiatoi shaft. The simplifieu mouel useu in computei piogiams
has tiauitionally been the iuealizeu, lineai tuibine iepiesentation (Figuie 48),
which uepenus on only one paiametei, the watei staiting time constant, T
W
:

Power
(1-sT
w
)
(1+0.5sT
w
)
Gate or
Valve

Figure 4-8: Linear Turbin
t i a anu f w, T
W
is calculateu as A ateu he u lo
L
Ag
e-Water Column Model
T
W
= _ ] (
q
basc
h
basc
)
W heie
A = Penstock aiea, m
2

L = Penstock length, m
g = Acceleiation uue to giavity, msec
2

q = Flow of watei thiough tuibine, m
S
sec
h = 0peiating heau at tuibine aumission, m
This mouel is a simplification of the moie geneializeu veision (Figuie 49),

Gate or
Valve
Power
)
a
13
a
21

a
23

[1+(a
11
-
sT
W
]
a
23

1 + a
11
sT
W


Figure 4-9: General Form of Idealized, Linear Model
4 - 5
wheie the constants a
11
, a
21
, a
1S
, a
2S
aie paitial ueiivatives of flow anu toique baseu
on heau anu gate position |27j. The simplifieu mouel iesults by setting a
11
, a
21
, a
1S
,
a
2S
to u.S, 1.S, 1, 1, iespectively which assumes lossless opeiation at 1uu peicent
speeu anu flow. The obvious uisauvantage of this mouel is that the paiameteis
iequiie iecalculation foi simulating conuitions foi uiffeient flow conuitions. Figuie
41u a) is a moie flexible, nonlineai mouel of the tuibine anu watei column, which
accounts foi the effects of vaiying flow on the effective watei staiting time. This
mouel can also incoipoiate the change in gains uue to off nominal heau vaiiations
(B
u
), the offset foi speeunoloau flow (q
nl
), anu the effective ieuuction of gate
stioke (A
T
). It also incluues a tuibine selfiegulation gain teim (B
T
) which uepenus
on both speeu vaiiation () anu flow. Note that all pei unit values in the
goveinoituibine mouels aie noimally baseu on the iateu powei output of the
tuibine anu not on the geneiatoi mouel NvA base. 0theiwise the gain A
T
is useu to
scale the tuibinegoveinoi mouel to the geneiatoi base. Figuie 41u b) shows a
slightly mouifieu veision of this mouel wheie a watei piessuie coefficient () is
auueu to the mouel |28j; when beta is negative (Fiancis tuibine) the tuibine is
stable anu when beta is positive (Kaplan tuibine) the tuibine is unstable without a
contiollei.
P
mech

1
sT
W

A
T
+
+
_
_
q
nl


H
0

q/gv
Gate or
Valve +
_
D
T

q

a) Conventional nonlinear turbine-water column model

b) Modified nonlinear turbine-water column model
Figure 4-10: Nonlinear Turbine-Water Column Model (Inelastic)
4 - 6
Figuie 411 shows the fiequency iesponse of the nonlineai mouel foi full loau, 7S%
loau, Su% loau anu 2S% loau, foi a penstock with a watei staiting time of 1.u
seconu at full loau. Compaieu to the lineai mouel, vaiying loau with the nonlineai
mouel iesults in laige vaiiations in iesponse spanning moie than a uecaue in
fiequency. If T
W
is not iecalculateu foi changes in powei opeiating point, the lineai
mouel can leau to vastly uiffeient iesponses if a geneiating unit is moueleu at less
than full loau. Since this is the noim in laige system uatabases, the lineai mouel
shoulu be ieplaceu with a nonlineai, flow uepenuent mouel.

Figure 4-11: Effect of Flow on Inelastic Model
A moie accuiate mouel (Figuie 412) foi the watei column is a tiavelling wave
mouel which accounts foi the watei hammei effects uue to elasticity of the watei
anu the ensto k. Auuitional constants useu in this mouel aie the penstock suige
p n e ( anu t wave tiavel time (T
e
).
p c
im eua c Z
u
) he
Z
0
= _
1

g
_(
q
basc
h
basc
)
T
c
= _
a
L
]
wheie
o = _
g


_
1
K
+
B
fE
] = g
an
= Bensity of watei
u
4 - 7
K = Bulk mouulus of watei
ck B = Inteinal uiametei of pensto
f = Wall thickness of penstock
E = Youngs mouulus of pipe wall mateiial
As compaieu to the inelastic mouel, the fiequency iesponse shows the tiue
fiequency iesponse chaiacteiistic wheie the phase lag is not limiteu to 18u uegiees,
but continues to inciease with fiequency (Figuie 41S).
A
T
+
+
_
_
q
nl


H
0

Gate or
Valve
P
mech

+
_
D
T

e
-2sTe
+
2
Z
0
+
_

Figure 4-12: Travelling Wave Model of Water Column

Figure 4-13: Elastic Water Column Model
4 - 8
Although the tiaveling wave mouel is the most accuiate uynamic iepiesentation of a
watei column anu penstock, it may oi may not impact the iesults of stuuies foi a
paiticulai facility. The neeu foi a tiaveling wave mouel uepenus on the uesign of the
hyuio plant anu the tuning of the goveinoi. If a goveinoi is set foi a ielatively fast
iesponse, e.g., ueiivatives aie useu, then uiffeiences between the elastic anu
inelastic penstock mouels may make a uiffeience in some stuuies, especially those
involving inteiaiea system oscillations. A lowei iatio between the watei time
constant (T
W
) anu the wave tiavel time (T
e
) will also inciease the impact of the
elastic mouel. Theiefoie, the neeu foi the elastic penstock mouel must be evaluateu
on a case by case basis.
4.4 System Frequency Regulation Studies
In iecent yeais, the uesiie to stuuy fiequency iegulation in laige systems has
incieaseu. In oiuei to piopeily account foi the shoit anu long teim iesponse of a
plant, some iefinements to tuibinegoveinoi moueling weie iuentifieu |2S, 29j. An
impoitant effect of a hyuio unit that impacts this iesponse is the nonlineai gain
ielationship between powei output anu flow uue to tuibine efficiency. This vaiiable
gain can be chaiacteiizeu by measuiing output powei as a function of gate position,
which iesults in a cuive such as that shown below in Figuie 414.

Figure 4-14: Gate Position vs. Power Output
The slope of the tangent at the opeiating gate position ueteimines the effective gain
mouification anu can be quite pionounceu in some cases, vaiying the total effective
gain of the tuibinegoveinoi fiom Su to 2uu peicent. It is especially impoitant to
captuie this effect in systems wheie the uioop signal is not ueiiveu fiom the
electiical powei output, which is commonly the case. This effect can significantly
impact the iesults of fiequency iesponse ieseive (FRR) stuuies, anu shoulu be
incoipoiateu into the nonlineai tuibine mouels as in Figuies 41S anu 416.
4 - 9

P
mech

1
sT
W

A
T
+
+
_
_
q
nl


H
0

q/gv
Gate or
Valve
+
_
D
T

q
Pm
Gate

Figure 4-15: Nonlinear Turbine-Water Column Model (Inelastic)
The auuition of the uate vs. Powei gain block in the mouel will account foi the
effects uue to noloau flow anu the fixeu tuibine gain, anu theiefoie q
nl
anu A
T

woulu not be useu.

P
mech

A
T
+
+
_
_
q
nl


H
0

Gate or
Valve +
_
D
T

e
-2sTe
+
2
Z
0
+
_
Pm
Gate

Figure 4-16: Travelling Wave Turbine-Water Column Model (Elastic)
Foi vaiiable blaue pitch Kaplan tuibines, a fuithei iefinement |Suj in the nonlineai
gain capability of the mouel is necessaiy to accuiately mouel laige iesponses in
tuibine output, which iequiies inclusion of a time constant to account foi slow
aujustment of the blaue angle, as uepicteu in Figuie 417. In this uesign, the gate
contiol signal is also sent to the blaue pitch contiollei, whose effect on net tuibine
flow is uelayeu. The nonlineai gain effects of the wicket gates, blaue contiol, anu
tuibine efficiency aie computeu sepaiately anu then combineu in this mouel.
4 - 10

Figure 4-17: Variable pitch Kaplan turbine
4.5 Modeling Guidelines and Summary
We will iefiain fiom iepeating some of the key iecommenuation ielateu in geneial
to tuibinegoveinoi moueling (e.g. moueling of the outeiloop NW contiollei,
ensuiing the tuibine iating is coiiectly moueleu etc.), which have alieauy been
explaineu at length in the pievious two chaptei summaiies, anu equally apply to
hyuio tuibines.
Lineai mouels of a hyuio penstock anu watei column shoulu not be useu foi geneial
powei system stuuies. Foi some facilities, a tiavelling wave mouel may be necessaiy
to coiiectly mouel uynamic behavioi. 0se of simplei mouels that uo not accuiately
captuie uynamic peifoimance in the u.1 Bz to 1 Bz fiequency iange can leau to
eiiois in stability stuuies wheie inteiaiea oscillations aie a concein. Inclusion of
nonlineai effects in hyuio mouels is necessaiy foi system fiequency iegulation
stuuies.
The most commonly used model in the present North American system databases are
HYGOV (in WECC) and the HYGOV, WEHGOV and WPIDHY
10
(in the Eastern
Interconnection) models. The WPIDHY model is a very rudimentary representation of a
hydro turbine, a combination of a PI controller, and a simple turbine model similar to that
show in Figure 4-2. This model is very simple and not recommended where better
information is available. The WEHGOV model is essentially the combination of Figure
4-4 (PID controller) and Figure 4-15 (non-linear turbine dynamic model); this model is
ning studies where the controls are known to be of the PID suitable for power system plan

10
HYGOV is the name of a model available in GE PSLF and Siemens PTI PSSE. WEHGOV and
WPIDHY are names of models available in Simens PTI PSSE. These models may also be available in
many other commercial power system simulation programs.
4 - 11
4 - 12
type. The WEHGOV model also incorporates a piecewise linear curve of flow versus
power instead of assuming a linear relationship as implemented by a fixed turbine gain
(A
T
). The HYGOV model is essentially a combination of the Figure 4-3 (mechanical
hydraulic controls) and Figure 4-15, this model is suitable for power system planning
studies where the controls are known to be of the mechanical hydraulic type.

