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BURBA (Bottom Up selection, collection and management of URBAn waste) Carolina Launo carolina.launo@dappolonia.

it, Ivo Maria Cassissa, Simona Bruna DAppolonia S.p.A. Genova, Silvia Mier Acorde Technologies S.A Santander, Pedro Santo Antonio Tekever Lisbon, Paolo Barattini, Matteo Bonasso Ridgeback S.A.S. Torino, Alberto Rovetta Politecnico di Milano, Milano Riassunto
BURBA un progetto finanziato dalla Commissione Europea sotto FP7 (Seventh Framework Program). un progetto di durata tre anni (1/01/2011-31/12/2013). La finalit di BURBA sviluppare un sistema automatico da usare per la gestione intelligente del rifiuto. Il sistema consiste in una rete di cassonetti intelligenti e uno strumento IT per la gestione della raccolta e trasporto dei rifiuti. Questo includer sia le capacit di RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) che di LBS (Local-Based service). RFID consentir di identificare in modo affidabile i singoli contenitori, utenti, elementi contrassegnati o categorie dei rifiuti [1], mentre LBS permetter una facile identificazione della localizzazione dei cassonetti pi idonei e un miglioramento del suo utilizzo da parte del cittadino (questo consente di scegliere il pi vicino allattuale posizione dellutente, non pieno, per quella categoria di rifiuto, etc.).

BURBA project has been funded by European Commission under the FP7 (Seventh Framework Program). It is a three years project (1/01/2011- 31/12/2013). The aim of BURBA is to develop an automatic system to be used for intelligent waste management. The system consists of intelligent waste containers and IT tool for waste collection and transport management. It will include both RFIDs (Radio Frequency Identification) and cell-based-phone LBS (Local-Based service) abilities. RFID will allow to reliably identifying individual receptacles, users, single marked items or waste categories[1], while LBS will allow an easy identification of the location of the most suitable waste container and an improvement of its utilization by the citizen (it permits to choose the closest one to user actual position, not full, for that waste category, etc).

1. Introduction
Waste management is an urgent problem in urban environments. Therefore, a more efficient and sustainable waste management system promotes higher life quality and fewer costs for the city authorities and less impact on the environment. This is one of the topics of the Environment Theme, according to FP7 Specific Programme and therefore faced by BURBA, project that is part of this program. BURBA project proposes (as already mentioned in the Summary) an innovative method of optimization of the waste management through the application of RFID and LBS technologies integrated into an intelligent waste container (IWAC) and an IT tool to exploit the collected data. The main innovation brought by the solution proposed in BURBA project can be summarized in five points:

Intelligent Containers: a wireless solution is proposed to collect/transmit data and RFID technology will let identify a single user/group of users as well as the waste category; Technological developments for the power source for the intelligent container electronics pack; LBS for waste disposal: BURBA system lets the citizens to know through the cell-phone where, when and what waste can be disposed of, how much will it be charged, how much is recycled and how much the citizen attitude contributes to CO2 reduction. The feedback information will motivate and educate the citizens; Citizen's Waste management IT tools innovation exploiting accurate position (in real-time LBS) and RFID to improve service (sorting, billing, educational and motivational feedback); Waste service management IT tools innovation exploiting accurate position in real-time and RFID to improve service (useful to optimize the routing of pick-up trucks); Feedbacks: statistics for producers and sellers of goods RFID marked (undergoing regulatory constrains).

2. Relation
BURBA consists of a Consortium in which each partner has a specific role according to its expertise (referring to Tab. 1). Partners DAppolonia (Italy) POLIMI (Italy) ACORDE (Spain) Profile Industrial Expertise/Main roles

Ridgeback (Italy)

Tekever (Portugal)

AOTO (China) Camogli Municipality (Italy) Santander Municipality (Spain) Rzeszow Municipality (Poland)

