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GEOMETRY

A triangle with sides a,b and c and radius of incircle and circumcircle as r and R respectively then the relation between them is as follows r = area of triangle/ semiperimeter R = abc/4*ar. of triangle = abc/4*r*semiperimeter And in case of right angled triangle with perpendicular as a base as b and hypotenuse as h, then R = hypotenuse/2 r = (perpendicular + base hypotenuse)/2 Area of triangle when an angle is given = 1/2(ab sinC)=1/2(ac sinB)=1/2(bc sin A) If AD is the bisector of angle BAC of triangle ABC then AB/AC=BD/DC And in AD is median, then AB2+AC2=2(AD2+BD2 or DC2) The ratio of area of two similar triangles is equal to the square of the corresponding medians or altitudes or sides or angle bisector segments. In right angled triangle ABC, angle B= 900 and BD perpendicular AC, then BD2 = AD*DC The area eq. triangle described on the side of the square is half the area of eq. triangle described on its diagonals. In triangle ABC, angle B is obtuse and AD is perpendicular to CB produced, then AC2 = AB2+BC2+2BC*BD And, in the case of B being acute angle and AD is perpendicular to BC, then AC2 = AB2+BC2-2BC*BD ABC is right angled triangle, angle B=900, and D and E are points on AB and AC, then AE2+CD2=AC2+DE2 And if D and E are midpoints, then 4AE2=4AC2+BC2 4CD2=4BC2+AC2 4(AE2+CD2)=5AC2=20DE2

Angle subtended by an arc of a circle at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle. Angle in the same segment are equal. When two chords AB and AC of circle cuts each other inside or outside the circle, then AP*BP=CP*DP When chord AB of a circle is produced to a point P, and from that point a tangent is drawn to the circle, then PT2=PA*PB When a chord XY is drawn parallel to tangent APB, then angle APX=angle PYX, angle BPY=angle PXY Two circles with radius r and R, and the distance between them is d, then Measure of direct tangent = d2 (R-r)2 d2 + (R+r)2

Measure of transverse tangent = Where, R>r

When two circles with equal radius r intersect each other at its center, the length of common chord = r 3

TRIGONOMETRY
If sin A + cos A = x, then, sin A cos A = If sec A + tan A = x, then, sec A = (x2 + 1)/2x Maximum value of (sin A*cos A)n =( 1/2)n , therefore sin A*cos A = In the angle of incidence made by a point on the land to the top of a pole is A and after travelling the distance D the angle of incidence become B then, height of the pole H = D/(cot A cot B), where A>B If the angle of depression from top and bottom of a pole with the second pole is A and B respectively, and the height of the second pole is H, then Height of the first pole = H sin(A+B)/cos A*cos B If the angle of depression of top and bottom of tree from the top of the pole is A and B respectively, and height of the tree is h, then the height of the pole, H = h tan A/tan A*tan B 2 x2

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY
The distance measured from origin O along X- axis is called abscissa and along Y- axis is called ordinate. Abscissa along Y-axis is 0 and ordinate along X-axis is 0. The slope or gradient of a line is denoted by m and its intercept is denoted by c For equation ax+by+c=0, then m = -a/b , and c = -c/b If the vertices of triangle is denoted by (x 1,y1),(x2,y2),(x3,y3), then its area is [x1(y2-y1)+x2(y3-y1)+x3(y1-y2) and its incentre = [ax1+bx2+cx3]/a+b+c , [ay1+by2+cy3]/a+b+c , and centroid = [x1+x2+x3/3] , [y1+y2+y3/3] If (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) is coordinate of two points on the line then m= y2-y1/x2-x1

PERCENTAGE
Due to x% increase in a price of commodity a person buys akg less in y rupees then the increased price per kg= xy/100a And original price = xy/(100+x)a, and if x is decrease percent akg is more amoun of commodity bought in y rupees then Increased price per kg = xy/100a, and original price = xy/(100-x)a Due to increase of x% in price of a commodity a person decreases the consumption to such extent that only y% of expenditure increases, if original consumption is akg then now its consumption = a(100+x)/(100+x)

PROFIT AND LOSS


If x no. of commodity is bought in Rs y and a commodity is sold for Rs b then Profit %= [(bx-ay)/ay]100 Loss%= [(ay-bx)/ay]100 If S.P. of two things are same and one is sold with profit of P% and second is sold for loss of L% the loss or profit % is [{100(P-L)-2PL}/(100+P)(100-L)] By selling an article for y rupees instead of x rupees, gain% percent becomes n times, then C.P. of article = (nx-y)/(n-1)

By selling an article for x rupees gain% is n time to the loss% when it is sold in y rupees, then C.P. of article = (x+ny)/(n+1)

SIMPLE INTEREST
If any sum of money at the rate of S.I. becomes A 1 in t1 years and A2 in t2 years then that sum = A1-{t1(A2-A1)/(t2-t1)} If after t years a sum is to be paid in equal installments at the rate of r%, then each installment = 100x/[100t+{(t-1)+(t-2)+.+(t-t)}r]

COMPOUND INTEREST
If the S.I. on a sum is x rupees and C.I. on the same sum is y rupees for 2 years , then rate %= [2(y-x)/x]*100 Sum P= x^2/4(y-x) If the S.I. on a sum is x rupees and C.I. on the same sum is y rupees for 2nd year , then rate %= [(y-x)/x]*100 Sum P= x^2/(y-x) The difference of S.I. and C.I. on any sum of money P for 2 years at the rate of r%=Pr 2/ (100)2 And for 3 years= Pr2(300+r)/(100)3 If the debt of x rupees is to be paid in n equal installments at the rate of r%, of y rupees, then x= y/(1+r/100)+y/(1+r/100)2..+y/(1+r/100)n

TIME AND WORK


If A and B takes x and y days respectively to finish a work then time taken by A and B together to finish the work xy/x+y If A, B and C takes x, y and z days respectively to finish a work then time taken by A, B and C together to finish the work xyz/xy+yz+zx If (A+B), (B+C) and (C+A) takes x, y and z days respectively to finish a work then time taken by A, B and C together to finish the work 2xyz/xy+yz+zx time taken by A alone 2xyz/xy+yz-zx time taken by B alone 2xyz/yz+zx-xy time taken by C alone 2xyz/xy-yz+zx

If A and B together finish a work in x days and A alone finish it in y days then time taken by B to finish it xy/y-x If A finshes a work in x days and after working for t1 days and the remaining work is finished by B in t2 days then Time taken by B to finish whole work xt2/x-t1 xt2/x-t1+t2

Time taken by A and B to finish whole work

TIME AND SPEED


If anything travels two equal distances with x and y km/h then av. Speed= 2xy/x+y If anything travels 3 equal distances with x, y and z km/h then av. Speed= 3xyz/xy+yz+zx If any person run away with x km/h and after t hours it was chased by another person with y km/h then time taken to catch it xt/y-x If an object travels with travels with a/b of its original speed. If it reaches t hours late then its original speed = (a/b-a)t If it reaches t hours before then its original speed = (a/a-b)t If a person travels with m km/h more than its original speed then it reaches t 1 hours before and if travels with n km/h less than its original speed then it reaches t 2 hours late. mn(t1+t2)/mt2-nt1 If two trains A and B travelling with x km/h and y km/h and train A starts from P to Q and trains B starts from Q to P, and after meeting each other reach Q and P after t 1 and t2 hours X^2/y^2 = t2/t1