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International Combustion Engine Devision Fall Technical Conference Nov. 05 – 08, 2006, Sacramento, CA

ICEF2006-1547

GE JENBACHER`S UPDATE ON LASER IGNITED ENGINES

Dr. Günther Herdin/ GEJenbacher GmbH & CO OHG

D.I. Johann Klausner/ GEJenbacher GmbH & CO OHG

D.I. Martin Weinrotter / Vienna University of Technology

D.I. Josef Graf / Vienna University of Technology

Dr. Andreas Wimmer / Graz University of Technology

ABSTRACT

The focus in research year 05 was on the optimization of optical coupling and minimization of laser energy especially in connection with very lean combustion and with high exhaust gas recirculation rates for low NO x emissions. The direct comparison of laser ignition with conventional spark ignitions, without any measures implemented in favor of laser ignition (high compression ratio, high turbulence ratio), consistently shows advantages in the case of laser ignition. With extension of the Lambda window, in the case of a spark ignition engine with a 2.4 l piston displacement it is possible to shift the engine 0.3 units in the direction of “lean combustion” (possible reduction of NO x level less than 30 % of the state of the art); EGR compatibility is increased by about 15 % to a recirculation rate of about 40 %. With regard to EGR compatibility, in coordination with SWRI (HEDGE Program) similar tests on determination of potential were carried out as well. In this case too no essential measures were implemented in favor of the exploitation of the potential of laser ignition; however, a minor increase of the compression ratio already allows recognition of the theoretically possible and expected potentials. Regarding stoichiometric conditions, from the viewpoint of the researchers working jointly on the project it is possible to reduce the energy to less than 1 mJ. Conversely, in the event of the utilization of lean-burn combustion, appreciably more energy must be provided. Additionally, measures regarding combustion control in the area of the extended lean-burn limit must also be carried out. Only then is it possible to ensure optimal values for burning durations and the variation coefficient. Initial results in this regard will also be presented.

BASICS

From a purely physical standpoint, the same interrelationships apply to the development of combustion in gas engines as for diesel and gasoline-driven combustion engines. That is to say, to achieve good degrees of efficiency, in terms of the design of combustion it is necessary to optimize the compression ratio to values that are as high as possible. It is equally important to use all available measures to reduce the duration of combustion [1], in other words to increase the part of constant volume combustion. The known interrelationships are shown in Figure 1. Due to the highly varying fuel properties of the gaseous fuels (e.g. calorific value, knocking characteristic, laminar flame speed over Lambda, among others), however, the requirements on the various interacting systems are considerably greater than are the case when optimizing a conventional Otto engine under stoichiometric conditions. In comparison to other ignition concepts (e.g. micro pilot, high frequency (AC) concepts, among others), laser ignition has the decisive advantage of having no limitation with high BMEPs (> 24 bar) [2]. Because of the free plasma of the laser ignition in the combustion chamber, the flame kernel can propagate itself unrestrictedly. The electrodes in conventional spark plugs cause in any case flame quenching, and thus restrictions with the lean-burn limit as compared with laser ignition. The positive effects on lean-burn limits were presented already in the year 1978 on the occasion of an SAE conference [3]. More recent papers on laser ignition were published on the occasion of the 1998 ASME Spring Conference [4].

efficiency therm 0.8 p 0.6 v p p 0.4 v v 0.2 0 5 10 15
efficiency therm
0.8
p
0.6
v
p
p
0.4
v
v
0.2
0
5
10
15
20

compression ratio [ ]

Figure 1: The relationship of compression ratio, combustion duration and efficiency

The first experiments on a one-cylinder research engine were already able to demonstrate better lean-burn limits very well in the case of laser ignition in comparison to spark ignition (Figure 2). The spark plug position is on the one hand directly in the combustion chamber and on the other hand in a fuel-fed pre-chamber (different volumes). In the case of the ignition spark positioned directly in the combustion chamber, close to the lean limit (Lambda of 1.76) it is possible to achieve a NO x value of 0.42 g/kWh. Depending on the pre-chamber volumes, values up to 0.3 g/kWh are possible [5]. Given an almost equal COV (variation coefficient <2%), with laser ignition even with a Lambda (homogeneous) of 2.05 a NO x value of 0.21 is possible. In a direct comparison of the two different pre- chamber volumes, the variant with the smaller volume has an efficiency advantage that is caused by smaller charge cycle losses and by slightly faster combustion (higher average Lambda). The measured points are illustrated as circle symbols in Figure 2. Thermodynamic calculations were made parallel to the work carried out on the test bench and these can be seen in the same Figure as full lines.