5. References

[1] Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO), Generating System Model
Guidelines, Document Number 118-0009, 29 February 2008.
[2] IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task Force on Stability Terms and Definitions, Definition and
Classification of Power System Stability, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,
19(2), 13871401, August 2004.
[3] F.P. de Mello and C. Concordia, Concepts of synchronous machine stability as
affected by excitation control, IEEE Trans. PAS, vol. 88, pp.316329, 1969.
[4] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw Hill, 1994.
[5] IEEE Task Force on Large Interconnected Power Systems Response to Generation
Governing, Interconnected Power System Response to Generation Governing:
Present Practice and Outstanding Concerns, IEEE Special Publication 07TP180,
May 2007.
http://www.pes-store.org/continuing-education/interconnected-power-system-
response-to-generation-governing-present-practice/p-13433.htm
[6] S. Sharma, S-H. Huang and N. D. R. Sarma, System Inertial Frequency Response
Estimation and Impact of Renewable Resources in ERCOT Interconnection,
Proceedings of the IEEE PES GM 2011, Detroit, MI.
[7] A. Rogers, DS3 Grid Code Workstream: Rate of Change of Frequency (RoCoF)&
Voltage Control, Operations, EirGrid, DS3 Industry Forum, 14thMarch, 2012.
http://www.eirgrid.com/media/DS3%20Industry%20Forum%20-
%20Grid%20Code%2014-03-12.pdf
[8] Transmission System Performance Report, Eirgrid 2010.
http://www.eirgrid.com/media/Transmission%20System%20Performance%20Repo
rt%202010.pdf
[9] CIGRE Technical Brochure 238, Modeling of Gas Turbines and Steam Turbines in
Combined-Cycle Power Plants, December 2003. (www.e-cigre.org)
[10] J. K. Salisbury, Steam Turbines and Their Cycles, John Wiley & Sons, 1950.
[11] IEEE WG on Prime Mover, Dynamic Models for Steam and Hydro Turbines in
Power System Studies, IEEE Trans. on PAS, Vol PAS-92, Nov-Dec 1973, pp.
1904-1915.
[12] P. Pourbeik, C. Pink and R. Bisbee, Power Plant Model Validation for Achieving
Reliability Standard Requirements Based on Recorded On-Line Disturbance Data,
Proceedings of the IEEE PSCE, March 2011.
5 - 1
[13] Power Plant Model Validation Using On-Line Disturbance Monitoring: Technical
Update on Latest Results. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2009. Product ID # 1017801.
http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=000000000001017801
[14] F. P. de Mello, Boiler Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies, IEEE
Trans. PWRS, pages 66-74, February, 1991.
|15j F. P. ue Nello, Boilei Bynamics anu Contiols Couise Notes.
http:www.isa.oig~powiuboilei_uynamics_contiols_couiseBownloaupag
efoiBoileiBynamicsanuContiolsCouiseNotes.htm
[16] P. Pourbeik and F. Modau, Model Development and Field Testing of a Heavy-
Duty Gas-Turbine Generator, IEEE Trans. PWRS, May, 2008.
|17j K. Kunitomi, A. Kuiita, B. 0kamoto, Y. Taua, S. Ihaia, P. Pouibeik, W. W. Piice, A.
B. Leiibukt anu }. }. Sanchezuasca, Noueling Fiequency Bepenuency of uas
Tuibine 0utput, Pioceeuings of the IEEE PES Wintei Neeting, }an 2uu1.
|18j P. Pouibeik, The Bepenuence of uas Tuibine Powei 0utput on System
Fiequency anu Ambient Conuitions, papei S81u1, piesenteu at CIuRE
Session 2uu2, August 2uu2, Paiis, Fiance.
|19j B. Cohen, u. F. C. Rogeis, anu B. I. B. Saiavanamutto, uas Tuibine Theoiy, 4th
Euition, Auuison Wesley Longman Ltu, 1996.
|2uj W. I. Rowen, Simplifieu Nathematical Repiesentations of Beavy Buty uas
Tuibines, ASNE Papei 8SuT6S anu ASNE }ouinal of Engineeiing foi Powei,
0ctobei 198S, pages 86S869.
|21j Automateu Nouel valiuation foi Powei Plants 0sing 0nLine Bistuibance
Nonitoiing. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2uu9. Piouuct IB # 1u16uuu.
http:my.epii.compoitalseivei.pt.Abstiact_iu=uuuuuuuuuuu1u16uuu
|22j R. Boyei, Piimaiy uoveining anu Fiequency Contiol in ERC0T, IEEE PES
ueneial Neeting Confeience Pioceeuings, Tampa, Floiiua, }une 2uu7.
|2Sj L. Lima, YChi Lin anu }. Feltes, Impioveu Noueling of Combineu Cycle Powei
Plants in Steauy State anu Bynamic Simulation, Piepaieu foi ERC0T, Siemens
PTI Repoit R61u7, }une 2uu7.
|24j ERC0T Bynamics Woiking uioup, August 19, 2uu4 Foiney Plant Tiip Event
Simulation, www.eicot.com
|2Sj L. Peieiia, }. 0nuiill, B. Kosteiev, B. Bavies, anu S. Patteison, A New Theimal
uoveinoi Noueling Appioach in the WECC, IEEE Tians. PWRS, Nay 2uuS, pp
5 - 2
819829.
|26j IEEE Woiking uioup on Piime Novei anu Eneigy Supply Nouels foi System
Bynamic Peifoimance Stuuies, Byuiaulic Tuibine anu Tuibine Contiol Nouels
5 - 3
foi System Bynamic Stuuies, in IEEE Tians. Powei Systems, vol. 7, No. 1, pp.
167179, Feb. 1992.
|27j B. u. Ramey, }. W. Skooglunu, Betaileu Byuiogoveinoi Repiesentation in
System Stability Stuuies, IEEE Tians. vol. PAS89, No. 1, pp. 1u6112, }an.
197u.
|28j B.Khouabakhchian, u.T.vuong anu S.Bastien. 0n the compaiison between a
uetaileu tuibinegeneiatoi ENTP simulation anu coiiesponuing fielu test
iesults. http:www.ipst.oigtechpapeis199S9S_IPST_1S621.PBF
|29j S. Patteison, Impoitance of Byuio ueneiation Response Resulting fiom the
New Theimal Noueling anu Requiieu Byuio Noueling Impiovements,
E Pioceeuings of the IEE PES ueneial Neeting, Benvei }uly, 2uu4.
|Suj B. Kosteiev, Byuio Tuibineuoveinoi Nouel valiuation in the Pacific
Noithwest, IEEE Tians Powei Systems, vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 11441149, Nay
2uu4.


