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Bulacan State University Guinhawa, City of Malolos, Bulacan College of Engineering

ME 513 Industrial Processes


Presented by: BSME-5A Bulaong, Robertson C. Castillo, Mark Rod N. Crisostomo, Rose Margarette S. Farin, Zedrick T. Gonzaga, Ephraim M.

Presented to: Engr. Adrian C. Flores

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications It is not possible to tell whether water is of an appropriate quality by visual examination. Simple procedures such as boiling or the use of a household activated carbon filter are not sufficient for treating all the possible contaminants that may be present in water from an unknown source

Sources of water 1. Groundwater: The water emerging from some deep ground water may have fallen as rain many tens, hundreds, or thousands of years ago. Soil and rock layers naturally filter the ground water to a high degree of clarity and often it does not require additional treatment other than adding chlorine or chloramines as secondary disinfectants. 2. Upland lakes and reservoirs: Typically located in the headwaters of river systems, upland reservoirs are usually sited above any human habitation and may be surrounded by a protective zone to restrict the opportunities for contamination. 3. Rivers, canals and low land reservoirs: Low land surface waters will have a significant bacterial load and may also contain algae, suspended solids and a variety of dissolved constituents. 4. Rainwater harvesting or fog collection which collects water from the atmosphere can be used especially in areas with significant dry seasons and in areas which experience fog even when there is little rain. 5. Surface Water: Freshwater bodies that are open to the atmosphere and are not designated as groundwater are classified in the USA for regulatory and water purification purposes as surface water.

Causes of Water Pollution

Sewage and Wastewater

Domestic households, industrial and agricultural practices produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers. Marine dumping

Dumping of litter in the sea can cause huge problems. Litter items such as 6-pack ring packaging can get caught in marine animals and may result in death. Different items take different lengths of time to degrade in water: Industrial water and water pollution

Industry is a huge source of water pollution, it produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment. Nuclear waste how it is produced

Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes that use radioactive material. Nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on marine habitats. Nuclear waste comes from a number of sources: Oil pollution

Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run-offs and dumping. Underground storage leakages

A tank or piping network that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground is known as an underground storage tank (UST). They often store substances such as petroleum, that are harmful to the surrounding environment should it become contaminated. Many USTs constructed before 1980 are made from steel pipes that are directly exposed to the environment. Over time the steel corrodes and causes leakages, affecting surrounding soil and groundwater. Atmospheric Atmospheric deposition is the pollution of water caused by air pollution. Global Warming An increase in water temperature can result in the death of many aquatic organisms and

disrupt many marine habitats. For example, a rise in water temperatures causes coral bleaching of reefs around the world. This is when the coral expels the microorganisms of which it is dependent on. This can result in great damage to coral reefs and subsequently, all the marine life that depends on it. Eutrophication

Eutrophication is when the environment becomes enriched with nutrients. This can be a problem in marine habitats such as lakes as it can cause algal blooms.

IMPORTANCE AND USES Potable Water in drinking It is used during surgical procedures where clean water is a must to prevent any kind of infection. For the very same reason, it is also to wash and clean wounds. It is used in ships, particularly in nuclear powered ships, as a coolant. It is used to produce in steam power plant. Sanitation.


When you talk about the history of water filters, one really must talk about the history of water filtration to understand where these devices spawned from. In history, water meant survival, and for civilizations, water sources meant the difference between surviving and thriving. Water was not only necessary for drinking, but for agriculture, sanitation, and in some cases power. The quest for water purification was a slow one in ancient times, the pursuit of quantity was the bigger issue then. As far as purity was concerned, it culminated in the form of aesthetics, i.e., waters appearance, odor, and in some cases taste. Since early man thought that the taste of the water determined its purity and did not consider that even the best tasting water could contain disease-causing organisms, the concept died with its victims. Water Treatment in Ancient Scriptures and Writings Both the ancient Sanskrit and Egyptian writings clearly reveals the practices that were followed for keeping the water pure and germ free. Sushruta Samhita The Sushruta Samhita is a Sanskrit text from 3rd or 4th century AD, on all of the major concepts of ayurvedic medicine with innovative chapters on surgery, attributed to Sushruta.. He is widely considered the Father of Surgery. The methods specified in the Sushruta Samhita includes: Boiling, heating under sun, or dipping heated iron into the water. The text also reveals the filtration process according to