NO X [g/kWh] 10 calculated line measured line measured V PC 2% V TDC 1 laser
NO X [g/kWh]
10
calculated line
measured line
measured
V PC 2% V TDC
1
laser ignition
V PC 1% V TDC
0.1
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

A/F-ratio [ ]

Figure 2: Comparison of different ignition concepts (direct ignition, pre-chamber spark ignition and laser ignition)

Figure 3 additionally presents the known interrelationships of efficiency dependent on NO x emissions over the load. It is fundamental in the case of directly ignited engines that lower efficiencies result under lean conditions and the same BMEP than under “richer” conditions. The difference in Lambda is 1.59/1.63/1.74 (from 650 to 250 mg NO x /sm³@ 5% O 2 ) The restriction when utilizing this effect is caused by the knocking

combustion that sets in earlier due to the lower Lambda. This effect can be seen very well later on in Figure 19. The measured difference with a BMEP of 18 bar shows an advantage of 0.7 % points with 650 mg/Nm³ @ 5%O 2 compared with 500 mg/Nm³ NO x . Another 1 % point lies

between the TA-Luft value of 500 mg and the ½ TA-Luft value of 250 mg. This trend can also be observed with partial load.

This effect is caused by the slower flame propagation in the

case of “leaner” combustion and thus results in a longer

combustion duration. A similar influence can also be observed

with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with biogas with high amounts of CO 2 . The slower combustion is easily detectable through the pressure increase in combustion vessels. Figure 4 illustrates the pressure increases under conditions close to stoichiometric conditions up to about 50 % excess air (laminar flame propagation).

efficiency 0.44 650 mg/Nm³ 0.42 0.4 0.38 250 mg/Nm³ 0.36 500 mg/Nm³ 0.34 0.32 25 50
efficiency
0.44
650 mg/Nm³
0.42
0.4
0.38
250 mg/Nm³
0.36
500 mg/Nm³
0.34
0.32
25
50
75
100

load [%]

Figure 3: Influence of NO x emissions on efficiency

rel. pressure [bar] 40 A/F=1.06 30 A/F=1.27 A/F=1.47 20 10 0 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
rel. pressure [bar]
40
A/F=1.06
30
A/F=1.27
A/F=1.47
20
10
0
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
time [s]

Figure 4: Pressure increases in the combustion vessel with

different Lambda

Regarding ignition, laser ignition has better starting conditions due to the lacking quenching of the flame. Tests in the combustion vessel and a total of six different engines with very different fuels (gasoline, CH 4 mixtures with N 2 , CO 2 , H 2 as well as diesel) showed a utilizable extension of the “Lambda window” of up to 0.3 units. And with clearly lower NO x emissions. This potential makes the use of laser ignition interesting especially with “low emission” concepts. An analysis regarding the more favorable starting conditions of laser ignition due to the extension of the lean-burn limit is shown in Figure 5. Under directly ignited and homogeneous conditions, with the aid of laser ignition it is possible to lower the limit of inflammability and with further flame propagation

of gas mixtures from 5 to about 3.2 cm/s (the same boundary conditions). Such possibilities are otherwise the case only with micro-pilot (diesel) concepts – however, these entail more than the 1000-fold ignition energy and inhomogeneous conditions. But here the potential of reduction of NO x emissions cannot be used with “leaner” gas mixtures because the heterogeneous combustion in this phase leads to higher NO x emissions.

laminar flame speed [cm/sec] 50 40 CH 4 L aser ign. limit ~3.2 cm/sec 30 65%
laminar flame speed [cm/sec]
50
40
CH 4
L aser ign. limit ~3.2 cm/sec
30
65% CH 4 + 35% CO 2
20
10
spark ign. limit 5 cm/sec
0
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2

