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CHAPTER 4 - CIRCUIT THEOREMS  List of topics for this chapter :

Linearity Property Principle of Superposition Source Transformations Thevenin's Theorem Norton's Theorem Maximum Power Transfer Verifying Circuit Theorems with PSpice  LINEARITY PROPERTY

Linearity is the condition in which the change in value of one quantity is directly proportional to that of another quantity. A linear circuit is one whose output is linearly related (or directly proportional) to its input.

Problem 4.1

currents and voltages of the circuit increase by the same value, then a circuit is linear. Show that

If all the independent sources are multiplied by a value, K, and all the the circuit in Figure 4.1 is linear by solving for
I
x and
V
.
x
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
I x
+
−−−−
V x
+
K10 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ

K2 A

Figure 4.1 10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
v
I x
1
v 2
+
−−−−
V x
+
K10 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
Use nodal analysis to find
v 1 and
v
.
2

K2 A

At node 1 :

At node 2 : v
K10
v
0
v
v
v
− v
v
− 0
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
+
+
= 0
+
= K2
10
10
5
5
5
Simplifying,
v
K10
+
v
+
(2)(v
v
)
=
0
v
v
+
v
=
K10
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
4 v
2 v
=
K10
- v
+
2 v
=
K10
1
2
1
2
The system of simultaneous equations is
4
- 2   v
 K10 
1
  -1
2
  
v
=   K10 
2 
 v
1  2
2   K10 
1
 K20
+ K20 
 (40
6) K 
 (20
3) K 
1
=
=
=
=
  v
  2  1
8
− 4   K10 
6  K10
+ 
K40 
(50
6) K 
(25
3) K 
2
Clearly,
V
=
v
v
=
(20 3) K
=
(- 5 3) K
x
1
2
and
I
=
V
5
=
[(- 5 3) K](1 5)
(25 3) K
(-1 3) K
=
x
x
The voltage source and current source are multiples of K. The voltage
multiples of K. Therefore, the circuit is linear.
V
x and the current
I
x are

Problem 4.2

(a)

(b)

(c)

[4.3]

In the circuit in Figure 4.1, calculate

Find

v

o

and

i

o

when v

s =

10 V

.

v

o

and

i

o

when v

s =

1 V . What are
v
o and
i
o when each of the 1-Ω resistors is replaced by a 10-Ω resistor
and v
10 V
?
s =
1 ΩΩΩΩ
i o
v s
1 ΩΩΩΩ

Figure 4.1

First, transform the Y (or T) subcircuit to its (or Π) equivalent.

v s R
3R
+
+
3R
3R
v o
−−

(a)

i o

R 1 V
1.5R

and

(b)

R || 3R =

3R

2

3

=

4R

4

R

v

o 2

= independent of R

v

s

,

i

o

=

v

 (a) When (b) When (c) When

v

v

s

v

o

=

o

1 V and R = 1 ,

= 0.5 V

i

o

10 V and R = 1 ,

=

5 V

i

o

10 V

and R = 10 ,

=

5 V

i

o

3

3

3

R +

R

=

4

4

2

= 0.5 A

=

5 A

= 0.5 A

R  PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION

The superposition principle states that the voltage across (or current through) an element in a linear circuit is the algebraic sum of the voltages across (or currents through) that element due to each independent source acting alone. Problem 4.3
Solve for
I
x in Figure 4.1 using superposition.
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
I x
+
−−−−
V x
+
30 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
–6 A

Figure 4.1

 Carefully DEFINE the problem. Each component is labeled completely. The problem is clear. PRESENT everything you know about the problem. Using the principle of superposition, we will need to find the desired current when the current source is turned off, or set equal to zero. This implies the replacement of the current source with an open circuit. Let this value be equal to I x ′. We will also need to find the desired current when the voltage source is turned off. This implies the replacement of the voltage source with a short circuit. Let this value be equal to I x ″. Then, the desired current is the sum of these two currents, i.e., I x = I x ′ + I x ″ Establish a set of ALTERNATIVE solutions and determine the one that promises the greatest likelihood of success. This circuit, having two independent sources, can be analyzed using nodal or mesh analysis, as seen in Chapter 3. The problem statement requires the use of superposition. The principle of superposition can be very useful, especially when there are several independent sources. More work may be required to find the desired voltage or current, but the analysis is performed using simpler circuits.

