Sei sulla pagina 1di 4

Elastomers as Seals

April 2003

Table of Contents
List of Figures ...............................................................................................................................................................vii
List of Tables ................................................................................................................................................................viii
1.0

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..........................................................................................................................1

2.0

HOW TO READ THIS GUIDE ................................................................................................................3

3.0

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................5

3.1
Background Elastomers and Rubbers .........................................................................................................5
3.2
A Brief History....................................................................................................................................................6
3.2.1
Natural Rubber .............................................................................................................................................6
3.2.2
The Emergence of Synthetics......................................................................................................................8
3.2.3
Inorganic Elastomers....................................................................................................................................9
3.2.4
Elastomers Today.......................................................................................................................................10
3.3
Elastomer Chemistry........................................................................................................................................11
Polymers and Elastomers ...........................................................................................................................................11
3.3.1
Chemistry of Natural Rubber ....................................................................................................................13
3.3.2
Effects of Vulcanization............................................................................................................................14
3.3.3
Chemistry of Silicones...............................................................................................................................15
3.4
Elastomer Thermodynamics...........................................................................................................................17

4.0

HOW TO SELECT AN ELASTOMER..............................................................................................19

4.1
The Importance of Materials Selection.........................................................................................................19
4.2
Meeting the Requirements: Translating Properties into Performance..................................................20
4.3
Knowing the Materials: Managing Environmental Effects......................................................................20
4.4
Making the Right Selection.............................................................................................................................20
4.4.1
The Realities of Materials Selection.........................................................................................................20
4.4.2
Relying on Experience: Benefits vs. Risks..............................................................................................21
4.4.3
The Pitfalls of Favoritism..........................................................................................................................21
4.4.4
Materials Selection is a Balance of Experience and Diligence ...............................................................21
4.5
Service Life ........................................................................................................................................................21
4.5.1
Defining Service Life.................................................................................................................................22
4.5.2
Service Life Expectations..........................................................................................................................22
4.5.3
The Role of Service Life in Design...........................................................................................................24
4.5.4
Other Aspects of Service Life ...................................................................................................................25
4.5.5
Shelf Life vs. Service Life .........................................................................................................................25

5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10

PROPERTIES OF ELASTOMERS .....................................................................................................27


Hardness.............................................................................................................................................................27
Tensile Strength................................................................................................................................................28
Elongation..........................................................................................................................................................29
Stress Relaxation/Creep ..................................................................................................................................29
Modulus..............................................................................................................................................................31
Compression Set ...............................................................................................................................................31
Abrasion/Wear Resistance..............................................................................................................................32
Tear Resistance.................................................................................................................................................32
Heat Resistance.................................................................................................................................................33
Low Temperature Properties .........................................................................................................................33

AMPTIAC
5.11
5.12

6.0

Fluid Compatibility/Volume Swell.................................................................................................................34


Aging...................................................................................................................................................................34

MATERIALS ...................................................................................................................................................35

6.1
Natural Rubber.................................................................................................................................................38
6.2
Butyl Rubber.....................................................................................................................................................40
6.3
Styrene-Butadiene ............................................................................................................................................42
6.4
Chloroprene.......................................................................................................................................................43
6.5
EPDM.................................................................................................................................................................44
6.6
Nitrile ..................................................................................................................................................................45
6.7
Fluorocarbon.....................................................................................................................................................47
6.8
Polyacrylate .......................................................................................................................................................49
6.9
Epichlorohydrin................................................................................................................................................50
6.10 Silicone ...............................................................................................................................................................51
6.10.1 Fillers ..........................................................................................................................................................52
6.10.2 Additives.....................................................................................................................................................52
6.10.3 Characteristics and Properties of Silicone Elastomers.............................................................................52
6.11 Fluorosilicone ....................................................................................................................................................55
6.12 Polyurethane......................................................................................................................................................58
6.13 Polysulfide..........................................................................................................................................................59
6.14 Material Comparisons .....................................................................................................................................61
6.15 Shelf Life ............................................................................................................................................................67

7.0

SEALS FOR SEVERE CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENTS .........................................................71

7.1
Seal Designs .......................................................................................................................................................71
7.1.1
Static Seals..................................................................................................................................................71
7.1.2
Dynamic Seals............................................................................................................................................71
7.2
Hydraulic Seals .................................................................................................................................................75
7.2.1
Ground Equipment Hydraulic Seals..........................................................................................................78
7.2.2
Aircraft Hydraulic Seals ............................................................................................................................78
7.3
Fuel Tank Seals .................................................................................................................................................83
7.3.1
Collapsible Fuel Tanks...............................................................................................................................87
7.3.2
Integral Fuel Tanks.....................................................................................................................................92

Appendix .........................................................................................................................................................................93
GLOSSARY...................................................................................................................................................................95
REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................................................................101

vi

Elastomers as Seals
April 2003

List of Figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22
Figure 23
Figure 24
Figure 25
Figure 26
Figure 27
Figure 28
Figure 29
Figure 30
Figure 31
Figure 32
Figure 33
Figure 34
Figure 35
Figure 36
Figure 37