A/F-ratio

Figure 5: Extension of the Lambda window by means of laser ignition

EFFECTS OF LASER IGNITION OBSERVED IN THE ENGINE TESTS

One of the effects of laser ignition compared with conventional ignition systems is the smaller coefficient of variation (COV). The ratios are shown in Figure 6; besides laser ignition, the results of an AC ignition and a conventional DC ignition are also shown. The tests carried out on the GEJ Series 4 engine (3-liter cylinder displacement) with the status of research 8/2000 show COV values of 1.5 at 1.8 MPa (with about 175 ppm NO x ) with laser ignition energies of 20 mJ. With the help of an AC system, and an ignition energy of 400 mJ, it is possible to achieve values of 1.8. With the developmental status of laser ignition from the first quarter of 2006, the same COV values were achieved with less than 50 % of the ignition energy. The path here leads via the higher quality of the beam profile to better focus quality. Furthermore, Figure 6 also shows when the ignition energy and plasma formation reach their limits and the variation coefficient increases strongly.

variation coefficient IMEP [%] 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 15
variation coefficient IMEP [%]
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
15
20
60
160
400
[mJ]
laser ignition
standard
high energy
DC spark
AC spark

Figure 6: The variation coefficient of different ignition concepts

As well, the EGR compatibility of the laser ignition concept is better than that of conventional spark ignition. Tests concentrating on this area of application were carried out on

three different engines; the results of one of these engines –

with

a (2000 rpm) – are shown in Figure 7. These tests did not go into

BMEP

of

3

and

5

bar

the additional possibilities of laser ignition and the conditions for both ignition concepts were the same. In the case of a BMEP of 3 bar, in a direct comparison with an increase of the EGR rate from 20 to 25 % the COV value can be cut in half; with a BMEP of 5 bar the EGR could be increased to well over 30 %. However, because the tests were carried out on a multi-

cylinder engine, there were restrictions due to equally driven cylinders (misfiring).

the other

3

C OV at B ME P [%] 10 spark B ME P 0.3 MPa 8 spark
C OV at B ME P
[%]
10
spark B ME P 0.3 MPa
8
spark
B ME P
0.5 MPa
6
4
L aser
B ME P
0.3 MPa
2
L aser B ME P
0.5 MPa
0
0
10
20
3 0
AGR [%]
s ource: A3 - P rof. G eringer/G raf

Figure 7: The variation coefficient of a passenger car Otto engine with EGR Besides the shorter ignition delays, the faster starting of the combustion process of the fuel/air mixture can also be seen very well in the combustion curves measured on the engine. In this regard, Figure 8 shows the conditions of the initial evaluations (constant conditions). Higher NO x emissions are measured due to the faster pressure increase and to compensate for this a greater Lambda, i.e. a later firing point must be set.

dQB [%/°CA] 4 ROHR laser ignition 3 ROHR spark ignition 2 1 0 -40 -30 -20
dQB [%/°CA]
4
ROHR laser ignition
3
ROHR spark ignition
2
1
0
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

crank angle [CA°]

Figure 8: Comparison of the rate of heat release (ROHR) -

laser/spark ignition under the same conditions

The influence on the ignition delay, and the combustion duration, respectively, in the tests on a car engine is shown in Figure 9. With regard to the ignition delay, a considerably smaller value can be determined also for this engine with a speed of 2000 rpm. For example, with an EGR rate of 15 % the ignition delay in both load cases is reduced by 16 °crank angle.

In the characteristic diagram the advantages of shortening the ignition delay can be observed especially in the lower speeds. The same applies in the trend with the combustion durations. The combustion durations, under equal conditions, are only slightly smaller in a direct comparison with laser ignition.

20

16

12

8

4

0

reducing ID, C D B ME P 0.3 MP a shorter ign. del. [° C A]
reducing ID, C D
B ME P 0.3 MP a
shorter ign. del.
[° C A]
Laser
B ME P 0.5 MP a L aser
shorter ign. delay
L aser
B ME P 0.5 MP a
faster combustion
L aser B ME P 0.3 MPa faster comb.
0
1 0
20
3 0

AGR [%]

s ource: A3 - P rof. G eringer/G raf

Figure 9: Positive effects of laser ignition with EGR on ignition delay and combustion duration