ATTEMPT a problem solution. Setting the current source to zero, the circuit becomes 10 ΩΩΩΩ
'
5 ΩΩΩΩ
v
I x
v
1
2
+
' −−−−
V x
+
30 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
Use nodal analysis to find
At node 1 :
v
and
v
.
1
2
At node 2 :
v
30
v
0
v
v
v
− v
v
− 0
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
+
+
= 0
+
= 0
10
10
5
5
5
Simplifying,
v
30
+
v
+
(2)(v
v
)
=
0
v
v
+
v
=
0
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
4
v
2 v
=
30
- v
+
2v
=
0
1
2
1
2
2
v
v
=
15
1
2

The system of simultaneous equations is

Clearly,

and

v

v

1

2

'

V

x

=

I

x ' =

v

V

1

x

'

v

2

5

=

5 5

=

=

=

 2 -1   v    -1 2    v  1  15   2     =  0  1  2 1   15  1  30  4 −  1  1 2     0   =  3  15   10 − 5 = 5 volts.

1

amp.

=

10

5

Setting the voltage source to zero, the circuit becomes 10 ΩΩΩΩ
" 5 ΩΩΩΩ
v
I x
1
v 2
+
" −−−−
V x
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ

–6 A

Use nodal analysis to find At node 1 :

 v 1 v 1 − 0 + v 1 − 0 + v 1 − v 2 10 10 5 v 1 + v 1 + (2)(v 1 − v 2 ) = 0 4v 1 − 2v 2 = 0 2v 1 − v 2 = 0

and

v

= 0

Simplifying,

2

.

At node 2 :

v

2

v

1

v

2

0

+

5

5

=

v

- v

2

v

1

+

1

+

2 v

2

v

2

=

= -30

-30

The system of simultaneous equations is

-1

2

-1   v

  v

2

1

2

=

0

- 30

v

v

1

2

=

1

2

2   - 30

1  

0

1

4

1 1

=

3

- 30

- 60

=

-10

- 20

-6

Clearly,

and

V "

x

=

v

1

v

2

=

I

x

"

=

V "

x

10

=

5 5

-10

(-20)

= 2

amps.

=

10

volts.

The sum of the currents, I '

current,

and I " , due to the two independent sources acting alone is the

x

x

I

x , of the circuit due to both sources.

I

I

x =

x

1

=

+

I

2

x

'

=

+

I

3

x

"

amps.

EVALUATE the solution and check for accuracy. Find
I
using both sources and nodal analysis. The circuit is as follows.
x
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
I x
v 1
v 2
+
−−−−
V x
+
30 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
At node 1 :
At node 2 :
v
30
v
0
v
v
v
v
0
v 2
1
1
1
2
2
1
+
+
= 0
+
= -6
10
10
5
5
5

–6 A

Simplifying,

v

4 v

2 v

1

1

1

30

+

2 v

v

2

v

2

=

1

+

(2)(v

=

30

15

1

v

2

)

=

0

v

- v

2

v

1

+

1

+

2 v

2

The system of simultaneous equations is

Clearly,

and

  2 -1   v 1     -1 2     v 2   =    v   v 1    1  2 1   15 1 = 4 −  1  1   2   - 30  =  2 V x = v 1 − v 2 = 0 − (-15) = 15 volts. V x 15 I x = 5 = 5 = 3 amps.

15

- 30

30

3 15

30

60

v

2

=

=

-30

-30

=

0

-15

This answer is the same as the answer obtained using the principle of superposition. Our check for accuracy was successful.

Has the problem been solved SATISFACTORILY? If so, present the solution; if not, then return to “ALTERNATIVE solutions” and continue through the process again. This problem has been solved satisfactorily.

I

x

= 3 A

 Problem 4.4 [4.11] Apply the superposition principle to find v Figure 4.1.