which water can be purified filtering it through sand and coarse gravel and then allowed to cool. Other purification methods included the use of a kind of stone, known as Gomedaka, and the seed of Strychnos potatorum. In other Sanskrit text, Ousruta Samhita filtering through charcoal method is given. Ancient Egypt With perfected methods of mummification, the ancient Egyptians, expert in Dehydration, evidenced that they were also experts in hydration as well. Paintings from the Egyptian tomb, dating back to 15th and 13th century B.C clearly depicts the picture of water treatment device. This ancient Egyptian clarifying device was found pictured on the wall of the tomb of Amenophis II at Thebes. The inscription was carved in 1450 B.C. Greeks and Roman Centuries later, Hippocrates, (Baker & Taras, 1981). The famed father of medicine began to conduct his own experiments in water purification. He created the theory of the four humors, or essential fluids, of the body that related directly to the four temperatures of the seasons. According to Hippocrates, in order to maintain good health, these four humors should be kept in balance. As a part of his theory of the four humors, Hippocrates recognized the healing power of water. For feverish patients, he often recommended a bath in cool water. Such a bath would realign the temperature and harmony of the four humors. Hippocrates acknowledged that the water available in Greek aqueducts was far from pure in its quality. Like the ancients before him, Hippocrates also believed good taste in water meant cleanliness and purity of that water. Hippocrates designed his own crude water filter to purify the water he used for his patients. Later known as the Hippocratic sleeve, this filter was a cloth bag through which water could be poured after being boiled (Baker & Taras, 1981). The cloth would trap any sentiments in the water that were causing bad taste or smell. Other water treatment methods included a drinking cup invented by a ninth century B.C. Spartan lawgiver. The cup was designed to hide badly colored water from its user, causing the mud to stick to its sides. Some of the more credible early water treatment methods included boiling water before transporting it to war zones and filtering it through wick siphons. The Greek and Romans too developed various methods for treating water in order to control tastes and odor. Diophanes of the first century B.C. advised putting macerated laurel into rainwater. Later, in the first century A.D., Paxamus proposed that bruised coral or pounded barley, in a bag, be immersed in bad tasting water. The eighth century A.D. Arabian alchemist, Gerber, described various stills for purifying water that used wick siphons-a method that required a fibrous cord that would siphon water from one vessel to another. Middle Ages During the Middle Ages, few experiments were attempted in water purification or filtration. Devout Catholicism throughout Europe marked this time period, often known as the Dark Ages due to the lack of scientific innovations and experiments. Because of the low

level of scientific experimentation, the future for water purification and filtration seemed very dark. The Renaissance period, beginning in the late fourteenth century, ended the scientific and intellectual stagnation of the Dark Ages and sparked a new period of discovery. In this period, often called the Age of Discovery, several inventions came about that greatly affected the world. Included among these inventions was the microscope, a scientific innovation that greatly affected the history of water filters. Experimental Beginning of Desalination Sir Francis Bacon in his famous compilation A Natural History of Ten Centuries 1627 (Baker & Taras, 1981) talked elaborately about desalination, basically first record of experimentation in water filtration, after the blight of the Dark Ages, According to him if seawater is allowed to percolate through the sand, it can be purified. Bacon believed that if he dug a hole near the shore through which seawater would pass, sand particles (presumable heavier than salt particles) would obstruct the passage of salt in the upward passage of the water; the other side of the hole would then provide pure, salt-free water. Sadly, his hypothesis did not prove true, and Bacon was left with salty, undrinkable water. His experiment did mark rejuvenation in water filter experimentation. However, this publication did inspire scientists to continue to experiment with water filtration technology. The experiment of sand filtration was first illustrated by the famous Italian physician Lucas Antonius Portius. He wrote elaborately about the multiple sand filtration method in his famous book Soldiers Vade Mecum. He illustrated water filtration experiment by using three pairs of sand filters. The Microscope In 1590, two Dutch spectacle makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his son Hans, began experimenting with lenses in a tube and found that they could greatly magnify objects viewed through the tube (Wilson, 1995). This invention was the forerunner to modern-day telescopes and microscopes. A century later, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, considered the father of microscopy, built upon the Janssens simple invention. By grinding and polishing the tiny curved lenses, he was able to reach magnifications of up to 270 times the original object (Wilson, 1995). This advanced microscope had a great effect upon the study of water purity and water filtration. Scientists were now able to view tiny material particles present in water that had been presumed to be clean. Anton van Leeuwenhoek used his discovery of the microscope to see and describe the teeming life in a single drop of water. Robert Hooke, considered the English father of microscopy, confirmed Leeuwenhoeks descriptions of tiny, living organisms in a drop of water and further refined the microscope. Soon scientists were examining tiny particles of life they had never before seen nor known existed prior to the invention of the microscope. The microscope has an interesting place in water filter history. In mid-19th century London, where diseases ran rampant because of the tight quarters of the working class, city