Monomers and Polymers............................................................................................................................11


Morphology of a Thermoplastic Polymer .................................................................................................12
Morphology of a Thermosetting Polymer.................................................................................................12
Molecule of Isoprene..................................................................................................................................13
Molecular Configurations of Isoprene.......................................................................................................13
Vulcanization Cross-Links the Polyisoprene Molecules Using Sulfur...................................................14
Constituents of Silicone Synthesis.............................................................................................................15
Synthesis of a Silicone Polymer ................................................................................................................16
Typical Structure of an Elastomer.............................................................................................................18
How a Durometer Measures Hardness......................................................................................................27
Hardness Scales: Durometer A, Durometer D, and Rockwell R.............................................................28
Typical Tensile Test Specimen .................................................................................................................28
Elongation...................................................................................................................................................29
Stress relaxation and creep are both examples of viscoelastic behavior. ...............................................30
Example of Tensile Modulus ....................................................................................................................31
Compression Set Fundamentals ................................................................................................................32
Common Types of Tear Test Specimens..................................................................................................33
Chemical Structure of Butyl Rubber Copolymers ...................................................................................40
Illustration of the Trans- Formation on the Neoprene Backbone Structure...........................................43
Silanol-Terminated Polydimethylsiloxane ...............................................................................................51
Silicone and Fluorosilicone Repeating Units ...........................................................................................56
Tensile Strength of Fluorosilicone Sealant Exposed to Jet Fuel at 500F in Pressure Bomb...............56
Elongation of Fluorosilicone Sealant Exposed to Jet Fuel at 500oF in Pressure Bomb ........................57
Chemical Structure of Polysulfide ............................................................................................................60
Property Changes of Stored O-Ring Materials.........................................................................................69
T-Ring Installation.....................................................................................................................................72
Outside Packed V-Ring Installation..........................................................................................................72
Lobed-Ring Designs...................................................................................................................................73
U-Cup Installation......................................................................................................................................73
ESCL Designs.............................................................................................................................................74
Typical O-Ring Installations .....................................................................................................................74
Nitrile and HNBR after exposure to ROYCO 777 for 168 Hours at 275F...........................................80
Rod Seal Tests in Various Fluids at 275F and 1500 psi ........................................................................81
Leakage of Nitrile and Fluorocarbon Seals in Various Fluids................................................................81
Tensile Strength Retention after Aging in Fuel .......................................................................................87
Retention of Elongation after Aging in Fuel............................................................................................88
Volume Swell after Aging in Fuel ............................................................................................................88

vii

AMPTIAC

List of Tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Table 17
Table 18
Table 19
Table 20
Table 21
Table 22
Table 23
Table 24
Table 25
Table 26
Table 27
Table 28
Table 29
Table 30
Table 31
Table 32

Elastomer Seal Classifications.......................................................................................................................35


Properties of Natural Rubbers .......................................................................................................................39
Properties of Butyl Rubbers...........................................................................................................................41
Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Elastomers ................................................................................................42
Properties of Neoprene Elastomers...............................................................................................................44
Properties of EPDM.......................................................................................................................................45
Properties of Nitrile Elastomers ....................................................................................................................46
Categories of FKM Fluorocarbon Elastomers..............................................................................................48
Properties of Fluorocarbon (FKM) Elastomers............................................................................................49
Properties of Polyacrylate Elastomers ..........................................................................................................50
Properties of Epichlorohydrin Elastomers....................................................................................................51
Properties of Silicone Elastomers .................................................................................................................53
Characteristic Thermal Aging Properties of an Extremely High-Temperature RTV Silicone Sealant ....55
Properties of Fluorosilicone Elastomers.......................................................................................................57
Formulations and Properties of Fluorosilicone Test Compounds...............................................................57
Percent Volume Swell vs. Fluoro-to-Dimethyl Silicone Ratio ...................................................................58
Properties of Polyurethane Elastomers .........................................................................................................59
Compounding Ingredients for Polysulfides ..................................................................................................60
Properties of Polysulfides ..............................................................................................................................61
Common Trade Names and Uses for Basic Types of Elastomers...............................................................62
Relative Property Comparisons of Commonly Used Elastomers................................................................64
Chemical Resistance of Elastomers ..............................................................................................................65
Relative Costs of Elastomers.........................................................................................................................67
Recommended Shelf Life of Various Elastomers........................................................................................67
Elastomer Property Changes..........................................................................................................................68
Compatibility of Hydraulic Fluids with Elastomers ....................................................................................76
Baseline Elastomer Compatibility with MIL-H-6083E and MIL-H-46170B............................................78
Compatibility of Elastomers for Seals and O-Rings to be used in Fuel Systems at Low Temperatures..83
Properties of Elastomers after Exposure to 3-GP-11 Naval Distillate Fuel ...............................................84
Properties of Elastomers after Exposure to JP-5 Aviation Turbine Fuel....................................................84
Summary Data Sheet (3-Days in JP-8 @ 225F).........................................................................................85
Summary of Effects of Outdoor Exposure on Elastomers used in Fuel Tanks ..........................................90

viii