6 ΩΩΩΩ

o in the circuit of 20 V
3 ΩΩΩΩ

Figure 4.1

Let

respectively. For

v

o

= v

o1

+ v

o2

+ v

o3

, where

v

o1

,

v

o2

, and

v

v o1

, consider the circuit below.

o3

6 ΩΩΩΩ

are due to the 20-V, 1-A, and 2-A sources, 20 V
3 ΩΩΩΩ

6 || (4 + 2) = 3

For

v o2

, consider the circuit below.

6

ΩΩΩΩ  3 || 6 = 2

For

v o3

, consider the circuit below.

3 ΩΩΩΩ 6 ΩΩΩΩ 3 ΩΩΩΩ

v o2

v

o1

= (1 2)(20)

=

6

ΩΩΩΩ

10 V 2 
= 
 (4)
= 1 V
 4
+
2
+
2 

2 A

3 ΩΩΩΩ 3
ΩΩΩΩ
3
ΩΩΩΩ
−−−−
+

v o3

6 || (4 + 2) = 3

v

o3

=

(-1)(3)

=

-3

 Thus, v o = 10 + 1− 3 = 8 V Problem 4.5 A linear circuit has the following independent sources: V 1 , V 2 , and I S

along with a current,

elements (resistors and dependent sources) in the circuit. Complete the following table.

I

R

, through a resistor. It cannot be assumed that these are the only

 Circuit number V 1 (volts) V 2 (volts) I S (amps) I R (amps) Condition #1 10 0 0 2 Condition #2 0 5 0 –1 Condition #3 0031 Condition #4 10 5 3 Condition #5 10 –20 3 Condition #6 6

This problem is based on linearity and the principle of superposition.

From the Conditions #1, #2, and #3, we know

I

I

I

Condition #4 :

Condition #5 :

R =

R =

R =

I

I

R

R

2

-1

1

amps when the only contributing independent source is V

amp when the only contributing independent source is V

1 =

=

3

2

S =

amp when the only contributing independent source is I

=

=

10

5

5   (-1) +   3   (1)

3

10   (2) + 

=

 10    (2) +  - 20   (-1) +  10   5 

  

3   (1)

3

2

1

=

2

+

+

1

4

= 2 A

+

1

= 7 A

10

5

volts.

volts.

amps.

Condition #6 : The following are only three of an infinite set of solutions.

If only one source is not equal to zero

then

or

or

V 1 =

V

1

=

?

0

0

V

2 =

V

2 =

=

V 1 V

=

2

0

?

0

I

S

= 0

I

S

=

I

S =

0

?

I

I

I

R =

R =

R =

6

6

6

6

6

6

 

V

1

10

V

2

=

(2)

 
(-1)

= 

=

5

S

I

(1)

3

V 1 =

V

2

=

I

S =

30

- 30

18  SOURCE TRANSFORMATIONS

A source transformation is the process of replacing a voltage source

with a current source

I

S in parallel with a resistor R or vice versa.

V

S

in series with a resistor R

Problem 4.6

equivalent, where

Given that the following circuits are linear, prove that the two circuits are = V
I
.
R S
S
S
R
S R
+
+
V S

V R
+
I S
R S

V

Two circuits are said to be equivalent if they have the same voltage-current relationship at their terminals. Begin by finding
V
and
I
x in the following circuit.
x
R
R
S
V x
I x
+
+
V S
Clearly,
V
− V
x
= S
I x
R
S
or
V
= V
− R
I
x
S
S
x

V

 Using KVL, or Now, find V x and
 Using KCL, or We know that R

S - V
+
(R
+
R)I
+
V
=
0
S
S
x
V
− V
I
= S
x
+
R
R S
I
in this circuit.
x
R
V
x
I x
+
I S
R S
V
x
= I
+
I S
x
R
S
V
I
− R
I
x = R
S
S
S
x
V
S
=
.
So,
I
S
V
− R
I
.
x = V
S
S
x

Using mesh analysis,

We know that

R S

In both circuits,

V

=

x

V

S

I S

= V

S

.