6. Further Reading on Turbine-Governor Modeling
[1] J. W. Barnett, Speed Governing Design Considerations for Multivalve Condensing
Steam Turbine Generators, AIEE Transactions, volume 67, part II, 1948, pp 1567-
61
[2] H. B. Ruud, S. B. Farnham, A New Automatic Load Control for Turbine
Generators, AIEE Transactions, volume 68, part II, 1949, pp 1337-42
[3] J. E. McCormack, C. N. Metcalf, Load Frequency Control on the Northeast
Interconnection, Electric Light and Power (Chicago, Ill.), volume 27, February
1949, pp 70-73
[4] E. E. George, Speed and Load Control of Interconnected Systems, Electrical
World, volume 123, March 1945, pp 84-85
[5] S. B. Crary, J. B. McClure, Supplementary Control of Prime-Mover Speed
Governors, AIEE Transactions, volume 61, 1942, pp 209-14
[6] C. Concordia, H. S. Scott, C. N. Weygandt, Control of Tie-line Power Swings,
AIEE Transactions, volume 61, June 1942, pp 306-14
[7] R. J. Caughey, J. B. McClure, Prime Mover Speed Governors for Interconnected
Systems, AIEE Transactions, volume 60, April 1941, pp 147-51
[8] C. Concordia, S. B. Crary, E. E. Parker, Effect of Prime-Mover Speed Governor
Characteristics on Power-System Frequency Variations and Tieline Power Swings,
AIEE Transactions, volume 60, 1941, pp 559-67
[9] P. G. Ipsen, J. R. Norton, Prime Mover Speed Governors and the Interconnected
System, AIEE Transactions, volume 72, June 1953, pp 353-60
[10] Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic
Performance Studies, Dynamic Models for Fossil Fueled Steam Units in Power
System Studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, volume 6, No. 2, May
1991, pp 753-61
[11] IEEE Committee Report, Dynamic Models for Steam and Hydro Turbines in
Power System Studies, Transactions in Power Apparatus & Systems, volume 92,
No. 6, Nov./Dec. 1973, pp 1904-15
[12] L. H. Johnson, T. D. Younkins, Steam Turbine Overspeed Control and Behavior
During System Disturbances, Transactions in Power Apparatus & Systems,
volume 100, No. 5, May 1981, pp 2504-11
[13] F. P. de Mello, D. N. Ewart, MW Response of Fossil-Fueled Steam Units,
Transactions in Power Apparatus & Systems, volume 92, No. 2, March/April 1973,
pp 455-63
6 - 1
[14] F. M. Hughes, Improvement of Turbogenerator Transient Performance by Control
Means, Proceedings IEE, volume 120, No. 2, Feb. 1973, pp 233-40
[15] F. G. Dent, Microgovernor A Replacement of Existing Large Steam Turbine
Governing Controls, IEE Conference on Refurbishment of Power Station
Electrical Plant, No. 295, Nov. 1988, pp 128-42
[16] P. A. L. Ham, N. J. Green, Development and Experience in Digital Turbine
Control, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, volume 3, No. 3, Sept. 1988,
pp 568-74
[17] C. Concordia, F. P. de Mello, L. Kirchmayer, R. Schultz, Effect of Prime- Mover
Response and Governing Characteristics on System Dynamic Performance,
American Power Conference, 1966, volume 28, pp1074-85
[18] J. L. Woodward, Hydraulic-Turbine Transfer Function for Use in Governing
Studies, Proceedings IEE, volume 130, March 1968, pp 424-26
[19] J. M. Undrill, J. L. Woodward, Nonlinear hydro Governing Model and Improved
Calculation for Determining Temporary Droop, Transactions in Power Apparatus
& Systems, volume 86, No. 4, April 1967, pp 443-53
[20] P. W. Agnew, The Governing of Francis Turbines, Water Power, pp. 119-27,
April 1974
[21] R. Oldenburger, J. Donelson, Dynamic Response of a Hydroelectric Plant,
Transactions AIEE, volume 81, Pt. III, 1962, pp 403-18
[22] P. L. Dandeno, P. Kundur, J. P. Bayne, Hydraulic Unit Dynamic Performance
Under Normal and Islanding Conditions Analysis and Validation, Transactions
in Power Apparatus & Systems, volume 97, No. 6, Nov./Dec. 1978, pp 2134-43
[23] Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic
Performance Studies, Hydraulic Turbine and Turbine Control Models for Dynamic
Studies, Transactions on Power Systems, volume 7, No. 1, Feb. 1992, pp 167-179
[24] S. Hagihara, H. Yokota, K. Goda, K. Isaobe, Stability of a Hydraulic Turbine
Generating Unit Controlled by PID Governor, Transactions in Power Apparatus &
Systems, volume 98, No. 6, Nov./Dec. 1979, pp 2294-98
[25] F. R. Schleif, A. B. Wilbor, The Coordination of Hydraulic Turbine Governors for
Power System Operation, Transactions in Power Apparatus & Systems, volume
85, July 1966, pp 750-58
[26] G. R. Berube, L. M. Hajagos, Modeling Based on Field Tests of Turbine/Governor
Systems, PES Winter Power Meeting, volume 1, Feb. 1999, pp 567-73
[27] C. K. Sanathanan, A Frequency Domain Method for Tuning Hydro Governors,
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, volume 3, No. 1, March 1988, pp 14-17
6 - 2
[28] L. N. Hannett, J. W. Feltes, B. Fardanesh, Field Tests to Validate Hydro Turbine-
Governor Model Structure and Parameters, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,
volume 9, No. 4, Nov. 1994, pp 1744-51
[29] L. N. Hannett, J. W. Feltes, B. Fardanesh, C. Crean Modeling and Control Tuning
of a Hydro Station with Units Sharing a Common Penstock, IEEE Transactions on
Power Systems, volume 14, No. 4, Nov. 1999, pp 1407-
[30] C. D. Vournas, G. Papaioannou, Modelling and Stability of a Hydro Plant with
Two Surge Tanks, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, volume 10, No. 2,
June 1995, pp 368-75
[31] B. Strah, O. Kuljaca, Z. Vukic, Speed and Active Power Control of Hydro Turbine
Unit, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, volume 20, No. 2, June 2005, pp
424-34
[32] D. Kosterev, Hydro Turbine-Governor Model Validation in Pacific Northwest,
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, volume 19, No. 2, May 2004, pp 1144-49
[33] L. Pereira, J. Undrill, D. Kosterev, D. Davies, S. Patterson, A New Thermal
Governor Modeling Approach in the WECC, IEEE Transactions on Power
Systems, volume 18, No. 2, May 2003, pp 819-29
[34] Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic
Performance Studies, Dynamic Models for Combined Cycle Plants in Power
System Studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, volume 9, No. 3, Aug.
1994, pp 1698-1708
[35] H. E. Wickert, N. S. Dhaliwal, Analysis of P.I.D. Governors in Multimachine
Systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, volume 19, No. 3, May 2004, pp
1144-49
[36] L. N. Bize, J. D. Hurley, Frequency Control Considerations for Modern Steam and
Combustion Turbines, IEEE PES Winter Meeting, volume 1, Jan. 1999, pp 548-53
[37] L. N. Hannett, A. H. Khan, Combustion Turbine Dynamic Model Validation from
Tests, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, volume 8, No. 1, Feb. 1993, pp 152-
58
[38] L. N. Hannett, G. Jee, B. Fardanesh, A Governor/Turbine Model for a Twin-Shaft
Combustion Turbine, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, volume 10, No. 1,
Feb. 1995, pp 133-40
[39] N. Nakimoto, K. Baba, Performance of Gas Turbine-Based Plants During
Frequency Drops, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, volume 18, No. 2, May
2003, pp 931-37
[40] K. Chan, A. E. Ariffin, Y. C. Chew, C. Lin, H. Ye, Validated Combined Cycle
Power Plant Model for System and Station Performance Studies, Power System
Technology, 2004 PowerCon, volume 2, Nov. 2004, pp 1991-97
6 - 3
6 - 4
[41] K. Kunitomi, A. Kurita, Y. Tada, S. Ihara, W. W. Price, L. M. Richardson, G.
Smith, Modeling Combined-Cycle Power Plant for Simulation of frequency
Excursions, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, volume 18, No. 2, May 2003,
pp 724-29
[42] J. Undrill and A. Garmendia, Modelling of Combined Cycle Plants in Grid
Simulation Studies, IEEE PES Winter Meeting, volume 2, Jan. 2001, pp 657-63



APPENDIX A: Parameters for the IEEEG1 + LCBF1 Model
IEEEG1:
Parameter Description
K Governorgain(1/droop)[pu]
T1 Lagtimeconstant[s]
T2 Leadtimeconstant[s]
T3 Valvepositiontimeconstant[s]
Uo Maximumvalveopeningrate[pu/s]
Uc Maximumvalveclosingrate[pu/s]
Pmax Maximumvalveopening,onMWcapability[pu]
Pmin Minimumvalveopening,onMWcapability[pu]
T4 Timeconstantforsteaminlet[s]
K1 HPfraction
K2 LPfraction
T5 Timeconstantforsecondboilerpass[s]
K3 HPfraction
K4 LPfraction
T6 Timeconstantforthirdboilerpass[s]
K5 HPfraction
K6 LPfraction
T7 Timeconstantforfourthboilerpass[s]
K7 HPfraction
K8 LPfraction
db1 deadband

For typical values for the parameters see reference [11].
LCBF1:

Parameter TypicalValue Description
db 0 Controllerdedband[pu]
emax 0.1 Maximumerror[pu]
fb 0 Freqeuncybiasgain[pu/pu]
Kp 0 Proportionalgain[pu/pu]
Ki 0.005to0.2(typicalrange) Integralgain[pu/pu/s]
Tpelec 2to5 Powertransducertimeconstant[s]
lrmax 0.025to0.05(typicalrange) Maximumoutput[pu]
Pmwset initializedbymodel PowerSetpoint[pu]
Note: The values above are typical for illustrative purposes. Actual values may differ on
a case by case basis. Also, for the LCBF1 model, the model output must be on the same
units as the turbine-governor Pref input.
A - 1
A PEND X B: Deadband
A ueaubanu may be implementeu one of two ways, with significantly uiffeient
iesults in teims of the iesponse of the contiol system to the implementation see
explanation foi an actual contiol system on a tuibinegoveinoi.
P I
|16j foi an example
The two types aie:
Type 1 no offset in the output, that is once outsiue the ueaubanu the input is
passeu stiaight thiough
Type 2 the output is offset by the ueaubanu, that is once outsiue the ueaubanu the
output staits fiom zeio anu then piopoitionally incieases with the input.