That is to say, laser ignition as a singular measure does not have the potential compared with measures regarding the increase of the degree of turbulence. On the basis of current knowledge about initiation of ignition by means of a laser plasma, the lean-burn limit in all investigated fuels can be shifted about 0.3 units to higher values. This results in NO x advantages of 40 to 60 % (absolute value). What comes next is massive misfiring or partial burning (see Figure 10). This effect is not known to the extent measured in Otto engines functioning at operating temperature, but very well indeed in diesel/Otto combustion and cold start conditions. The mechanisms ought to be the same, however; in the case of laser ignition the very large OH volume ensures good starting conditions for combustion, so that the process of combustion is started. If the critical temperature/energy level is not reached, the flame goes out. This can be the case with a conversion rate of 10 to max.30 %; above this, the energy level of the entire combustion chamber is then sufficient for ignition.

rel. pressure [MPa] 14 compl. burning 12 10 8 partial burning 6 4 2 0 -0.5
rel. pressure [MPa]
14
compl. burning
12
10
8
partial burning
6
4
2
0
-0.5
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
time [sec]
Figure 10: “Partial burning” with laser ignition

MEASURES FOR UTILIZATION OF THE POTENTIALS OF LASER IGNITION

Without primary measures in the area of flow configuration in the combustion chamber, it would be possible to utilize the advantages of laser ignition only in a very limited way. Under

the same conditions (specifically the same Lambda and start of

combustion) there are even NO x disadvantages. That is to say,

the combustion and system developing engineer must go into

the features of laser ignition exactly. With the same flow

conditions a leaner mixture or greater EGR rate means slower

combustion. Thus to compensate for this effect the swirl

motion and the degree of turbulence connected with this must

be intensified. The known measures in this regard (swirl

number, tumble, squish and micro-turbulence generation) are

also suitable for speeding up extremely lean combustion to a

degree optimal for efficiency. With a combination of the measures referred to above it was possible to cut the 10/90 % conversion rate in the test series by about half. Already the initial state, with a 10/90 conversion rate of about 31 °crankshaft angle can already be evaluated as very good for Otto engines. With higher NO x emissions the combination of all possibilities can considerably shorten the conversion rate. In this regard, Figure 11 shows the results of a series of measurements on a gas engine with a cylinder capacity of 3 liters. This potential cannot be developed for spark plugs with freely accessible electrodes because the high flow speeds in the spark area cause the spark to be “blown away”, the result being that the flame kernel does not form. In contrast, with the greater OH volume triggered by the laser plasma, flame kernel formation reacts considerably more tolerantly and flame development proceeds very quickly.

comb. duration 10 /90 [°C A ] 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 5 10
comb. duration 10 /90
[°C A ]
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
5
10
15
20
25
source: A3 G E J
load IME P
[bar]
V 23 HCR V 01 start V 36 UTR
V
23 HCR
V
01 start
V
36 UTR

Figure 11: Combustion duration 10/90 with various measures

Figure 12 shows selected combustion curves of two variants with different degrees of turbulence. It is very important that the volume of the fuel conversion of the first phase increases

rapidly; afterwards the flame volumes develop practically parallel. The faster combustion with the same Lambda leads unavoidably to higher NO x emissions; to attain the same NO x values, the Lambda must be increased.

From the very extensive series of measurements, Figure 13 provides a comparison of combustion curves with constant NO x emissions. The apparent contradiction of an acceleration

of combustion under leaner conditions can be seen here very well. However, the degree of turbulence in the combustion chamber with the variation having the Lambda value of 1.8 is considerably greater. Only with alternative ignition concepts like laser ignition can such potentials be attained without restrictions.

GE JENBACHER ROT: Schnelle Verbrennung BAUREIHE 4 SCHWARZ: Langsame Verbrennung 4500 4250 4000 fast combustion 3750
GE JENBACHER
ROT: Schnelle Verbrennung
BAUREIHE 4
SCHWARZ: Langsame Verbrennung
4500
4250
4000
fast combustion
3750
3500
3250
3000
2750
300
2500
280
2250
260
2000
240
1750
moderate combustion
220
1500
1250
200
1000
180
750
160
500
140
250
120
0
100
-250
-500
80
-30
-20
-10
-0
10
20
30 40
50
60 70
60
Kurbelwinkel [Grad]
crank angle [° CA]
40
20
0
-20
-40
-30
-20
-10
-0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Kurbelwinkel [Grad]
crank angle [° CA]
Int [kJ/m3]
dQ [kJ/m3Grd]
Figure 12: Combustion curves with varying turbulence levels 325 300 275 250 Lambda = 1.8 225
Figure 12: Combustion curves with varying turbulence levels
325
300
275
250
Lambda = 1.8
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
Lambda = 1.75
50
25
0
-25
-50
-75
5200
-100
4800
-125
4400
-150
4000
-175
3600
3200
BMEP 1.9 MPa
NOx = const.
timing 22 °CA
2800
2400
2000
1600
1200
800
400
0
-400
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Kurbelwinkel [Grad]
DATE
crank angle [° CA]
20040519100246
dQMittel12 [kJ/m3Grd]
intMittel12 [kJ/m3]

