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# PSPM1 : MATTER

## Session 1999/2000 - January Intake

Section A

1. Oxalic acid is commonly used to remove blood and rust stains. It consists of 2.24%
hydrogen, 26.65% carbon and 71.08% oxygen by mass. The molar mass of oxalic
acid is 90.0 g mol-1.
(a) Determine the empirical formula of oxalic acid.
(b) What is its molecular formula?
(c) 500 mL of oxalic acid solution is prepared by dissolving 10.0 g oxalic acid in
water. The solution has a density of 1.05 g mL-1. Calculate the molarity and
molality of the solution.
(CHO2, C2H2O4, 0.222 M, 0.216m)

Section B

## 2. Two common isotopes of chlorine are 35Cl and 37

Cl. The relative abundances of the
natural occurring isotopes are as follows:
35
Cl 3. 127
=
37
Cl 1

## (a) Explain the meaning of isotope by using chlorine as an example.

(b) With reference to the 12C scale, the relative atomic mass of 35Cl = 34.9689
and 37Cl = 36.9659. Calculate the relative atomic mass of chlorine.
(35.45)

3. When the iron ore haematite, Fe2O3, is heated in a furnace with carbon monoxide,
CO, the products obtained are iron and carbon dioxide, CO2.
(a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction.
(b) If 8.00×104 kg hematite is used, calculate the mass of iron produced.
(c) Calculate the mass of carbon monoxide needed for the reaction.
(d) Determine the oxidation state of Fe in Fe2O3 and that of C in CO.
(5.60×107 g, 4.20×107 g, +3, +2)

## KMKCP 2009/2010 Page 71

PSPM1 : MATTER

Section A

1. (a) 1.50 g of metal oxide, MO2, reacts with excess hydrochloric acid
solution, HCl, to produce 386 cm3 chlorine gas at STP as given by the
following equation:
MO2 + HCl → MCl2 + Cl2 + H2O
i. Balance the above equation.
ii. Determine the relative formula mass of MO2 and relative atomic mass
of M.
(b) In a separate experiment, 0.20 g of MO2 was added to 25 mL of 0.10 M
hydrochloric acid solution.
i. Determine the limiting reactant.
ii. Calculate the mass of MCl2 produced in the reaction.
(87.0, 55.0, 0.079 g)

Section B

2. The air contains 21% oxygen gas. Natural oxygen gas consists of three isotopes:
16
O, 17O and 18O.
(a) Write the molecular formulas of oxygen gas that exist in the air that show the
combinations of those isotopes.
(b) What is the molar mass of the heaviest oxygen molecule?
(36 g mol-1)

## 3. (a) What is a limiting reactant?

(b) Aluminium reacts with sulphuric acid solution, H2SO4, to produce aluminium
sulphate, Al2(SO4)3 and hydrogen gas. If 10.0 g of aluminium reacts with 60.0
g of sulphuric acid to produce 57.0 g of aluminium sulphate solid, determine
the limiting reactant. Calculate the theoretical yield and percentage yield of
aluminium sulphate.
(63.3 g, 90.0%)

Section A

PSPM1 : MATTER

## 1. 0.40 g of dry sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is dissolved in water to produce 100 mL

solution. 25 mL of the solution is used to neutralize a sample of sulphuric acid
solution, H2SO4.
(a) Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution.
(b) Write a balanced equation for the neutralization reaction.
(c) Calculate the number of moles of H2SO4 in the acid solution.
(0.10 M, 1.25×10-3)

Section B

## 2. Compound P with a relative molecular mass of 46 contains only carbon, hydrogen

and oxygen. A 2.30 g sample of P was completely burned in excess oxygen to
produce 4.40 g of carbon dioxide gas, CO2 and 2.70 g of water, H2O. Calculate the
mass of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in 2.30 g of P. Determine the empirical and
molecular formula of P. Then, write a balanced equation for the combustion reaction.
(C2H6O, C2H6O)

3. A 50.0 g zinc sample was added to 50.0 L solution containing 3.9 g silver ion, Ag + per
litre. The reaction was as follows:
Zn + 2Ag+ → Zn2+ + 2Ag
Was the added zinc enough to completely react with all the silver ions in the
(not enough; 0.765 mol Zn present, 0.904 mol Zn needed)
Session 2000/2001 - Jun Intake

Section A

1. The neutralization reaction between sulphuric acid, H2SO4, and sodium hydroxide,
NaOH, yields sodium sulphate, Na2SO4, and water.
(a) Calculate the number of mole of sodium hydroxide needed to produce 0.0800
mol of sodium sulphate.
(b) Calculate the mass of sulphuric acid needed for the reaction in 1(b).
(0.160 mol, 7.84 g)
2. (a) What is meant by percentage yield?
(b) The combustion reaction of potassium chloride, KCl produces potassium
chlorate, KClO3 as shown by the equation:
2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) → 2KClO3(s)
Calculate the mass of oxygen used to produce 3.8 g potassium chlorate if the
percentage yield is known to be 86.0%.
(1.73 g)

## KMKCP 2009/2010 Page 73

PSPM1 : MATTER

Session 2001/2002

Section A

## 1. (a) Define isotope

(b) A sample of natural occurring chlorine contains 76% 35Cl and 24% 37Cl.
Calculate the relative atomic mass of chlorine if the isotopic mass of 35Cl and
37
Cl are 34.96 amu and 36.97 amu respectively.
(35.44)

Session 2002/2003

Section B

2. 10.64 g of metal oxide, M2O3, reacts with excess hydrogen gas to produce 3.78 g of
water, H2O and metal M as shown by the equation:
M2O3(s) + 3H2(g) → 3H2O + 2M(s)
Calculate the relative formula mass of M2O3, relative atomic mass of M and mass of
M produced in the reaction.
(152, 52, 7.28 g)

Session 2003/2004

Section B
1. A concentrated sulphuric acid solution, H2SO4, of 95.0% by mass has a density of
1.84 g mL-1. Calculate the molarity of the concentrated acid and its volume needed to
prepare 1.0 L of 0.080 M sulphuric acid solution.
(17.8 M, 4.5 mL)
Session 2004/2005

Section A

1. A hydrate of potassium carbonate has the formula K 2CO3.xH2O. From 10.00 g of the
hydrate, 7.95 g of anhydrous salt was left after heating. Determine the value of x in
the formula.
(2)

Section B

## KMKCP 2009/2010 Page 74

PSPM1 : MATTER

2. A 3.80 g sample of bronze was dissolved in sulphuric acid. The copper in the alloy
reacted with sulphuric acid according to the equation
Cu(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) → CuSO4(aq) + SO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
The CuSO4 formed in the reaction was mixed with sufficient KI to produce CuI(s), I3-
and SO42- ions. The I3- ion formed in the second reaction was then titrated against
thiosulphate, S2O32- solution to form I- and S4O62- ions.
(a) Write the ionic equations for the last two reactions.
(b) Calculate the percentage by mass of copper in the bronze sample if 26.20 mL
of 1.05 M S2O32- solution was consumed in the titration.
(46%)

Session 2005/2006

Section A

2. A sample of concentrated hydrochloric acid contains 38.0% HCl by mass and has a
density of 1.1977 g mL-1. Calculate the solution’s
(a) molarity.
(b) molality.
(12.5 M, 16.8 m)