Waining: the type 1 ueaubanu shown above leaus to a suuuen jump in NW iesponse
on the tiansition point of going out of the ueaubanu. This can be unuesiiable.
Type 1
Type 2
B - 1
APPENDIX C: Typical Parameters for the GGOV1
Typical values foi the uu0v1 mouel aie pioviueu below. valiuation of the values is
iecommenueu foi inseivice equipment. The value foi the paiametei NWCAP is the
iating of the tuibine anu the base foi all the othei paiameteis. It is not equal to the
NvA of the geneiatoi anu is typically smallei. The geneiatoi is typically oveisizeu
(i.e. NWCAP < NvA) because of the possible iange of maximum gas tuibine output
nging foi seasons ia fiom 12u% of nameplate iating on an extieme colu uay to 8u%
of nameplate iating on an extieme hot uay.
The value foi Ldref will vaiy foi changes of ambient tempeiatuie. A value of 1.u is
valiu foi S9F, 14.7u psia, anu foi natuial gas containing 96% CB
4
.
Pa
C - 1
.04

rameter
Typical Values
MWCAP User Supply
r 0
rselect 1
T
pelec
(sec) 1
Max
ERR
(pu) 0.05
Min
ERR
(pu) -0.05
K
PGOV
10
K
IGOV
2
K
DGOV
0
T
DGOV
(sec) 1
V
MAX
1
V
MIN
0.15
T
ACT
(sec) 0.5
K
TURB
1.5
W
FNL
0.2
T
B
(sec) 0.1
T
C
(sec) 0
flag 1
T
ENG
(sec) 0
T
FLOAD
(sec) 3
K
PLOAD
2
K
ILOAD
0.67
L
DREF
1
D
M
0
R
OPEN
(pu/sec) 0.1
R
CLOSE
(pu/sec) -0.1
K
IMW
0
P
MWSET
(pu) N/A
A
SET
(pu) 0.01
K
A
(pu) 10
T
A
(sec) 0.1
db (pu) 0
T
SA
(sec) 4
T
SB
(sec) 5
R
UP
(pu) 99
R
DOWN
(pu) -99
D - 1
APPENDIX D: Vendor Specific Model for GE Heavy-Duty
Gas Turbines
The mouel gegt1 was wiitten specifically to iepiesent uE heavy uuty gas tuibines
with Naik v, Naik vI anu Naik vIe contiols. This moie uetaileu mouel iepiesents
not only the featuies piesent in mouels like uu0v1, but also the guiue vane
uynamics anu its effect on the tempeiatuie limitei function. Block uiagiams aie
piesenteu in Figuies B1 anu B2. The mouel is available in the uE PSLF powei
system simulation tool.
As shown in Figuie B1, the possible feeuback signals foi uioop aie electiical powei
anu the fuel stioke iefeience (fsi). To iepiesent the Naik v oi Naik vI contiols
noimally the paiametei RvALvE is set to u anu the value foi uioop is assigneu to
RPELEC.
The contiols that aie shown in Figuie B1 aie quite close to those foi the ggov1,
mouel without the extia contiol loops foi the uioop signal. The inputs foi the Low
value Select aie FSRN, FSRT anu FSRA. FSRN anu FSRA aie ueiiveu in the same
mannei as in the mouel ggov1, when the same blocks aie useu. The thiiu signal,
FSRT is ueiiveu uiffeiently, anu the blocks to ueiive the eiioi signal, ETENP, foi the
tempeiatuie limitei aie shown in Figuie B2.
The input signals foi the blocks in Figuie B2 aie the exhaust tempeiatuie TX, the
compiessoi uischaige piessuie iatio CPR anu the goveinoi feeu foiwaiu signal
uvFF, which is ueiiveu as shown in Figuie B1. The exhaust tempeiatuie anu
compiessoi uischaige iatio aie calculateu fiom the tuibine mouel piesenteu in |1Sj,
which was actually the fiist implementation of the gegt1 mouel foi the Naik v
contiols (see Figuie S2, section S.1.1.). The cuiient implementation of the gegt1
mouel in the uE PSLF piogiam uses the following equations foi this simplifieu
mic e aeiouyna mou l:
w
AIR
= |I
uv0
+ K
AP
sin(I
uv
)] - |1 -o
0
N
u
1
+ o
2
N] - |
0
ISO
0
AMB
] (1)
I
LX
= I
AMB
+
u
3
-
P
ISO
P
AMB
+u
4
w
F
w
AIR

) (2
C
PR
= o
7
+(o
6
w
P
+ o
5
w
AIR
) -
P
ISO
P
AMB
(3)
Where,
ISO
is the absolute temperature at ISO conditions,
AMB
is the absolute ambient
temperature, P
ISO
is the air pressure at ISO conditions, P
AMB
is the ambient air pressure,
W
AIR
is the airflow in per unit with the base value at ISO conditions and maximum guide
vane position, and N is the rotor speed deviation in per unit.

Figure D-1: Block Diagram of gegt1 for the Three Control Functions.
D - 2

Figure D-2: Block Diagram of gegt1 for the Guide Vane Dynamic Function.
D - 3
0ne of the benefits of using the simple aeiouynamic mouel foi the tuibine is that it
accounts foi vaiiation of aii tempeiatuie anu aii piessuie so that with the mouel
paiameteis ueteimineu foi a given gas tuibine, vaiiations foi the seasons can be
obtaineu by changing the values foi the ambient tempeiatuie anu piessuie input to
the mouel (see |1Sj anu |18j foi a theoietical explanation).
Theie aie no typical values foi the coefficients that appeai in the equations of Figuie
S2 (section S.1.1). The values foi the paiameteis aie iuentifieu by collecting values
uuiing steauy state opeiation, anu fitting the mouel iesponse with the iecoiueu
measuiements |1Sj. Listeu in the table below aie the values foi the gegt1 mouel
paiameteis foi S common uE gas tuibines. These values weie obtaineu fiom testing
inuiviuual units. Two of the units aie fiom Fiame 7EA gas tuibines anu two aie
fiom Fiame 7FA gas tuibines. The fifth unit is a Fiame 6B gas tuibine. Note that foi
the values of the paiameteis a1 to a7 theie is vaiiation between the 2 Fiame 7EA
gas tuibines while these paiameteis have the same values foi the two Fiame 7FA
gas tuibines. vaiiations between uesigns foi the gas tuibines may account foi the
uiffeiences between the two Fiame 7EA gas tuibines. Iueally one woulu like to say
foi one Fiame mouel that the paiameteis woulu have the same values allowing one
to specify a set of typical values foi the mouel paiameteis. Bue to known, pievious
obseiveu uiffeiences, it is stiongly iecommenueu to collect uata foi the inuiviuual
unit anu iuentify the values foi the paiameteis.
D - 4
Parameter Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5
MWCAP 84.71 84.71 41.69 151.9 151.9
Model Series MS7001EA MS7001EA PG6581(B) MS7231FA MS7001FA
tpelec 2.5 1 2.4 2.5 1
kpgov 10 9 10 6 8
tgov 10 3.5 4 2.7 1.8
kisoc 0 0 0 0 0
ttemp 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3
ktemp 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004
aset 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
ka 10 10 10 10 10
ta 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
fsrmin 0.14 0.05 0.1 0.14 0.14
tf 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.55
kturb 1.66 1.612 1.868 1.626 1.654
tturb 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
tthcp 3 3 3 3 3
tnshld 12 12 12 12 12
tdshld 15 15 15 15 15
igvmax 84 84 86.1 84 80
igvmin 41.8 42 42.1 41.8 43.5
ktigv 5 5 0.3 5 5
ttigv 1 1 4 1 1
taigv 3 3 3 3 3
kgvff 0 0 0 0 0
tgcff 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
kfb 100 100 100 100 100
fobmax 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7
rtbmax 999 999 999 999 999
rtbmin -1.11 -1.11 -1.11 -1.11 -1.11
rtmax 2 2 2 2 2
rtmin -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
tref1 723.1 740 759.3 759.3 754
kcpr1 14.796 20 20.2 10.96 10.96
tref2 647.5 739.4 614 648.3 648.3
kcpr2 9.1057 23.47 0 0 0
tref3 0 0 775 723.6 723.6
kcpr3 0 0 23.72 8.855 8.855
tref 649 649 650 660 660
dbd 0 0 0 0 0
emax 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
rrmax 999 999 999 999 999
fsrol 1 1 1 1 1
flag 1 1 1 1 1
tamb -8.88 -8.88 13.8 11.7 21.667
tiso 15 15 15 15 15
pamb 0.938 0.938 0.923 0.8135 0.8655
piso 1 1 1 1 1
a0 25 25 25 25 25
a1 2 2 2 2 2
a2 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75
a3 128.13 90.678 76.32 81.37 81.37
a4 546.53 627.97 664.8 663.6 663.6
a5 5.956 7.919 9.002 8.504 8.504
a6 8.0323 2.0115 3.3626 5.521 5.521
a7 -0.8491 -1.1055 -1.986 0.1887 0.1887
igv0 -0.26117 -0.26117 -0.26117 -0.5645 -0.5645
kaf 1.2776 1.2776 1.2776 1.568 1.568
wfnl 0.184 0.15 0.2 0.169 0.17
Droop (Hz/MW) 0.0273 0.0459 0.05204 0.0418 0.06526
D - 5
APPENDIX E: Vendor Specific Model for the ALSTOM
GT26B Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine
E.1 Nomenclature
Ev Enviionmental Buinei
FCN Fiequency contiol mouule
FFWB Feeu foiwaiu
FR Fiequency iesponse
uT uas Tuibine
PI Piopoitional integial iegulatoi
SEv Sequential Enviionmental Buinei
TIT Tuibine inlet tempeiatuie
vuv vaiiable uuiue vane
E.2 Base Unit
The pei unit powei useu in the tuibinegoveinoi mouel is baseu on the uT iefeience
powei PREF at IS0 conuitions, i.e. at an ambient tempeiatuie of 1SC. Foi the
ALST0N uT26B 2.S its iating is 28S NW. Nominal fiequency is SuBz. The ALST0N
uT26B gas tuibine is a piouuct foi the Su Bz maiket anu hence the paiameteis of
the mouel pioviueu heie aie ielateu to this nominal fiequency.
E.3 Model Application
The uT uynamic mouel uesciibeu in this appenuix can be useu to investigate the
uynamic behavioi of the gas tuibine anu its impact on the giiu uuiing fiequency
uistuibance events.
The mouel pioviues an accuiate iepiesentation of its uynamic behavioi with the
goveinoi opeiating in noimal uioop moue (S% to 4%) when connecteu to a giiu.
Foi investigating the fiequency iesponse behavioi of the uT, the mouel can be useu
within a fiequency iange of 94% anu 1u4% of the nominal fiequency anu a wiue
i ambient tempeiatuie iange (fiom 1SC to SuC) with the app opiiate mouel
paiameteis.
Foi islanu oi paitial loau iejection opeiation in an isolateu giiu, supplementaiy
contiol featuies aie iequiieu that aie not in the scope of this appenuix.
E.4 Alstom GT26B simplified dynamic model (Figure E-1)
The ALST0Ns uT26 gas tuibine employs a sequential two combustion stage uesign
(Ev anu SEv buineis) insteau of one combustion stage uesign useu by othei
manufactuieis. The foimei has the auvantage that it offeis highei efficiency as well
as lowei emission levels. The contiol stiuctuie, fuelpowei management anu the
uynamics of the uT26 aie theiefoie uiffeient fiom single stage combustion gas
tuibines.
E - 1