officials began to link the spread of cholera to poor drinking water quality (Baker & Taras, 1981). In areas where sand water filters had been installed, the outbreak of cholera had greatly decreased. To further corroborate this conclusion, In 1854, the British scientist John Snow found that the cholera disease was spread through contaminated water, a discovery that would greatly impact the future of water treatment and disinfection. While studying cholera epidemics in municipal areas of England, Snow noticed that regions that used slow sand filtration before distributing water tended toward fewer cholera cases. Eventually, he was able to trace the outbreaks of cholera to a particular water pump that had been contaminated by raw sewage. Ironically, this was from a pump that was known to produce good tasting water, once again divorcing good taste with purity. Snow used chlorine to kill the cholera bacteria in the water, leading to the rise of water chlorination as an effective disinfection process. His work also revolutionized the prevalent theory that good-tasting and odorless water naturally meant it was healthful and safe. Because the contaminated water had contained no detectable taste or odor, Snow surmised that water quality could not be established by those criteria alone. After his findings were published, several cities began to treat all water with sand filters and chlorine before distributing it to the public. As British government officials noted the effect of water quality on cholera outbreaks, both through Snows discovery and through the evidence of decreasing cases of cholera where sand water filters had been installed, they mandated the installation of sand water filters throughout the city. This mandate was one of the first instances of government regulation of public water and would set a precedent for municipal water systems. Municipal Water Treatment Begins In the year 1804, the first large municipal water treatment plant was installed in Scotland in order to provide treated water to every resident (Baker & Taras 1981). This revolutionary installation prompted the idea that all people should have access to clean drinking water. However, it would be some time before this ambitious idea would be implemented widely throughout the world. Cholera and Chlorination. Municipal water treatment on similar pattern was installed in London in 1829. The sand filtration method saw further progress when rapid sand filtration was developed in the U.S. in the 1880s. In this unit water jets or backwashes were used for cleaning the filter media and mechanical agitators were used for loosening debris. This enhances the treatment capacity. Taste and odor of water was improved by the use of charcoal filtration. In the late nineteenth century, municipal water treatment began to take hold in the United States. Technicians started experimenting with rapid, as opposed to slow, sand filtration and found the process to be much more efficient and effective. Also, the overall capacity and lifetime of the filter could be improved by cleaning it with a powerful steam jet, thus increasing the number of residents who could be served by one treatment plant. As a result of increased water treatment and chlorination within several U.S. cities and around the world, the outbreak of such waterborne diseases as cholera and typhoid rapidly decreased in the early twentieth century.

Softening and Ion Exchange By the early 1900s, water treatment experimentation had turned from the prevention of waterborne diseases to the creation of softer, less-mineralized water. Water softeners, which use sodium ions to replace water-hardening minerals in water, were first introduced into the water treatment market in 1903. The theory of ion exchange (in which a harmless or more desirable water ion is used to replace a harmful one) implemented by the softening systems would greatly impact the water treatment industry in later years the theory would eventually be used to remove lead, mercury, and other insidious heavy metals from water. First Government Regulations As municipal water treatment eventually became a common practice in most U.S. cities, federal and state governments began to recognize the importance of drinking water standards for municipalities. While some limited drinking water standards would be implemented as early as 1914 (EPA 2000), it would not be until the 1940s that federal drinking water standards were widely applied. But the most comprehensive federal regulations and standards for the water treatment industry were implemented in the 1970s, in reaction to a huge increase in environmental concerns in the country. In 1972, the Clean Water Act passed through Congress and became law, requiring industrial plants to proactively improve their waste procedures in order to limit the effect of contaminants on freshwater sources. In 1974, the Safe Drinking Water Act was adopted by all 50 U.S. states for the regulation of public water systems within their jurisdictions. This law specified a number of contaminants that must be closely monitored in water and reported to residents should they exceed the maximum contaminant levels allowed by the federal government. Drinking water systems are now closely monitored by federal, state, and municipal governments for safety and compliance with existing regulations.