So,

R

S

I

x

 R I x + V + R S (I x − I S ) (R S + R)I x = R S I S − V I x = R S R I S S − V + R V − V I x = S . and R S + V I V S − x = R . R S + R

Therefore, the two circuits are equivalent.

V

Problem 4.7

i

o

.

12 V [4.23]
Given the circuit in Figure 4.1, use source transformation to find
4 A
4 ΩΩΩΩ
3 ΩΩΩΩ
2 ΩΩΩΩ
i o
+
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
2 A

Figure 4.1

Transforming only the current sources leads to Fig. (a). Continuing with source transformations finally produces the circuit in Fig. (d).

12 V 12 V
10 V
i
4 ΩΩΩΩ
3 ΩΩΩΩ
2 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
o
+
+
+
10 ΩΩΩΩ

(a) 4 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
i o
+
+
12 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
22 V

(b) 4 ΩΩΩΩ
i o
+
12 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
2.2 A

(c) 4 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
i o
+
+
12 V
i o
11 V

(d)

Applying KVL to the loop in Fig. (d), - 12 + 9 i
+ 11 = 0
→
= 1 9 = 111.11 mA
i o
o
Problem 4.8
Using source transformations, solve for
I
o in Figure 4.1.
20 ΩΩΩΩ
8 ΩΩΩΩ
15 ΩΩΩΩ
I o
+
100 V
30 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
4 A

Figure 4.1

I

o

= 2 A  THEVENIN'S THEOREM

Thevenin's theorem states that a linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent

circuit consisting of a voltage source

circuit voltage at the terminals and

when the independent sources are zero. An alternative way to find

circuit current between the terminals,

is to find the short-

is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals

V

Th

R Th

I sc

in series with a resistor

R

Th

R Th

, where

V

Th

is the open-

; then,

V

Th R Th

R

L

V

Th

R

Th

= V

oc

=

V

oc

I

sc

Note that finding the equivalent resistance between the terminals using this approach is a valid

method only if there are no dependent sources. Calculating method with independent and dependent sources.

R

Th

using

V

oc

and

I

sc

is a valid

Finally, if V

source at the terminals, as shown below, to find

=

I

sc

=

0

, then the circuit must be excited with a voltage source or a current

R Th

.

oc V o
I o
+
+
−−−−
I
o
V o

Find

Now,

I

o if given a voltage source

1/I o or

V

o

= 1 V.

R

Th

=

R Th = V o /1.

Find

V

o

if given a current source

I

o

= 1 A.

Problem 4.9

the current

Solve for the Thevenin equivalent circuit as seen by the 10-resistor with

I

o flowing through it in Figure 4.1.

Carefully DEFINE the problem. Each component is labeled completely. The problem is clear.

PRESENT everything you know about the problem. To find the Thevenin equivalent circuit, we need to find the open-circuit voltage (

the terminals of the 10-resistor with the current

find the short-circuit current (

V oc

) across

I

o flowing through it. We also need to

I sc

) through these terminals. Then,

V Th

= V

oc

and

R Th

= V

oc I

sc

Because the circuit has no dependent sources, there is an alternative way to find the Thevenin

is the input resistance at the terminals when the independent sources are set

equal to zero. This method will not be used in the initial attempt to find a solution. It is better to find the short-circuit current and calculate the Thevenin resistance because it will work for any circuit. However, we can find the input resistance at the terminals to check our initial solution.

resistance.

R Th

Establish a set of ALTERNATIVE solutions and determine the one that promises the greatest likelihood of success. To find the open-circuit voltage, the obvious techniques are nodal analysis, mesh analysis, or source transformations along with KVL. Because we want to find a voltage, let's eliminate mesh analysis as a promising technique. It is clear that nodal analysis produces a set of three equations and three unknowns. Simplifying the circuit using source transformations yields a single loop from which we can easily find the open-circuit voltage.

To find the short-circuit current, a similar argument can be made. So, let's eliminate nodal analysis because we are looking for a current rather than a voltage. Mesh analysis gives a set of equations to be solved. Lastly, source transformations allows the circuit to be reduced to a single loop from which we can easily find the short-circuit current.