Figure E-1: Overview of the ALSTOM GT26B Simplified Dynamic Model.
The moueling of the ALST0Ns uT26 gas tuibinegoveinoi follows to a laige extent
the CIuRE moueling iecommenuations |9j. The mouel is baseu on a mouulai
stiuctuie consisting of subsystems. Each subsystem pioviues a simplifieu mouel of a
paiticulai function of the gas tuibinegoveinoi system.
An oveiview of the uT26B simplifieu uynamic tuibinegoveinoi mouel, consisting of
five subsystems, is shown in Figuie E1. These subsystems aie uesciibeu in the
following sections of this appenuix.
The basic inteiface to the geneiatoi mouel consists of two inputs anu one output
namely:
h ueneiatoi fiequency oi speeu |Cfm oi Cs

aftj.
ueneiatoi electiical powei |P_Elec_uTj.
ueneiatoi mechanical powei |P_Nech_uTj.
Baseloadlimitationsubsystem(FigureE2)
A gas tuibines powei output is uepenuent on ambient tempeiatuie as well as the
tuibine shaft speeu. This has to be accounteu foi in the moueling of the gas tuibine.
The Base Loau Limitation subsystem mouels this chaiacteiistic of the gas tuibine by
intiouucing a coiiection factoi CPBL that is a function of the actual iotoi speeu anu
ambient tempeiatuie inputs.
Foi the ALST0N's uT26 gas tuibine mouel the factoi CPBL is ueteimineu by
uiffeient mathematical functions (lookup table oi uepenuing on whethei extenueu
fiequency iesponse suppoit (iExtFR) is enableu oi uisableu. Extenueu fiequency
iesponse suppoit allows the gas tuibine to pioviue a guaianteeu minimum output
level at fiequencies uown to 94% nominal even at high tempeiatuies as stipulateu
in ceitain giiu coues.
E - 2

Figure E-2: Base Load Limitation Subsystem.
Frequencycontrolsubsystem(FigureE3)
The Fiequency Contiol subsystem (Figuie ES) in its base configuiation consists of
the contiol stiuctuie to enable the uT to pioviue fiequency iesponse (FR)
capability.
0ptional oi auuitional fiequency contiol featuies that may be iequiieu but not
auuiesseu in the appenuix, such as islanu opeiation oi paitial loau iejection
capabilities, aie also pait of this subsystem.
Fiequency iesponse is the automatic vaiiation of the commanueu uT powei as a
function of the giiu fiequency. A change in powei is ielateu to the fiequency eiioi
thiough a pieuefineu powei gain. The FR contiol, as shown in Figuie E4, is
supeiimposeu onto loau contiol.
The ALST0N's uT uses a uynamic ueau banu in the speeu goveinoi. This ueau banu
geneiates a commanueu loau signal foi fiequency iesponse opeiation anu ieplaces
the functionality of static ueau banus.

Figure E-3: Frequency Control Subsystem
The following opeiation moues can be selecteu baseu on the uTs opeiation concept:
Fiequency Response Noue 0FF: The uT powei output is contiolleu to match
the loau setpoint specifieu by the opeiatoi. The uT uoes not ieact to any
E - 3
fiequency ueviations in the giiu. The paiametei iFieqRes enables oi uisables
the fiequency iesponse moue.
Fiequency Response Noue 0N, Sensitivity 0N: Sensitive moue incoipoiates a
uynamic ueau banu aiounu the fiequency tienu signal. As long as the
measuieu fiequency signal follows the tienu signal within the uynamic ueau
banu, the tienu will be useu to ueteimine the uT powei iesponse. 0theiwise,
the measuieu fiequency signal will be useu. The paiametei iBBsens switches
e fiequency s nsitive moue on oi fiequency limiteu sensitive moue on.
Fiequency Response Noue 0N, Sensitivity 0FF (Figuie ES): Fiequency
limiteu sensitive moue is geneially chosen, if the uT is uispatcheu foi base
loau opeiation anu is not iequiieu to take pait in fiequency iegulation,
except foi high fiequency emeigency conuitions. Insensitive moue
incoipoiates a static ueau banu aiounu the fiequency setpoint. The tienu
signal anu uynamic ueau banu aie in opeiation uuiing insensitive moue, but
uo not have any influence on the powei iesponse as long as the fiequency
eiioi iemains within the pieuefineu static ueau banu.
If accuiacy is not impoitant, this uynamic ueau banu coulu piobably be ieplaceu
with a static ueau banu similai to the CIuRE geneiic mouel |9j but it uoes not ieflect
he tiue behavioi of the ALST0N uTs. t


Figure E-4: Frequency Response Function
E - 4

Figure E-5: Limited Sensitive Mode
Powererrorsubsystem(FigureE6)
The total commanueu powei is the sum of the powei set point anu the commanueu
powei change uue to fiequency iesponse as calculateu in the fiequency iesponse
contiollei above.
The change in commanueu powei is limiteu to a maximum pieuefineu iate by a
powei iate limitei (LB_RT_LIN) in ALST0N's uT contiol system. This iate limitei is
not piesent in the CIuRE geneiic mouel hence implying the possibility to change the
powei at a veiy fast iate. This in ieality is not tiue anu will iesult in a flame
instability situation. The powei eiioi function ueteimines the uiffeience between
the cuiient uT powei anu the iequiieu commanueu uT powei that will uiive the uT
loau anu tempeiatuie contiolleis.

Figure E-6: Power Error Subsystem

E - 5
Loadandtemperaturecontrolsubsystem(FigureE7)
The ALST0Ns uT26 LoauTempeiatuie contiollei (LTCR) consists of two paits:
Powei Nanagement anu PoweiTempeiatuie Contiollei. The Powei Nanagement
uistiibutes the powei eiioi to the PoweiTempeiatuie Contiolleis accoiuing to the
uT opeiating concept, anu the PoweiTempeiatuie Contiolleis iegulate the
actuatois to meet the powei uemanu anu keep the hot gas tempeiatuies within safe
limits.
Loau contiol is useu to vaiy fuel flow anu vuv position until the commanueu powei
is achieveu.
Tempeiatuie contiol is useu to ensuie that the uT tempeiatuies uo not exceeu the
set point limits.


Figure E-7: Load and Temperature Control Subsystem
CurrentPowerandCommandPowerDistribution(FiguresE8&E9)
Cuiient Powei anu Commanu Powei Bistiibutions contiol functions uiviues the
powei between the pieuefineu capacities of the gas tuibine, staiting fiom the
smallest capacity anu auvancing towaius the laigest. The Cuiient Powei
Bistiibution mouule is geneiating cuiient Ev, SEv, anu vuv poweis while Commanu
Powei Bistiibution in auuition geneiates Ev anu SEv commanu powei oveiflow.
The influence of fiequency anu ambient tempeiatuie on Ev, SEv anu vuv poweis is
taken into account using the CPBL factoi.
E - 6

Figure E-8: Current Power Distribution Controller

Figure E-9: Command Power Distribution Controller
E - 7
LoadController(FigureE10)
Loau Contiollei is useu to vaiy fuel flows anu vuv position until the commanueu
powei is achieveu. The Loau Contiollei consists of the combineu Ev powei
contiollei, combineu SEv powei contiollei anu combineu vuv powei contiollei. A
combineu powei contiollei integiates auvantages of both the feeuback contiollei
anu feeu foiwaiu contiollei. The Ev anu SEv fuel mass flow commanus aie sums of
the outputs of the combineu powei contiolleis anu the FFWB contiolleis fiom the
vuv commanu.