A.Drinking Water Benefits 1. Drinking Water Helps Maintain the Balance of Body Fluids. Your body is composed of about 60% water. The functions of these bodily fluids include digestion, absorption, circulation, creation of saliva, transportation of nutrients, and maintenance of body temperature. "Through the posterior pituitary gland, your brain communicates with your kidneys and tells it how much water to excrete as urine or hold onto for reserves," says Guest, who is also an adjunct professor of medicine at Stanford University.

When you're low on fluids, the brain triggers the body's thirst mechanism. And unless you are taking medications that make you thirsty, Guest says, you should listen to those cues and get yourself a drink of water, juice, milk, coffee -- anything but alcohol. 2. Water Can Help Control Calories. For years, dieters have been drinking lots of water as a weight loss strategy. While water doesn't have any magical effect onweight loss, substituting it for higher calorie beverages can certainly help. "What works with weight loss is if you choose water or a non-caloric beverage over a caloric beverage and/or eat a diet higher in water-rich foods that are healthier, more filling, and help you trim calorie intake," says Penn State researcher Barbara Rolls, PhD, author of The Volumetrics Weight Control Plan. Food with high water content tends to look larger, its higher volume requires more chewing, and it is absorbed more slowly by the body, which helps you feel full. Water-rich foods include fruits, vegetables, broth-based soups, oatmeal, and beans. 3. Water Helps Energize Muscles. Cells that don't maintain their balance of fluids and electrolytes shrivel, which can result in muscle fatigue. "When muscle cells don't have adequate fluids, they don't work as well and performance can suffer," says Guest. Drinking enough fluids is important when exercising. Follow the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for fluid intake before and during physical activity. These guidelines recommend that people drink about 17 ounces of fluid about two hours before exercise. During exercise, they recommend that people start drinking fluids early, and drink them at regular intervals to replace fluids lost by sweating. 4. Water Helps Keep Skin Looking Good. Your skin contains plenty of water, and functions as a protective barrier to prevent excess fluid loss. But don't expect over-hydration to erase wrinkles or fine lines, says Atlanta dermatologist Kenneth Ellner, MD. 5. Water Helps Your Kidneys. Body fluids transport waste products in and out of cells. The main toxin in the body is blood urea nitrogen, a water-soluble waste that is able to pass through the kidneys to be excreted in the urine, explains Guest. "Your kidneys do an amazing job of cleansing and ridding your body of toxins as long as your intake of fluids is adequate," he says. When you're getting enough fluids, urine flows freely, is light in color and free of odor. When your body is not getting enough fluids, urine concentration, color, and odor increases because the kidneys trap extra fluid for bodily functions. 6. Water Helps Maintain Normal Bowel Function. Adequate hydration keeps things flowing along your gastrointestinal tract and prevents constipation. When you don't get enough fluid, the colon pulls water from stools to maintain hydration -- and the result is constipation.

"Adequate fluid and fiber is the perfect combination, because the fluid pumps up the fiber and acts like a broom to keep your bowel functioning properly," says Koelemay.


1.Purified water - Water is purified and processed through the latest stateof-the-art technique, that includes carbon filtration, water softening, reverse osmosis, microfiltration, and ozonation to guarantee its quality and potability. Purified water is water that is mechanically filtered or processed to be cleaned for consumption.

2.Distilled water - is water that has many of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container.

3.Alkaline water, also commonly known as ionized water, is water that has a pH level greater than seven. This water is generally produced with the aid of a faucet-based water ionizer, or "alkalizer" and features a number of health benefits. Many people claim that regularly drinking alkaline water will slow down the aging process, help fight tooth decay and prevent bone loss.