With the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current at the terminals, the Thevenin equivalent circuit is found as stated above.

ATTEMPT a problem solution. Begin by finding the open-circuit voltage as seen by the element. 20 ΩΩΩΩ
8 ΩΩΩΩ
15 ΩΩΩΩ
+
+
100 V
30 ΩΩΩΩ
V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
4
A
oc
−−−−

After a couple of source transformations, as seen in Problem 4.8, the circuit becomes 20 ΩΩΩΩ
20 ΩΩΩΩ
+
+
60 V
V
I +
20 V
oc
−−−−
Using KVL, find
.
V oc

where

- 60 + 20 I + 20 I + 20 = 0

40 I = 40

I = 1 amp

I =

60

=

20 20

V

oc

V

oc

20

= 1

60

V

oc

V

=

=

oc

40

V

oc

volts

20

Now, find the short-circuit current through the element. 20 ΩΩΩΩ
8 ΩΩΩΩ
15 ΩΩΩΩ
+
100 V
30 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
4
A
I sc

Again using source transformations, the circuit can be reduced as shown below.

Clearly,

Then,

R Th =

I sc =

40

10

= 10 ΩΩΩΩ
40 V
40
=
4 amps.
10

4

ohms.

I sc

Therefore, the Thevenin equivalent circuit is 10 ΩΩΩΩ
40 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ

EVALUATE the solution and check for accuracy. To check the open-circuit voltage, perform nodal analysis using the circuit below. 20 ΩΩΩΩ
8 ΩΩΩΩ
15 ΩΩΩΩ
v
v
1
2
v 3
+
+
100 V
30 ΩΩΩΩ
V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
4 A
oc
−−−−
v
100
v
v
v
1
1
1
2
For node 1,
+
+
= 0
20
30
8
v
v
v
v
2
1
2
3
For node 2,
+
= 0
8
15
v
v
v
v
3
2
3
3
For node 3,
+
+
4
=
0
15
10
10

Simplifying these equations and putting them into matrix form results in

v

      v

v

 

50

-15

0

- 30

23

- 2

0

- 8

8

1

2

3

1200

0

=

120

which yields

Hence,

V

Th

=

v

1 =

V

oc

=

48 volts

v

2

=

40 volts

v

2 =

40 volts

v

3 =

25 volts

Since there are only independent sources, an alternative way to find

to zero and calculate the resistance of the modified network. After replacing the voltage source with a short circuit and the current source with an open circuit, the network becomes

R Th

is to set the sources 20 ΩΩΩΩ
8 ΩΩΩΩ
15 ΩΩΩΩ
30 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
R eq

10 ΩΩΩΩ

Combine the resistors to the left of the open circuit.

Combine the resistors to the right of the open circuit.(10 || 10 ) + 15 = 20

(20 || 30 ) + 8

=

20 20 ΩΩΩΩ

R eq

20 ΩΩΩΩ  eq

R

10 ΩΩΩΩ

An equivalent resistance of 10 matches the value that was calculated using

V

oc

and

I

sc

.

Our check for accuracy was successful.

Has the problem been solved SATISFACTORILY? If so, present the solution; if not, then return to “ALTERNATIVE solutions” and continue through the process again. This problem has been solved satisfactorily. The Thevenin equivalent circuit is as follows. 10 ΩΩΩΩ
40 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ

Problem 4.10

Find the Thevenin equivalent as seen by R in Figure 4.1. 20 ΩΩΩΩ
R
+
25 V
30 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
3 A

First, find the open-circuit voltage, where

Figure 4.1

V

Th

= V

oc

. 20 ΩΩΩΩ
v
V
1
+
oc
v 2
−−−−
+
25 V
30 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
3
A

Using nodal analysis, At node 1 :