Figure 13: Comparison of two variants with the same NO x level

In addition to the degree of turbulence, the propagation of the flame front is also dependent on local temperatures. This effect is advantageous for ignition conditions (extension of the window of ignition limits – see Figure 14) as well as for the acceleration of flame propagation in the event of extremely lean combustion conditions. Exploiting this factor is absolutely necessary in the case of HCCI combustion concepts because the energy state of the cylinder charge has to be brought as closely as possible to self-ignition conditions. Figure 14 shows the magnitude of the influence of temperature under atmospheric conditions. Raising the temperature 300 °K allows the Lambda window of inflammability on the “lean combustion side” to be increased from about 1.9 to about 3. The effect also acts upon the “rich” side; what is interesting for the NO x emissions, however, is only “ultra lean combustion”. The temperature level in the combustion chamber therefore has a direct influence on the required ignition energies.

To initiate combustion of the mixture, and to speed up flame propagation, respectively, a sufficient temperature level is

essential. Very extensive tests were carried out on this area of application with the aid of a combustion vessel. Figure 15 presents the results with CH 4 : here the minimally required ignition energy of 2 mJ at a temperature level of 400 °C can be maintained up to a Lambda of 2.2; only above this must higher ignition energies be provided. For the design of the laser it is therefore very important to examine all these influencing variables. Only knowledge of all the parameters influencing

combustion can open the potential of laser ignition. A/F-ratio 4 methane 3.5 propane 3 CO 2.5
combustion can open the potential of laser ignition.
A/F-ratio
4
methane
3.5
propane
3
CO
2.5
2
lean
1.5
stoichiometric
1
rich
0.5
0
0 100 200 300 400 temperature [°C] source: physical properties of NG Figure 14: Possibilities for
0
100
200
300
400
temperature [°C]
source: physical properties of NG
Figure 14: Possibilities for extension of ignition limits
275°C
400°C
150°C

Figure 15: Analysis of the influence of temperature on ignition energy and flame propagation

A high density at the firing point is favorable for the laser ignition and the flame propagation in the first phase. To quantify this influence, tests on 2 different research engines were carried out regarding the influence of the compression ratio. The results of the first engine, which were used for HCCI program-related tests (laser-assisted HCCI), are not within the scope of this “update”. However, one result regarding the extension of the operating range in the case of very large EGR amounts (HEDGE program) is interesting to see the influence of the compression ratio with high EGR rates. Here it was possible to increase the compression ratio from 11: 1 to 14: 1 and to get meaningful results. In comparison to conventional ignition systems, EGR compatibility with laser ignition is better by 5 to 10 % points (the same COV). A view of the results relating to the influence of the compression ratio at a speed of 1500 rpm is presented in Figure 16. It can be said that EGR compatibility increases through a higher compression ratio. An additional improvement of EGR compatibility can be

ETAI_H D G [% ]

LMD A M W [-]

pi_H D [bar]

V K _P IH [% ]

seen through an increase of the ignition energy of the laser; however, this measurement series (point)
seen through an increase of the ignition energy of the laser;
however, this measurement series (point) has only purely
informative character to ascertain also the influence of very
powerful laser pulses (94 mJ).
C OV of IME P
[%]
12
IME P
=
0.31 MP a
10
8
IME P = 0.55
MP a
6
higher LE
4
ε = 11
2
ε = 14
0
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
E GR [%]
source: A 3 - Weinrotter

Figure 16: Influence of the compression ratio on the maximal EGR rate

STATUS OF THE IGNITION ENERGY REQUIRED FOR LEAN-BURN ENGINES WITH HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE FORMATION

According to results until now regarding the use of laser ignition in a total of 6 different engines logging somewhat more than 8,000 test hours, the ignition energy requirement can be estimated as follows as the most important design characteristic:

To utilize the potential, an ignition energy of about 15 mJ should be provided for lean-burn engines

As a safety margin, a further 5 mJ should be planned for to be able to fulfill all requirements (cold start, unsteady conditions, etc.)