4. CRYSTAL TUBE ICE is a hallow and crystal ice made of purified drinking water.

B. Tap Water Tap water (running water, city water, municipal water, etc.) is potable water supplied to atap (valve) inside the household or workplace. It is a principal component of "indoorplumbing", which became available in suburban areas of the developed world during the last half of the 19th century, and common during the mid-20th century.


Water treatment describes those industrial-scale processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use. These can include use for drinking water, industry, medical and many other uses. Such processes may be contrasted with small-scale water sterilization practiced by campers and other people in wilderness areas. The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the concentration of such contaminants so the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. One such use is returning water that has been used back into the natural environment without adverse ecological impact. The processes involved in treating water for drinking purpose may be solids separation using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation. Biological processes are employed in the treatment of wastewater and these processes may include, for example, aerated lagoons, activated sludge or slow sand filters.

Water purification is the removal of contaminants from untreated water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for the most critical of its intended uses, usually for human consumption. Substances that are removed during the process of drinking water treatment include suspendedsolids, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, minerals suchas iron, manganese and sulphur, and other chemical pollutants such as fertilizers. From the time source water from a lake, stream or reservoir enters one of our treatment plants, until it flows through your tap, it goes through five basic treatment steps: Coagulation Alum and other chemicals are added to water to form tiny, sticky particles called floc, which attract dirt and other particles suspended in water. Sedimentation The heavy floc particles settle to the bottom of treatment tanks, allowing for their separation from the water. Filtration The water passes through filters of sand, gravel and charcoal to help remove even smaller particles.

Disinfection Chlorine is added or other disinfection methods are used to kill bacteria or other microorganisms in the water. Storage Water is placed in a closed tank or reservoir to allow for disinfection. Water then flows through pipes to homes and businesses in the community.

Water resources Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. The

majority of human uses require fresh water. Contaminations in freshwater Drinking water can become contaminated at the original water source, during treatment, or during distribution to the home. If your water comes from surface water (river or lake), it can be exposed to acid rain, storm water runoff, pesticide runoff, and industrial waste. This water is cleansed somewhat by exposure to sunlight, aeration, and micro-organisms in the water.

If your water comes from groundwater (private wells and some public water supplies), it generally takes longer to become contaminated but the natural cleansing process also may take much longer. Groundwater moves slowly and is not exposed to sunlight, aeration, or aerobic (requiring oxygen) micro-organisms. Groundwater can be contaminated by disease-producing pathogens, leachate from landfills and septic systems, careless disposal of hazardous household products, agricultural chemicals, and leaking underground storage tanks.

Possible health effects The levels of contaminants in drinking water are seldom high enough to cause acute (immediate) health effects. Examples of acute health effects are nausea, lung irritation, skin rash, vomiting, dizziness, and even death. Contaminants are more likely to cause chronic health effects - effects that occur long after repeated exposure to small amounts of a chemical. Examples of chronic health effects include cancer, liver and kidney damage, disorders of the nervous system, damage to the immune system, and birth defects. Process of treating water Clarification

Clarification consists in removing all kind of particles, sediments, oil, natural organic matter and colour from the water to make it clear. A clarification step is the first part of conventional treatment for waste and surface water treatment. Filtration

After separating most floc, the water is filtered as the final step to remove remaining suspended particles and unsettled floc. Rapid sand filters The most common type of filter is a rapid sand filter. Water moves vertically through sand which often has a layer of activated carbon or anthracite coal above the sand. The top layer removes organic compounds, which contribute to taste and odour. The space between sand

particles is larger than the smallest suspended particles, so simple filtration is not enough. Most particles pass through surface layers but are trapped in pore spaces or adhere to sand particles. Effective filtration extends into the depth of the filter. This property of the filter is key to its operation: if the top layer of sand were to block all the particles, the filter would quickly clog. Slow sand filters Slow sand filters may be used where there is sufficient land and space, as the water must be passed very slowly through the filters. These filters rely on biological treatment processes for their action rather than physical filtration. The filters are carefully constructed using graded layers of sand, with the coarsest sand, along with some gravel, at the bottom and finest sand at the top. Disinfection