At node 2 : − 25
v
− 0
v
− 0
v 1
1
2
+
= 0
= 3
20 30
5
3 v
+
2 v
=
75
15
v 2 =
1
1
15
v 1 =
Clearly,
V
=
v
v
=
15
15
=
0
volts.
oc
1
2
Now, find the short-circuit current.
20 ΩΩΩΩ
I 20
I sc
I 30
I 5
+
25 V
30 ΩΩΩΩ
5 ΩΩΩΩ
Clearly,
= I
− I
.
I sc
20
30
Perform KVL using the left loop.
- 25
+
20 I
+
30 I
=
0
20
30

3 A Begin by finding
I
20 in the following modified circuit.
20 ΩΩΩΩ
I 20
I x
+
25 V
30/7 ΩΩΩΩ
3 A
30
- 25
+ 20 I
+
I
=
0
where I
=
I
+
3
20
x
20
7 x
140 I
+ (30)(I
+
3)
=
175
20
20
170 I
=
85
20
I
=
0.5
amps
20

Now,

Finally,

I

sc

- 25

+

I 30

=

I

20

(20)(0.5)

=

+

30 I

30 =

I 15 30
=
=
0.5
30

0.5

amps

0.5

=

0

0

amps.

Since 0/0 is undefined, we need to excite the circuit with a 1-V voltage source at the terminals of R in order to find R Th . V o
20 ΩΩΩΩ
I
o
+
+
25 V
i 1
30 ΩΩΩΩ
i 2
5 ΩΩΩΩ
i 3
3 A
Use mesh analysis to find
I
. Then,
= V
I
.
o
R Th
o
o
For loop 1 :
- 25
+
20i
(30)(i
i
)
=
0
1 +
1
2
For
loop
2
:
(30)( i
i )
+
V
+
(5)( i
i
)
=
0
where V
1 volt
o =
2
1
o
2
3
For loop 3 :
i
-3
This is the constraint equation.
3 =
Simplifying,
50i
1 30i
=
25
2
- 30i
35i
=
-16
1 +
2

In matrix form,

Now,

I

o

=

-i

2

=

0.0588

and

50

  - 30

i

1

i

2

30   i  

i

-

35

 

1

2

=

25

-16

=

0.4647

- 0.0588

R Th =

V

o

1

=

I

o

0.0588

= 17

ohms.

Therefore, the Thevenin equivalent circuit is as follows. 17 ΩΩΩΩ
0 V
R

[4.33]

Problem 4.11

between terminals a and b.

For the circuit in Figure 4.1, find the Thevenin equivalent

20 ΩΩΩΩ 20 V
+
10 ΩΩΩΩ
20
ΩΩΩΩ
a
b
10 ΩΩΩΩ
5 A
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
+
30 V

Figure 4.1

To find

R Th

, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

20 ΩΩΩΩ 10 ΩΩΩΩ
20 ΩΩΩΩ
a
b
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ

where 20 || 20 = 10 .

(a)

Now, transform the wye subnetwork to a delta as shown in Fig. (b). 30 ΩΩΩΩ
a
b
10 ΩΩΩΩ
30 ΩΩΩΩ
30 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ

(b)

where 10 || 30 = 7.5 .

Hence,

To find

V Th

R

Th

= R

ab

= 30 || (7.5 + 7.5) = 30 || 15 = 10 ΩΩΩΩ

, we transform the 20-V and the 5-V sources to obtain the circuit shown in Fig. (c). 10 V
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
+
a
+
10 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
i 1
10 ΩΩΩΩ
+
+
i 2
30 V
50 V

(c)

b

For loop 1,

For loop 2,

30

+

50

1

-

- 2 = 3i

+

30i

i

2

- 50

6 = - i

10

1

+

+ 3i

30i

2

1

2

Solving (1) and (2),

i

1 =

0 A

10i

10i

2

1

Applying KVL to the output loop,

 = 0 (1) = 0 (2)

and

i

2 =

2 A - V
10i
+
30
10i
=
0
ab
1
2
V
=
10 V
ab
V
= V
= 10 V
Th
ab
Problem 4.12
Find the Thevenin equivalent as seen by R in Figure 4.1.
20 ΩΩΩΩ
I x
+
10 V
20 ΩΩΩΩ
R 10 ΩΩΩΩ
–3 I x

Figure 4.1

Therefore, the Thevenin equivalent circuit is as follows. 20 ΩΩΩΩ
–20 V
R  NORTON'S THEOREM

Norton's theorem states that a linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit

consisting of a current source

current at the terminals and

independent sources are turned off.