Figure E-10: Load Controller
TemperatureController(FigureE11)
Tempeiatuie contiollei is useu to ensuie that the uT tempeiatuies uo not exceeu
the set point limits. When the tuibine is at its maximum powei output, the
tempeiatuie contiollei will take ovei commanu of the fuel mass flow as uT is
appioaching the tempeiatuie limits. Any fluctuation in ambient aii conuitions
(mainly ambient tempeiatuie) anuoi shaft speeu will iesult in a change in the
aiiflow thiough compiessoi. Theiefoie, the powei output will change uue to a
change in fuel uemanu as ueteimineu by the tempeiatuie limitei.
E - 8

Figure E-11: Temperature Controller
GTdynamicssubsystem(FigureE12)
The uynamics of the uas Tuibine is iepiesenteu by thiee tiansfei functions, i.e.,
iepiesenting the Ev fuel system, the SEv fuel system anu the gas tuibine itself.
These lag functions also incluue a seiies connecteu tianspoit uelay to simulate a
ueau time ielateu to these systems.
The kinetic powei of the uT P_Kin_uT is also calculateu in this subsystem. P_Kin_uT
is useu basically togethei with the geneiatoi electiical powei P_Elect_uT to
ueteimine the uT mechanical powei foi feeuback contiol puiposes.

Figure E-12: GT Dynamics Subsystem

E - 9

Modelparameters
Pa er ramet Value Unit
PREF 28S | j NW
Cfm vaiiable |Bzj
Cfc Su |Bzj
CShaft va e iiabl |Bzj
Tambient 1S.u |Cj
Relative Powei
0utput
f (Fieq., Tamb.)
1
p.u.
Extenu uppoit eu FR S f (Fie b.)
2
p q., Tam .u.
IExtFR u oi 1
iFieqRes u oi 1
T_f1 u .S |sj
T_ZETA 8 |sj
BYN_BB u.u1S |Bzj
BYN_BB_RC u.uu1 | j Bz
T_f2 u .S |sj
STAT_BB_ASYNN u |Bzj
B u.uS1S
iBBSens u oi 1
ub u.u1S |Bzj
ubl_pos S |Bzj
ubl_pos_RC Sub |Bzj
ubl_neg u.4 |Bzj
ubl_neg_RC u.4+ub |Bzj
Re t l_Loau_Setpoin vaiiable p.u.
L oauSP_Ramp 1SP_REF p.u.s
LB_FR_NIN u.496 p.u.
LB_RT_LIN 1u EF P_R p.u.
LB_SP_NAX 1.2 p.u.
LB_SP_NIN SuP_REF p.u.
E - 10
Pa r ramete Value Unit
T_TIT1 u.9 |sj
T _TIT2 u.9 |sj
C_Ev u.uSS6 p.u.
C_SEv u.1679 p.u.
C_vuv u.7S p.u.
C_SEvB u.u28S p.u.
C_EvB u.u28S p . .u
uAIN_u_FF_Ev u.6
uAIN_u_FF_SEv u.77S
uAIN uv _u_FF_v u.8S
KPu_Ev u.uu167*P_REF p.u.
KPu_SEv u.uu167*P_REF p.u.
KPu_ vuv u.uu1176*P_REF p.u.
TNu_Ev S |sj
TNu_SEv S |sj
TNu_vuv S | j s
Ev_Ratio_vuv u.S
Ev e _Ratio_Bas u.49
KPT_TIT1 u.78 p.u.
KPT_TIT2 u.86 p.u.
TNT_TIT1 S.S |sj
TNT_TIT2 S .S |sj
TIT1CNB 1 |sj
TIT2CNB 1 |sj
tBeau_Ev u.S |sj
T_Ev 1.S |sj
tBeau_SEv u.S |sj
T_SEv 1.S |sj
tBeau_uT u.S |sj
T_uT 2 |sj
Pth_min u p.u.
E - 11
E - 12
Parameter Value Unit
Pt x h_ma 1.1 p.u.
T_fk u.S |sj
}_R0T0R SSS67 |kgm
2
j
K_R0T0R
(2*pi)
2
*1e
6P_REF
p.u.
1
At 1SC,
eq
S
Relative Powei 0utput = Nu_1S + N1_1S*Fieq + N2_1S*Fieq
2
+ NS_1S*Fi
wheie, Nu_1S = 6.6S1Sue1; N1_1S = S.77491eu; N2_1S = 6.99148e2;
S_1S = 4.284S6e4; N

2
At 1SC anu baseu on the 0K NuET uiiu Coue
11
iequiiements,
); Extenueu FR Suppoit = inteip1(C6SS_F,C6SS_L, Fieq, 'lineai', 'extiap'
wheie, C6SS_F = |47,49.S,Su.S,S1.Sj Bz & C6SS_L = |u.9S,1,1,u.8j p.u;


11
National Grid Electricity Transmission; The Grid Code Issue 4, 2010.
APPENDIX F: ALSTOM Combined Cycle Power Plant
Models
F.1 ALSTOM Combined cycle power plant turbine-governor HRSG and
steam turbine dynamic models
A conventional combineu cycle powei plant (CCPP) in its simplest foim consists of
one gas tuibine (uT) with its hot exhaust gas being useu to feeu a heat iecoveiy
steam geneiatoi (BRSu) that subsequently piouuces steam to uiive a steam tuibine
(ST). Such a configuiation can piouuce an eneigy efficiency of up to 6u%.
Theie aie two basic schemes of CCPP, namely in multishaft (NS) anu singleshaft
(SS) configuiation. Nultishaft CCPP consists of uT anu ST on sepaiate powei tiains
uiiving its own geneiatois. In a singleshaft CCPP the uT anu the ST aie coupleu on
the same powei tiain that is uiiving a single geneiatoi.
This appenuix pioviues infoimation on how ALST0N mouels the NS anu SS CCPP.
Foi the NS CCPP a 2 on 1 aiiangement, namely 2 uT with 2 BRSu anu 1 ST, example
foi the mouel is useu.
The ALST0N uT26 mouel uesciibeu in Appenuix E on uT moueling is useu in the
moueling of the CCPP. Refeiences to uT paiameteis coiiesponu to those uesciibeu
in Appenuix E on ALST0N uT moueling.
ei Plant CCPP Combineu Cycle Pow
ntiol CLC Closeu Loop Co
Cv Contiol valve
Ev Enviionmental Buinei
tiol mouule FCN Fiequency con
B FFW Feeu foiwaiu
FR Fiequency iesponse
ppoit FS Fiequency su
uT uas Tuibine
BP Bigh Piessuie
Su eneiatoi BR Beat Recoveiy Steam u
iessuie IP Inteimeuiate P
ie LP Low Piessu
NS NultiShaft
F - 1
PI Piopoitional integial iegulatoi
tal Buinei SEv Sequential Enviionmen
SF Supplementaiy Fiiing
te Contiol S0C Supeioiuina
SS SingleShaft
ST Steam Tuibine
atuie TIT Tuibine inlet tempei
vuv vaiiable uuiue vane
WSC Watei Steam Cycle
Foi the CCPP mouels uesciibeu in this chaptei, the pei unit powei base useu foi the
uT anu ST is baseu on theii iateu powei at a given ambient tempeiatuie (noimally
at uesign point). Nominal fiequency is SuBz.
F.2 Model Application
The CCPP uynamic mouel uesciibeu in this appenuix can be useu to investigate the
act on the giiu uuiing fiequency uynamic behavioi of the powei plant anu its imp
uistuibance events.
The mouel is valiu unuei the following conuitions:
The mouel pioviues an accuiate iepiesentation of its uynamic behavioi with
the goveinoi opeiating in noimal uioop moue (e.g. S%) when connecteu to a
giiu.
Fuel gas opeiation.
Foi investigating the fiequency iesponse behavioi of the CCPP, the mouel
can be useu within a fiequency iange of 94% anu 1u4% of the nominal
fiequency
Ambient tempeiatuie iange (fiom 9C to S2C).
The loau iange is valiu foi a Su to 1uu% uT loau.
Foi NS CCPP it is assumeu that the loau uistiibution between the two gas
tuibines is balanceu.
Supplementaiy fiiing is only possible foi plant loauing gieatei than 9u%.
0nly uetaileu in NS mouel.
Foi islanu oi paitial loau iejection opeiation in an isolateu giiu, supplementaiy
contiol featuies aie iequiieu that aie not in the scope of this appenuix.
F - 2
F.3 Alstom KA26 CCPP simplified dynamic models
The ALST0Ns KA26 CCPP is available in two main configuiations, namely:
Nultishaft configuiation consisting of 1 oi moie gas tuibines that pioviue
exhaust heat to geneiate steam to uiive 1 oi moie steam tuibines each
connecteu to its own geneiatoi.
Singleshaft configuiation consisting of 1 gas tuibine that pioviues exhaust
heat to geneiate steam to uiive 1 steam tuibine connecteu to a common
geneiatoi.
The moueling of the ALST0Ns KA26 CCPP follows to a laige extent the CIuRE
moueling iecommenuations |9j. The mouel is baseu on a mouulai stiuctuie
consisting of subsystems. Each subsystem pioviues a simplifieu mouel of a
paiticu P plant consisting of: lai function of the CCP
The uT26 gas tuibine.
team geneiation (BRSu) system. The heat iecoveiy s
The steam tuibine.
Relateu contiol systems
The CCPP mouels foi the multishaft anu singleshaft configuiations aie piesenteu
in following sections.
F.4 ALSTOM KA26 multi-shaft CCPP simplified dynamic model
The uT mouel foi the uT26 is the same as that uesciibeu in the pievious section on
gas tuibine mouels. An oveiview of the BRSu anu ST subsystems foi the NS CCPP is
shown in Figuie F1.
Heatrecoverysteamgenerationsubsystem(FigureF2)
The BRSu subsystem consists of BRSu steam geneiation anu BRSu Contiol
functions. The BRSu steam geneiation incluues also the supplementaiy fiiing
system. The BRSu uynamics is iepiesenteu in a simplifieu mannei by a lag function
with a time constant TI being its theimal ineitia. Each uT is connecteu to its own
BRSu with its inuiviuual supplementaiy fiiing system. Each supplementaiy fiiing
system uynamics is also iepiesenteu by two lag functions in seiies with a time
constant TL_SF being the theimal ineitia uue to changes of supplementaiy fiiing
. loau Noimally supplementaiy fiiing is not available uuiing fiequency suppoit
opeiation of the ST oi when the uT powei is below 9u%.
The BRSu steam piouuction is ueiiveu fiom the uT ielative powei. A lineai
tempeiatuie coiiection of the ST base loau value is applieu so as to allow foi the
impact of aiicooleu conuensei at elevateu ambient tempeiatuie.
F - 3

Figure F-1: Overview of the ALSTOM KA26 CCPP MS HRSG and ST Simplified Dynamic Model


Figure F-2: Overview of the HRSG subsystem.


