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# Session 1

3.20 An unknown semiconductor has Eg = 1.1 eV and Nc = Nv . It is doped with 1015 cm3 donors where the donor level is 0.2 eV below EC . Given that EF is 0.25 eV below Ec , calculate ni and the concentration of electrons and holes in the semiconductor at 300 K.

4.8 For a 2 cm long doped Si bar (Nd = 1016 cm3 ) with a crosssectional area=0.05 cm2 , what is the current if we apply 10V across it? If we generate 1020 electron-hole pairs per second per cm3 uniformly in the bar and the lifetime n = p = 104 s, what is the new current? Assume the low level r doesnt change for high level injection. If the voltage is then increased to 100,000V, what is the new current? Assume p = 500 cm2 /V s, but you must choose the appropriate value for electrons.

4.10 In a very long p-type Si bar with cross-sectional area=0.5 cm2 and Na = 1017 cm3 , we inject holes such that the steady state excess hole concentration is 5 1016 cm3 at x = 0. What is the steady state separation between Fp and Ec at x = 1000 A? What is the hole current there? How much is the excess stored hole charge? Assume p = 500 cm2 /V -s and p = 1010 s.

Session 2

5.10 The junction described in Prob. 5.9 has a circular cross section with diameter of 10 m. Calculate xn0 , xp0 , Q+ , and 0 for this junction at equilibrium (300 K). Sketch (x) and charge density to scale, as in Fig. 512.

5.14 (a) A Si p+ -n junction 102 cm2 in area has Nd = 1015 cm3 doping on the n side. Calculate the junction capacitance with a reverse bias of 10 V . (b) An abrupt p+ -n junction is formed in Si with a donor doping of Nd = 1015 cm3 . What is the depletion region thickness W just prior to avalanche breakdown?

5.19 A Si p-n junction with cross-sectional area, A = 0.001 cm2 is formed with Na = 1015 cm3 , Nd = 1017 cm3 . Calculate: (a) Contact potential, V0 . (b) Space-charge width at equilibrium (zero bias). (c) Current with a forward bias of 0.5 V . Assume that the current is diusion dominated. Assume n = 1500 cm2 /V -s, p = 450 cm2 /V -s, n = p = 2.5 s. Which carries most of the current, electrons or holes and why? If you wanted to double the electron current, what should you do?

5.32 The diode of Fig. 523c is used in a simple half-wave rectier circuit in which the diode is placed in series with a load resistor. Aussme that the diode oset voltage E0 is 0.4 V and that R = dv/di = 400 . For a load resistor of 1 k and a sinusoidal input of 2 sin t, sketch the output voltage (across the load resistor) over two cycles.

Session 3

6.3 Assume the JFET shown in Fig. 6-6 is Si and has p+ regions doped with 1018 acceptors/cm3 and a channel with 1016 donors/cm3 . If the channel half-width a is 1 m, compare Vp with V0 . What voltage VGD is required to cause pinch-o when V0 is included? With VG = 3 V, at what value of VD does the current saturate?

6.19 Calculate the VT of a Si n-channel MOSFET for an n+ -polysilicon gate with gate oxide thickness=100 A, Na =1018 cm3 and a xed oxide charge of 51010 qC/cm2 . Repeat for a substrate bias of -2.5 V.

6.20 For the MOSFET in Prob. 6.19, and Z=50 m, L=2 m, calculate the drain current at VG =5 V, VD =0.1 V. Repeat for VG =3 V, VD =5 V. Assume an electron channel mobility n =200 cm2 /V-s, and the substrate is connected to the source.

6.28 From Fig 6-44 it is clear that the depletion region of the source and the drain junctions can meet for short channels, a condition called punch-through. Assume the source and the drain regions of an n-channel Si MOSFET are doped with 1020 donors/cm3 and the 1-m-long channel is doped with 1016 acceptors/cm3 . If the source and the substrate are grounded, what drain voltage will cause punch-through?

Session 4

7.1 A bipolar junction transistor is fabricated by ion implantation as followed. A 50 keV boron ion implant (dose=5 1014 cm2 ) is performed into an n-type silicon substrate with Nd = 2 1015 cm3 , followed by a 30 keV phosphorus implant (dose=1 1015 cm2 ). A rapid thermal anneal is then performed at 1100 C for 10 s in a N2 environment. Assume the implant are 100 percent activated by this anneal. The diusivity of boron at 1100 C can be assumed constant with D = 1012 cm2 /s, and for phosphorus D = 5 1013 cm2 /s. Assume that dopants can outdiuse from the substrate. (a) Where are the peaks and what are the widths (at 0.607 of the peak) of the boron and phosphorus implant proles prior to annealing? 3

(b) Where are the peaks and what are the widths of the implant proles after annealing? (c) What is the emitter junction depth and the collector junction depth (as measured from the silicon surface) after annealing?

7.6 A symmetrical p+ -n-p+ Si bipolar transistor has the following properties: Emitter Base Na = 1017 cm3 Nd = 1015 cm3 n = 0.1 s p = 10 s p = 200 cm2 /V-s n = 1300 cm2 /V-s n = 700 cm2 /V-s p = 450 cm2 /V-s

A = 104 cm2 W b = 1 m

(a) Calculate the saturation current IES = ICS . (b) With VEB = 0.3 V and VCB = 40 V, calculate the base current IB , assuming perfect emitter injection eciency. (c) Calculate the emitter injection eciency and the amplication factor , assuming the emitter region is long compared to Ln .

7.12 It is obvious from Eqs. (7-35) and (7-36) that IEO and ICO are the saturation currents of the emitter and collector junctions, respectively, with the opposite junction open circuited. (a) Show that this is true from Eq. (7-32). (b) Find expressions for the following excess concentrations: pC with the emitter junction forward biased and the collector open; pE with the collector junction forward biased and the emitter open. (c) Sketch p (xn ) in the base for the two cases of part (b).

Session 5

8.1 For the p-i-n photodiode of Fig. 8-7, (a) explain why this detector does not have gain; (b) explain how making the device more sensitive to low light levels degrades its speed; (c) if this device is to be used to detect light with = 0.6 m, what material would you use and what substrate would you grow it on?

8.2 A Si solar cell 2 cm2 cm with Ith = 32 nA has an optical generation rate of 1018 EHP/cm3 -s within Lp = Ln = 2 m of the junction. If the depletion width is 1 m, calculate the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage for this cell.

8.7 What composition x of Alx Ga1x As would produce red light emission at 680 nm? What composition of GaAs1x Px ? Inx Ga1x P?

8.18 Assuming equal electron and hole concentrations and band-toband transitions, calculate the minimum carrier concentration n=p for population inversion in GaAs at 300 K. The intrinsic carrier concentration in GaAs is about 106 cm3 .