I

N

in parallel with a resistor

R

N

, where

I

N is the short-circuit

R

N is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals when the

Problem 4.13

Find the Norton equivalent of the circuit in Figure 4.1.

In Problem 4.9, V

Recall that

oc

= R

R

N

=

Th

40

volts,

; so

R

N =

I

sc

10

=

4 amps, and

ohms.

Therefore, the Norton equivalent circuit is as shown.

4

R

A =
10 ohms.
Th
10 ΩΩΩΩ

10 ΩΩΩΩ

Problem 4.14

viewed from terminals:

[4.41]

Given the circuit in Figure 4.1, obtain the Norton equivalent as

(a) a-b

120 V (b)
c-d
a
b
6 ΩΩΩΩ
4 ΩΩΩΩ
+
3 ΩΩΩΩ
6 A
2 ΩΩΩΩ

c

d

Figure 4.1

(a) From the circuit in Fig. (a), R
th
6 ΩΩΩΩ
4 ΩΩΩΩ
3
ΩΩΩΩ

(a)

2 ΩΩΩΩ

R

N = 4 || (2 + 6 || 3) = 4 || 4 = 2 ΩΩΩΩ For
I
N or
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
V Th
+
−−−−
V Th
6 ΩΩΩΩ
4 ΩΩΩΩ
+
120 V
3
ΩΩΩΩ
6
A
2 ΩΩΩΩ

(b)

After some source transformations, the circuit becomes that shown in Fig. (c). +
−−−−
V Th
2 ΩΩΩΩ
4 ΩΩΩΩ
2 ΩΩΩΩ
+
+
40 V
i
12 V

(c)

Applying KVL to the circuit in Fig. (c),

Hence,

and

- 40 + 8 i + 12 = 0 i = 7 2

V Th

I

N

=

= V

4i

Th

14 V = 14 2 = 7 A

=

R

N

(b) To get R N , consider the circuit in Fig. (d). 6 ΩΩΩΩ
4 ΩΩΩΩ
R N
3 ΩΩΩΩ
2 ΩΩΩΩ

(d)

R

N = 2 || (4 + (6 || 3) = 2 || 6 = 1.5 ΩΩΩΩ

To get I N , the circuit in Fig. (c) applies except that it needs slight modification as in Fig. (e). 2 ΩΩΩΩ
i
+
+
V Th
12 V
−−−−
(e)
i = (40 −12) /(2 + 4 + 2) 7 2
and
V
=
12
+
2 i
=
19
Th
= V
R
= 19 1.5 = 12.667 A
I N
Th
N

Problem 4.15

Find the Norton equivalent of the circuit in Figure 4.1. 20 ΩΩΩΩ
R
+
30 V
20 ΩΩΩΩ
10 ΩΩΩΩ
2 A

Figure 4.1

Therefore, the Norton equivalent circuit is as follows.

–1/4 A   R  MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER

Maximum power is transferred to the load when the load resistance equals the Thevenin

resistance as seen by the load (

R

L

= R

Th

).

 Problem 4.16 Given the circuit in Figure 4.1, complete the following table.   R S + V S − R L Figure 4.1 V S (volts) R S (ohms) R L (ohms) Power of R L (watts) Condition #1 20 10 Condition #2 V 10 Condition #3 20 10 Condition #4 20 Let p be the power of the load resistor, R L . Then,  p =   R V S + R 2    R L .  S L 

We want to find the maximum power transferred to the load. The maximum power is transferred to the load when the load resistance is equivalent to the Thevenin resistance as seen by the load.

In this case,

R

L

Condition #1 :

= R

S

R

L

=

and

R

S

p =

2

V

S

4R

L

= 10 ΩΩΩΩ

Condition #2 :

R

L

=

R

S

= 10 ΩΩΩΩ

Condition #3 :

p =

R

20