Project Coordination, System Integration and testing, Patenting evaluation University State of the art evaluation, HW design, Research prototyping and testing HW electronics and prototyping System SME Integration, testing, HW-SW interface, Communication and Localization Technologies. Definition of end user requirements, definition SME of Waste management Platform service feature product quality assurance, SW design GIS maps, Human machine interfaces, ergonomic, safety, regulation. SW development, User interfaces and mobile SME systems, Communication technologies and middleware. Pilot prototype fabrication, User and SME environmental requirement. Asian market study Public User and environmental requirements, system validation. Body Public User and environmental requirements, system validation. Body Public User and environmental requirements, system validation. Body Tab. 1 Consortium

At the beginning of the project up to now the following technical objectives were pursued through specific activities and steps: - User requirements and Technical Specifications collection: user requirements collection through questionnaires forwarded to municipalities involved in the project, definition of a number of scenarios and target application, PA and QA plan, legal issues study, preliminary commercial feasibility (supported by a Life Cycle Assessment), specification of initial technical requirements, SW and HW were specified and finally production of the preliminary design document; - Hardware Development: selection and design of electronic components, integration of designed modules into working platform, definition of connectivity between HW pack and SW pack, initial set up of hardware test; - Software Development: development of software modules collecting, processing and clustering sensor and positioning data, development of all software interfaces to external systems, initial development of communications middleware; - Dissemination activities: Dissemination activities were carried out throughout the project starting from the implementation of the corresponding web-site [2] and its maintenance. Besides this, IPR issues were taken into account and the managing of IPR review together with an evaluation of the existing patents and of possible patenting procedures. An initial development of business model and way to market was analyzed. This paper will be focused on the last results in terms of HW and SW developments.

2.1 The Intelligent Waste Container (IWAC) Concept

The IWAC (Intelligent Waste Container) will be able to identify the citizen/user through a personal RFID card, to control (e.g. lock/unlock) the lid and, therefore, to give feedback about the correct disposal by the user. The IWAC will be able to identify items marked with RFID tags and will be marked itself with an RFID for redundant identification in case of failure of electronics. Taking advantage of RFIDs ability to reliably identify individual/groups of users/citizens and the kind of waste being disposed, as well as if it is correctly separated, municipalities can create incentive-based recycling programs that accurately reward customers for the amount they recycle and/or charge proportionally to the amount of the generated waste, while minimizing the amount of trash headed for the landfill. In a recent future, in which single items will be RFID tagged, all data gathered by the system will allow improved market studies and the provision of information about path and life of products, under the property privacy warrantee terms.

3.1 Hardware developments

BURBA system integrates several sensors, wireless interfaces, and RFID and LBS technologies for intelligent waste management. Considering the predefined functional requirements, ACORDE has designed a flexible, modular and robust system that allows the integration of all these technologies into a low cost platform (see Fig. 1). The system incorporates a compact solution to monitor different parameters like the temperature inside the container, relative humidity, waste weight and volume or external events related to unexpected movements of the IWAC (displacements, falls, raisings, etc.) The design also includes a RFID module to identify users and recognize waste items [3]. This information will let the DSS inform about the correct or incorrect waste separation.

By means of LEDs and sounds, the user will be able to know whether the IWAC is the suitable container for the waste disposal or if the system is Out of Service because either it is full or the battery must be replaced. ACORDE has also incorporated a GPS to update the IWAC position every time the system detects the container is being moved to another place. Thus, the company in charge of waste collection can monitor all the installed IWACs and know, all the time, their current position and state. An intelligent locking system has been installed to keep the lid closed when it is required, for instance, because the IWAC is full or in movement, when the system detects too many contaminants, or when the user does not have permission to use the IWAC because it is only for authorized personnel (industrial applications).

Fig. 1 Hardware Block Diagram As novelty, ACORDE has incorporated an RF solution suitable for the design and development of low cost and low power communication systems that guarantees the system is able to operate at large distances (up to 25 Km considering free space propagation). All IWACs implement a wireless interface to exchange data with a relay node (IRN) that acts as intermediary between the DSS and the installed IWACs (see Fig. 2). The ISM band RF module (869 MHz) is unlicensed in Europe and has been optimized for low-power radio communication.