F - 4
The BRSu steam geneiation anu the BRSu contiol functions aie implementeu as
shown in Figuies FS anu F4, iespectively.

Figure F-3: HRSG Steam Generation Function.

Figure F-4: HRSG Control Function.
Superordinatecontrolsubsystem(FigureF5)
The S0C subsystem consists of contiol functions that pioviue auuitional featuies to
the stanuaiu functionality of the steam tuibine. These featuies may incluue piimaiy
fiequency suppoit, paitial loau iejection, islanuing capabilities. In this appenuix
only the piimaiy fiequency suppoit capability is piesenteu. The implementation of
this subsystem is shown in Figuies FS, F6, F7 anu F8.
The ST piimaiy fiequency suppoit contiol function is an optional featuie of
ALST0Ns CCPP. In conventional combineu cycle plant, the steam tuibine is
F - 5
opeiateu in sliuing piessuie moue anu the output of the ST only follows the output
of the uT anu uoes not contiibute to the piimaiy fiequency iesponse of the plant.
The ST piimaiy fiequency suppoit contiol function howevei allows ALST0Ns CCPP
to actively paiticipate in pioviuing piimaiy fiequency iesponse foi a limiteu time.
The tempoiaiy ST powei contiibution is supeiimposeu on the commanu foi powei
vaiiation. The ST actual powei vaiiation is constiaineu by capacity limitations
alculateu in the ST FS Commanueu Powei Calculation function shown in Figuie F7. c


Figure F-5: Overview of SOC Subsystem with Primary Frequency Support Function.
F - 6

Figure F-6: Power Command ST Frequency Support Function.


Figure F-7: ST FS Commanded Power Calculation Function.
F - 7


Figure F-8: GT Response Estimation Function.
Steamturbinesubsystem(FigureF9)
The steam tuibine subsystem consists of the steam tuibine contiol anu the steam
tuibine uynamics functions. The oveiview of the implementation of this subsystem
is shown in Figuie F9. Foi the inteiface between the BRSu anu ST only live steam
aumission has been accounteu foi, .i.e, no ieheat steam oi low piessuie steam. The
output fiom this subsystem is the ST mechanical powei that is useu to uiive the ST
geneiatoi.
The steam tuibine contiol valve commanu is geneiateu in the ST contiol function as
shown in Figuie F1u. Pioject specific chaiacteiistics of the contiol valve anu
actuatoi aie integiateu to account foi nonlineai effects. The contiol valve opeiation
is employeu in geneial foi positive fiequency excuisions exceeuing a static ueau
e banu. The highpiessuie seivo motoi mou l that is contiolling the contiol valve is
shown in Figuie F11.
Figuie F12 shows the implementation of the mouel uesciibing the steam tuibine
uynamics. The uynamics of piimaiy fiequency suppoit foi the ST is also consiueieu.

Figure F-9: Overview of Steam Turbine Subsystem.
F - 8

Figure F-10: Steam Turbine Load/Valve Control.

Figure F-11: HP Servo Motor Model.

Figure F-12: Steam Turbine Dynamics.

F - 9
ALSTOMmultishaftCCPPHRSGandSTmodelparameters
Parameter Value Unit
uT_I TN NIT_S vaiiable p.u.
Cffiq vaiiable |Bzj
FS_BRSu1 vaiiable p.u.
FS_BRSu2 vaiiable p.u.
P_STN_INIT vaiiable p . .u
TI 14S s
S T PWR C0RR Lookup table p.u.
P_STN_LIN
(Nax S suie) TN Pies
1.S p.u.
P_BASE vaiiable NW
t_filt u.S s
FB_LL S |Bzj
FB L _B u.uS |Bzj
Kg 2u
T1_ST u.1
s

PST 1.u p.u.
T SN2 u.1 s
CCL S p.u.s
C0P u.1 p.u.s
ST_P_BASE vaiiable NW
ST_L NIT SP_I vaiiable NW
TLP u.2 s
TBP u.1 s
FLP u.4SS p.u.
FBP_IP u .S6S p.u.
T_ST_FS u.S s
iBBSens u oi 1
Valve characteristics given by:
m_ICV=[0 0.029 0.671 0.723 0.767 0.785 0.802 0.817 0.831 0.855 0.866 0.876 0.884 0.893
0.907 0.919 0.93 0.943 0.957 0.967 0.98 1]
F - 10
h_ICV =[0 0.01 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.52
0.6 1]
P_BASE for the GT @ 15C is for this example 270.3 MW
ST_P_BASE @ 15C is for this example 313.7 MW
GT_INIT_STM is the initial GT load setpoint in p.u.
Initial Load setpoint of ST ST_LSP_INIT is given by:
ST_LSP_INIT=interp1([0 0.2 1 2],[0 0.436 0.966 1],G
Initial ST massflow P_STM_INIT is given by:
P_STN_INIT=inteip1(|u u.2 1 2j,|u u.4S6
u.966j,uT_INIT_STN)+(FS_BRSu1+FS_BRSu2);
T_INIT_STM)*ST_P_BASE
If supplementary firing is considered, the initial load setpoint of the ST will be corrected as given by:
ST_LSP_INIT=ST_LSP_INIT+(FS_HRSG1+FS_HRSG2)*ST_P_BASE
Frequency support capacities of the ST is given by:
For capacity increase
X1_GT_REL=[0 0.5 0.6 0.88 1 1.1]
Y_FS_INC=[0 0 27.2 27.2 0 0]
For capacity decrease
X2_GT_REL=[0 0.5 0.65 1 1.1]
Y_FS_DEC=[0 0 -27.2 -27.2 -27.2]
The Steam Flow Correction Table (ST PWR CORR) is given by:
[0 0.2 1 2]
[0 0.436 0.966 1]
F.5 ALSTOM KA26 single-shaft CCPP simplified dynamic model
An oveiview of the BRSu anu ST systems foi the SS CCPP is shown in Figuie FS.
Similai to the mouel of the NS CCPP configuiation the mouel consists of the
following subsystems:
ion (BRSu). Beat Recoveiy Steam ueneiat
ol (S0C). Supeioiuinate Conti
Steam Tuibine (ST)
These subsystems aie uesciibeu in the following sections of this appenuix.
The bas tuibine anu the geneiatoi mouel consist of: ic inteiface to the uT26 gas
uT theimal powei |C_PTBj.
tion to uT commanueu powei |CBPc_sj. uT fiequency iesponse contiibu
uT taiget fiequency in Bz |Cfcj.
uT measuieu fiequency in Bz |Cfmj.
uT mechanical powei |P_Nech_uTj.
ST mechanical powei |P_Nech_STj.

F - 11

Figure F-13: Overview of the ALSTOM KA26 CCPP SS HRSG and ST Simplified Dynamic Model
Heatrecoverysteamgenerationsubsystem(FigureF13)
The implementation of the BRSu subsystem consists of the BP anu IP sections as
shown in Figuie F14. As in the NS configuiation only the fiequency suppoit
featuie of the steam tuibine is consiueieu in this mouel.

Figure F-14: Overview of HRSG Subsystem.
The uynamic behavioi of the BP anu IP Systems is uefineu by the following BRSu
chaiacteiistics:
Theimal ineitia of the BP system.
Stoiage capacity of the BP system.
F - 12
Stoiage capacity of the IP system.
The BP anu IP systems aie shown in Figuies F1S anu F17, iespectively.

Figure F-15: HP System.

Figure F-16: Live Steam (LST) Correlation Function.

Figure F-17: IP System.

Figure F-18: IP Storage.