The “beam profile” must have a high quality to be able to maintain the above-mentioned values

Figure 17 summarizes the requirements for ignition energy over the Lambda with a BMEP of 1.8 MPa.

min. ignition energy [mJ] 25 energy needs for safe ignition ? 20 first generation Laser 15
min. ignition energy [mJ]
25
energy needs for safe ignition ?
20
first generation Laser
15
0.15 mJ for
stoichiometric
combustion
10
5
potential of the
newly designed laser
0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1

air/fuel ratio [ ]

Figure 17: Ignition energy requirements for laser ignition for future serial production engines

FUTURE ASPECTS

The results of research on the potentials of gas engines indeed indicate great possibilities. The points in Table 1 below can be referred to as individual “highlights”. The realization of these

potentials depends primarily on the further development of the

ignition system and its regulation. Laser ignition could here

actually be the “springboard“ necessary to reach the objective.

At the LEC in Graz individual tasks were investigated with

great precision on a 1-cylinder research engine with a 6.2 litre

cylinder capacity. In this context, Figure 18 and Figure 19

show details of a selected investigation. Indexed degrees of

efficiency with an IMEP of 2.6 MPa (48.5 %) and a NO x level

of 80 ppm (1/2-TALuft) are already certainly attainable through persistent development work. With 3.3 MPa IMEP it is possible to measure already up to just under 50 % efficiency (indexed); the best NO x values already reach the 20 ppm mark, but still with restrictions regarding efficiency (see the efficiency curve over NO x in Figure 18). Alongside the possibilities of ignition by means of laser plasma, laser ignition also has the advantage of additional utilization of optical access to the combustion chamber with evaluation of combustion light emission [6].

IMEP Efficiency Peak pressures NO X emissions

up to 3.3 MPa up to 48% (50%) up to 25 MPa < 10 ppm

Table 1: Potential with gas engines

Indiz. Mitteldruck (HD) [bar] 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6
Indiz. Mitteldruck (HD) [bar]
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
0
100
200
300
400
500
600

ABGM_NOX [mg/mn3]

LMDAMW [ - ] 2.25 2.20 2.15 2.10 2.05 2.00 1.95 1.90 1.85 1.80 1.75 0
LMDAMW [ - ]
2.25
2.20
2.15
2.10
2.05
2.00
1.95
1.90
1.85
1.80
1.75
0
100
200
300
400
500
600

ABGM_NOX [mg/mn3]

Emissionen ABGM_HC [mg/mn³]

4000 1500 3600 1350 1200 3200 1050 2800 900 2400 750 2000 600 1600 450 1200
4000
1500
3600
1350
1200
3200
1050
2800
900
2400
750
2000
600
1600
450
1200
300
800
150
400
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
AB GM_H C [mg/mn3]
AB GM_C O [mg/mn3]

Emissionen ABGM_CO [mg/mn³]

0 100 200 300 400 500 600
0
100
200
300
400
500
600

ABGM_NOX [mg/mn3]

ABGM_NOX [mg/mn3]

Wirkungsgrad ETAI_HDG [%] 49.5 48.5 47.5 46.5 45.5 44.5 43.5 0 100 200 300 400 500
Wirkungsgrad ETAI_HDG [%]
49.5
48.5
47.5
46.5
45.5
44.5
43.5
0
100
200
300
400
500
600

ABGM_NOX [mg/mn3]

Variationskoeffizient PIH1 [%]

5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 100 200 300 400
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600

ABGM_NOX [mg/mn3]