Water disinfection means the removal, deactivation or killing of pathogenic microorganisms. Microorganisms are destroyed or deactivated, resulting in termination of growth and reproduction. When microorganisms are not removed from drinking water, its usage will cause people to fall ill. Chloramine disinfection The use of chloramine is becoming more common as a disinfectant. Although chloramine is not as strong an oxidant, it does provide a longer-lasting residual than free chlorine and it won't form THMs or haloacetic acids. Chlorine dioxide disinfection Chlorine dioxide is a faster-acting disinfectant than elemental chlorine. It is relatively rarely used, because in some circumstances it may create excessive amounts of chlorite. Ozone disinfection Ozone is an unstable molecule which readily gives up one atom of oxygen providing a powerful oxidizing agent which is toxic to most waterborne organisms. It is a very strong, broad spectrum disinfectant that is widely used in Europe. It is an effective method to

inactivate harmful protozoa that form cysts. It also works well against almost all other pathogens. Ozone is made by passing oxygen through ultraviolet light or a "cold" electrical discharge. To use ozone as a disinfectant, it must be created on-site and added to the water by bubble contact. Ultraviolet disinfection Ultraviolet light (UV) is very effective at inactivating cysts, in low turbidity water. UV light's disinfection effectiveness decreases as turbidity increases, a result of

the absorption, scattering, and shadowing caused by the suspended solids. The main disadvantage to the use of UV radiation is that, like ozone treatment, it leaves no residual disinfectant in the water; therefore, it is sometimes necessary to add a residual disinfectant after the primary disinfection process.

Machines and equipments used in water purification process 1. Pressure Pump The incoming water interacts first with the machine pump. Once the incoming pressure of the water is within 20 psi (1.5 bar) 87.02 psi. (6 bar), the pump will begin to send the contaminated water into the first cleaning canister. 2. Crystal Quartz Canister Once in the first canister water flows through the crystal sand quartz filter which prevents fine particles from entering into the structure. 3. Oxygen Production The water then enters the hydrolytic oxygen generator, where by the molecules of water are separated into. The freed oxygen molecules take on a different identity, forcing the oxidation of many polluting organic substances and the hydrogen molecules spark cleaning catalytic processes. As the molecules raise they bond together to continue on to the next set of containers filled with carbon filters.

4. Filters The water is further purified of minerals and organic substances when passed through four containers of an activated carbon bed. A continuous oxidation occurs whereby the activated carbon substance is decomposed and oxidized respectively and nitrogen compounds are reduced due to the catalytic effect. 5. Mechanical Fine Mesh Filter Once minerals, organic substances, bacteria, viruses and TOCs are filtered out, the water passes through a fine mesh filter to purify the water of any carbon dust spillover from the activated carbon beds.

6. UV Light If any organic substances, bacteria and viruses make it this far through the machine the water is led into the last container which has a UVC lamp with a 254 nm shine for preventative and auxiliary disinfection.

Plaridel Water District Address : A. C. Reyes St., Plaridel, Bulacan 3004. MISSION: "To provide, potable water to as many concessionaires as possible at the least possible cost" VISION: "A respectable organization of competent and dedicated workers with a task of giving quality service for a progressive, developed and sustainable water supply"


WATER CHLORINATION Is the process of adding the element CHLORINE to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. Water that has been treated with chlorine is effective in preventing the spread of waterborne disease.


PROCESS 1. Water is pumped from deep well using turbine motor 2. Chlorine is ejected into the main line using booster pump. 3. Water is delivered through the main line to the service lines.


It is a component of an system which divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits, while providing a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit, in a common enclosure. Normally, a main switch, and in recent boards, one or more Residual-current devices (RCD) or Residual Current Breakers with Overcurrent protection (RCBO), will also be incorporated.

100 HP; It is used the deep well

to pump water from

Equipment used to nject or to add chlorine or chlorine compound

It is used to check and test the amount of chlorine injected into the water.

It is used to inject the chlorine into the water.

Powered by fuel; A generator is an electrical machine which produces electricity. It must be turned by a prime mover which can be an internal combustion engine - driven, usually, by diesel oil or gasoline - or can be a turbine, driven either by superheated steam or by water falling from a reservoir.

A pipe network for distribution of water to the consumers (which may be private houses or industrial, commercial or institution establishments) and other usage points