F - 13
Superordinatecontrolsubsystem(FigureF19)
The S0C subsystem consists of contiol functions that pioviue auuitional featuies to
the stanuaiu functionality of the steam tuibine. These featuies may incluue piimaiy
fiequency suppoit, paitial loau iejection, islanuing capabilities. In this appenuix
only the piimaiy fiequency suppoit capability is piesenteu. The implementation of
this subsystem is shown in Figuies F19.
The steam piimaiy fiequency suppoit contiol function is an optional featuie of
ALST0Ns CCPP. In conventional combineu cycle plant, the steam tuibine is
o opeiateu in sliuing piessuie moue anu the output of the ST only f llows the output
of the uT anu uoes not contiibute to the piimaiy fiequency iesponse of the plant.
The steam piimaiy fiequency suppoit contiol function howevei allows ALST0Ns
CCPP to actively paiticipate in pioviuing piimaiy fiequency iesponse foi a limiteu
time. The tempoiaiy ST powei contiibution is supeiimposeu on the commanu foi
powei vaiiation. The ST actual powei vaiiation is constiaineu by capacity
limitations.
Figure F-19: SOC Subsystem with Primary Frequency Support Function.
Steamturbinesubsystem(FigureF20)
The steam tuibine subsystem consists of the steam tuibine contiol anu the steam
tuibine uynamics functions. The oveiview of the implementation of this subsystem
is shown in Figuie F2u. Foi the inteiface between the BRSu anu ST, the live steam
aumission, ieheat steam anu low piessuie steam is taken into account. The output
fiom this subsystem is the ST mechanical powei that is auueu to the uT mechanical
powei to yielu the total mechanical powei to uiive the singleshaft CCPP geneiatoi.
The steam tuibine contiol valve commanu is geneiateu in the ST contiol function as
shown in Figuie F21. Figuie F22 shows the limiteu fiequency suppoit block.
Pioject specific chaiacteiistics of the contiol valve anu actuatoi aie integiateu to
account foi nonlineai effects. The contiol valve opeiation is employeu in geneial
foi positive fiequency excuisions exceeuing a static ueau banu. This is howevei
ueactivateu in case piimaiy fiequency suppoit of the ST is selecteu. The BP anu IP
seivo motoi mouels that aie contiolling the iespective contiol valves aie shown in
Figuies F2S anu F24.
F - 14

Figure F-20: Overview of Steam Turbine Subsystem.

Figure F-21: Steam Turbine Control.

Figure F-22: Limited Frequency Support.

Figure F-23: HP Servo Motor Model.
F - 15

Figure F-24: IP Servo Motor Mo
Figuie F2S shows the implementation of the mouel uesciibing the steam tuibine
uynamics
del.

Figure F-25: Steam Turbine Dynamics.

F - 16
ALSTOMsingleshaftCCPPHRSGandSTmodelparameters
Pa r ramete Value Unit
TL_BP 12u s
TF_P_LST 2 s
Tu_BP 1Su
TP_BP 1u s
TRB 1.u s
TF_P_BRST 2 s
TF v _B_Y_IC u.1 s
Tu_IP 1Su
TP_IP 1Su s
TF P _B_NF_B 1.u s
TF_ART u.4 s
P_BASE vaiiable NW
Y _FS_SB_N0N u.1 p.u.
Y_NCv_INIT 1.u p.u.
Y_IC IT v_IN 1.u p.u.
FB u. uu8 p.u.
Kg 2u
T1 u.1 s
TF_FS_LFS 1.u s
F_REF_BZ Su.u Bz
TSN_NCv u.1 s
CCL_NCv S.u p.u.s
C0P_NCv u.1 p.u s .
TSN_ICv u.1 s
CCL_ICv S.u p.u.s
C0P_ICv u.1 p.u s .
TBP u.1 s
TIP u.1 s
TLP u.2 s
FBP u.2uS p.u.
F - 17
F - 18
Par ter ame Value Unit
FIP u.S1S p.u.
FLP u .48u p.u.
TSN u.1 s
CCL S.u p.u.s
C0P u.1 p.u.s
Valve characteristics given by:
m_MCV=[0 0.026 0.668 0.724 0.75 0.793 0.828 0.857 0.882 0.892 0.902 0.919 0.933 0.945 0.95 0.959
0.967 0.973 0.98 0.987 0.993 1]
h_MCV=[0 0.01 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.46 0.48 0.5 0.52 0.55 0.59 0.66 1]
m_ICV=[0 0.041 0.654 0.722 0.75 0.774 0.795 0.814 0.846 0.859 0.872 0.882 0.892 0.901 0.908 0.922
0.933 0.943 0.954 0.968 0.98 1]
h_ICV=[0 0.01 0.15 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.35 0.38 0.43 0.5
1]
P
G

_BASE for the GT @ 15C is for this example 270.3 MW
T_INIT_STM is the initial GT load setpoint in p.u.

APPENDIX G: Solar Turbines Perspective on the GT


Models
Solai Tuibines maintains a vaiiety tuibine uynamic peifoimance mouels with
vaiious levels of complexity anu accuiacy.
Betaileu fiist piinciples mouels aie useu inteinally foi piouuct uevelopment,
tiansient peifoimance pieuiction anu valiuation of simplei mouels. These
mouels contain company confiuential infoimation.
Neuium complexity mouels in foimats uevelopeu by Solai foi use both
inteinally anu by Solais customeis pioviue ieasonable estimation of
tiansient behavioi to a wiue iange of scenaiios.
Nouels using foimats iequesteu by Solais customeis oi using inuustiy
stanuaiu foimats have been uevelopeu piimaiily foi use by Solais
customeis. These mouels pioviue ieasonable estimates of tiansient behavioi
foi a limiteu iange of scenaiios. Accuiacy may uiop off significantly as the
n e i i i o mag ituue of the sc nai o uistu bance ncieases i conuitions become
extieme.
In iecent yeais, iequests foi powei system moueling uata have incieaseu
uiamatically. Nany of these iequests aie foi stability stuuies iequiieu by utilities foi
giiu connection of Solai packages. A significant numbei of iequests aie foi analysis
of opeiation of Solai packages in small powei geneiation islanus. Suuuen loau
acceptance anu iejection capability anu loau sheuuing system uesign aie often of
concein.
Solai Tuibines customeis use a vaiiety of powei system moueling piogiams. Theii
expeitise in powei system moueling anu analysis vaiies fiom expeit to novice. Some
unueistanu all the piinciples involveu anu can tianslate any mouel into one usable
in theii moueling piogiam. At the othei extieme aie some who can uo no moie than
fill in the paiameteis iequiieu by theii moueling softwaie anu follow the usei
manual to iun the mouel with little to no unueistanuing of how the mouel woiks oi
what the paiameteis iepiesent.
The suppoit Solai neeus to pioviue foi its customeis moueling effoits has become
significant, paiticulaily foi tuibine goveinoi moueling. IEEE AvRExcitei mouels
anu geneiatoi mouel aie well accepteu anu iequiie ielatively little suppoit.
o Nanufactuiei specific gas tuibine goveinoi m uels aie wiuely useu anu inuustiy
stanuaiu gas tuibine goveinoi mouels appeai to have little application.
Implementation of Solai Tuibines goveinoi mouels in commeicially available
powei system stability analysis piogiams has hau mixeu success with moie
pioblems than Solai woulu like to solve. Solai sees high value to itself, to its
customeis, to powei system moueling piogiam pioviueis, anu to utilities, in the
uevelopment of stanuaiu tuibine goveinoi mouels with the same level of
acceptance as the inuustiy stanuaiu AvRExcitei mouels.
Solarsreviewofcurrentmodels:
G - 1
uAST
This mouel is veiy simple.
It pioviues only foi uioop contiol moue.
It pioviues a ieasonable estimate of mechanical powei iesponse to small changes in
speeu oi loau iefeience
The auuition of an isochionous contiol moue anu oi a KW contiol moue woulu
s moie useful but moie complicateu. make thi
uAST2A
ai to pioviue foi a goou uesciiption of a Solai Tuibines This mouel uoes not appe
goveinoi contiols.
CIuRE uas Tuibine Nouel
uel is faiily simple. It pioviues a ieasonable estimate of mechanical powei
e to small changes in speeu oi loau iefeience.
This mo
iespons
uu0v1
Solai has uefineu paiameteis foi the uu0v1 mouel to mouel Solai Tuibines. Results
aie veiy similai to the CIuRE mouel.
Problemareasmodelingofintegraltermwindupprevention:
When the output of piopoitional plus integial contiol (PI contiol) oi piopoitional
plus integial plus ueiivative contiol (PIB contiol) aie oveiiiuuen by limiteis oi
alteinative contiol moues, the integial teim of the contiol has the tenuency to keep
integiating (winu up) anu cause a wiue uisciepancy between the PIB output anu the
active contiol signal. This leaus to pooi iesponse when the PIB contiol neeus to
become active again.
uoou PIB contiols have a winu up pievention featuie to pioviue smooth tiansition
when limiteis oi othei contiols moues become inactive. Solai has expeiienceu
pioblems in the moueling of integiatoi winuup pievention. An IEEE stanuaiu
appioach may be beneficial.
AlternativeControlModes:
The most basic simple mouels assume tuibine steauy state output toique uioops
with fiequency (uioop contiol). Noie sophisticateu mouels incluue tuibine
tempeiatuie limiting contiol, isochionous contiol, KW contiol, impoit expoit
contiol, loau iate limiteis, anuoi acceleiation contiol. An IEEE iecommenuation foi
a stanuaiu set of contiol moues to be moueleu may be beneficial.
Large ransi ntsandLeanCombustionControl:
Laige upset conuitions push tuibines into incieasingly complex nonlineai
iesponses. In paiticulai lean combustion contiols can initially slow uown tuibine
iesponse anu have significant impact on the oveiall iesponse to laige tiansients.
T e
G - 2
G - 3
Lean combustion contiols aie evolving quickly anu theiefoie uifficult to establish
stanuai t u mouels foi. Possible ways to ueal wi h this aie
Pioviue simple univeisal mouels foi minoi powei oi fiequency tiansients
p anu moie complex manufactuie s ecific mouels foi laige tiansients.
In an otheiwise simple mouel, pioviue powei limiting anu iate limiting
functions that vaiy with time anu oi loau that allow moueling the behavioi
of changing iesponses without moueling the actual physics involveu which
coulu iesult in a moie univeisal less manufactuiei specific mouel foi a wiuei
iange of upset conuitions.