Figure 18: Examples of possibilities for efficiency - NO x improvement of alternative ignition systems

through their painstaking work also contributed to the success

28 of the project. M_2077: VK Ignition 26 ZZP 25°KW v. OT 24 ZZP 20°KW v.
28
of the project.
M_2077: VK Ignition
26
ZZP 25°KW v. OT
24
ZZP 20°KW v. OT
ZZP 23°KW v. OT
REFERENCES
22
20
18
16
[1] Plohberger D., Fahringer A., Chvatal D., Kneissel E.,
Jenbacher AG
"Hohe Drehzahl und hoher Wirkungsgrad - Grundlagen eines
modernen Gasmotorenkonzeptes"
14
ZZP 20° KW v. OT
Gasmotorenkonferenz Dessau 2003
12
10
8
ABGM_NOX [mg/mn³]
6
1.550
1.600
1.650
1.700
1.750
1.800
1.850
1.900
1.950
2.000
2.050
2.100
2.150
2.200
2.250
[2] Herdin G., Kopecek H., Wintner E., Pischinger R.
Basics for a Future Laser Ignition System for Gas Engines,
ASME Fall Conference in Peoria, 24 – 27 Sept. 2000
LMDAMW [-]
Figure 19: Characteristic diagram of tests with alternative
ignition systems
CONCLUSIONS
[3] J.D. Dale, P.R. Smy, R.M. Clements,
”Laser Ignited Internal Combustion Engine, an Experimental
Study”,
S.A.E. Conference in Detroit, 29 March 1978
oder leichtes Glühzünden
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With the aid of laser ignition it is possible to develop further potentials (specifically with emissions, efficiencies and BMEP values as well) for gas engines. These potentials can also be utilized for all other Otto engines. Particular advantages that can be mentioned are the extension of the Lambda window over the existing lean-burn limits. Furthermore, laser ignition evinces advantages regarding EGR compatibility as well; in this case up to 10 % greater EGR rates can be utilized with the same COV values. This results also in new possibilities for improvement of the partial load consumption of Otto engines in the area of low-emission utility vehicles (US HEDGE Consortium). To prevent disadvantages regarding efficiency with extremely lean combustion conditions and with high dilution in the case of EGR, measures to accelerate combustion are absolutely necessary. It was demonstrated that an increase of the degree of turbulence can reduce the process of combustion with very lean mixtures to very short periods (e.g. 10/90 conversion to about 15 °CA). The area with the greatest potential is seen in the combination of laser ignition with the HCCI mode [7,8]; however, on account of the very complex interrelationships the laser-assisted program will not be the focus of studies in the immediate future. The many very positive results will still require some time for detail developments regarding functionality and costs [9]. From the viewpoint of the authors a laser ignition system will presumably be put onto the market for the first time by gas engine manufacturers in order to then find a broader application later on as a potential solution for ignition problems in “automotive engines”.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to express their appreciation and thanks to the various supportive agencies and organizations (FFG, BMVIT – A3 program, among others) that have contributed strongly to the success of the project in addition to the very high investment made by the initiator of the project. Our gratitude also goes to the many unnamed colleagues who

[4] J.X. Ma, T.W. Ryan, J.P Buckingham “Nd:YAG Ignition of Natural Gas”, ICE Vol.30-3; 1998 Spring Technical Conference ASME 1998: Paper No. 98-ICE-114

[5] G. Herdin, J. Klausner “The Impact of Laser Ignition on the Combustion Process in Gas Engines” 10. Tagung “Der Arbeitsprozess des Verbrennungs-motors”, 22/23.09.05 Grazer Congress

[6] G. R. Herdin, F. Gruber, B. Lutz, M. Kraus, F. Pockstaller „monic and oca, innovative control and monitoring systems for gas engines” Dessau Gasmotoren-Konferenz 1999

[7] M. Weinrotter, E. Wintner, K. Iskra, T. Neger, J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Aldén, M. Lackner, F. Winter, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson. ”Optical Diagnostics of Laser-Induced and Spark Plug- Assisted HCCI Combustion”. Society of Automotive Engineers SAE, Detroit, USA, 11-14 April 2005, in Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0148-7191, Paper No. SAE 2005-01-0129.

[8] H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, A. Hultqvist:

“Laser-stimulated Ignition in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine”,

SAE2004-01-0937

[9] G. Herdin, J. Klausner, E. Wintner, M. Weinrotter, J. Graf:

“Laser Ignition – a New Concept to Use and Increase the Potentials of Gas Engines”, ASME – ICEF 2005- 1352