Fig. 2 Onboard waste container electronics The optimized design, focused on reducing power consumption, has let ACORDE provide a solution that guarantees the autonomy of the IWAC during a long period of time. The power system has been designed to combine a rechargeable battery with a

solar panel. In the worst-case scenario, where only the battery could be installed, the expected battery lifetime it is around 2 months. On the other hand, considering only 4 hours of good light per day and a scenario where the efficiency of the panel, in shadowy conditions and bad orientation, is 5%, the system should be self-sufficient and the batteries should be only replaced when they start to fail due to the degradation from use. Taking into account that solar panels could not be a suitable solution for all environments, the system has been designed to allow the connection of fuel cells or other technology that could guarantee a self-sufficient solution or, at least, improve the autonomy of the system. ACORDE has performed several tests to ensure the functionality of individual requirements and the global behaviour. Considering the scenarios where IWACs must be installed, the system has been tested simulating a hostile environment with temperatures from -20C to +50C and shock and vibration test have been performed to assure the system is able to support emptying operations.

4.1 Software developments

The BURBA software was designed based on requirements from BURBA end-users. As a result of the software functional requirements, the Fig. 3 presents the BURBA software system that manages the end-users interaction through a multi-channel interface. Mainly, end-users can use web browsers or mobile applications on multiple different mobile devices to interact with BURBA software system. Inside BURBA software system, it can be found a web server and web user interface components that handle requests from web browsers. By the other side, mobile applications requests can be straight directed to the BURBA server components. The BURBA server components include multi-language, business intelligence and other specific software components (fleet manager, content manager, and so on). The BURBA database is managed by the content manager component. Regarding the external systems interaction, the BURBA Software System exchanges data with existing systems (for example, ERPs systems), other BURBA instances and IWACs through Relay Nodes. Existing systems interaction with BURBA will be handled by a special purpose connector that should be implemented according to the specific interaction requirements. In addition, the BURBA Portal will be specialized on different portals (for the municipality, waste enterprises, citizens, and so on) regarding the user profile. The main idea of using this software system is to provide a common technological base for all (internal and external) portals in order to provide a single solution for managing content, designing and specifying portals and a homogeneous and easily customizable user interface.

Fig. 3 BURBA Software System BURBA software system architecture will be web based and their components will be implemented considering the following technologies and running environments:

BURBA Web Server IIS, Apache [4], or other (handle web request and reply messages) with dynamic support (ASP.Net); BURBA Database Server Microsoft SQL Server [5], Oracle, MySQL (data management and replication); BURBA User Interface Components ASP.Net developed components for user interface (citizen, municipality and waste enterprise PORTALs); BURBA Server Components C# developed components for BURBA services (IWAC manager, Collection manager, Fleet manager, Content manager and ERP integration); BURBA Server Running Environment Windows operating system; BURBA Client Running Environment web browsers on Windows, Linux, MacOS or other operating system. Mobile applications running on Android, IPhone and J2ME platform; BURBA Mobile applications end-users (citizens and workers) can also interact with the BURBA system from mobile phones (Android, IPhone or J2ME).

3. Conclusions
As mentioned in paragraph 2 the activities performed up to now have involved some technical objectives, in particular the Hardware and Software developments. Therefore the paper has been focused on these subjects giving an overview of the system from both sides. From Hardware side the proposed solution consists of two different subsystems: the IWAC and the IRN. The first one will contains the necessary components to measure all the parameters required by end users as well as the technology to identify user, waste categories and containers; whereas the second one is a communication module that will manage the information sent by a group of IWACs. With this proposal, the power consumption is reduced since data on demand is only sent by IRN, allowing the IWAC to work in a low power mode the most of the time. From the Software side the proposed solution is based on multichannel interfaces taking into account which monitoring entities (IWACs and waste collection trucks) are involved in the process and be aware of their needs and procedures, in order to guarantee the development of effective, robust and timely responsive systems to waste collection.

[1] Binder C.R. and Domnitcheva S., When waste becomes intelligent: Assessing the environmental impact of microchip tagging, Environmental Assessment in the Information Society; [2], BURBA web site; [3] International standard ISO/IEC 18000-6 (Second Edition). Information technologyRadio frequency identification for item management, Part 6: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz; [4], Apache http Server Documentation; [5], Books OnLine for SQL Server 2012.