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Rules for Learning the Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water

Negative Ions (Anions) any anion any anion any anion nitrate NO3acetate (CH3COO-) Chloride (Cl-), Bromide (Br-), Iodide (I-) Sulphate (SO42-) + + + + + + + + + + Sulfide S2+ + Hydroxide OHPhosphate, PO43-, Carbonate, CO32-, sulphite, SO32+ + + + Positive Ions (Cations) alkali ions (Li+,Na+,K+,Rb+,Cs+,Fr+) hydrogen ion [H+(aq)] ammonium ion (NH4+) any cation any cation silver (Ag+), lead (Pb2+), mercury (Hg2+), copper (Cu+), thallium (Tl+) any other cation calcium (Ca2+), strontium (Sr2+), barium (Ba2+), silver (Ag+), lead (Pb2+), radium (Ra2+) any other cation alkali ions (Li+,Na+,K+,Rb+,Cs+,Fr+), alkali earth metals (Be2+,Mg2+,Ca2+,Sr2+,Ba2+,Ra2+), and H+(aq), NH4+ any other cation alkali ions (Li+,Na+,K+,Rb+,Cs+,Fr+), H+(aq),NH4+,Sr2+,Ba2+,Ra2+,Tl+ any other cation alkali ions (Li+,Na+,K+,Rb+,Cs+,Fr+), H+(aq),NH4+ any other cation Solubility of = compounds in Example water = soluble = soluble = soluble = soluble = soluble low solubility (insoluble) = soluble = = low solubility (insoluble) sodium fluoride, NaF, is soluble hydrogen chloride, HCl, is soluble ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, is soluble potassium nitrate, KNO3, is soluble sodium acetate, CH3COONa, is soluble silver chloride, AgCl, forms a white precipitate (a white solid) potassium bromide, KBr, is soluble barium sulphate, BaSO4, forms a white precipitate (a white solid) copper sulphate, CuSO4, is soluble magnesium sulfide, MgS, is soluble zinc sulfide, ZnS, is insoluble strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH)2, is soluble silver hydroxide, AgOH, is insoluble (forms a precipitate) ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4, is soluble magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is insoluble

= soluble = soluble = low solubility (insoluble) low solubility (insoluble) low solubility (insoluble)

= soluble =

= soluble =

All compounds of the ammonium ion (NH4+), and of Alkali metal (Group IA) cations, are soluble. All nitrates and acetates (ethanoates) are soluble. All chlorides, bromides and iodides are soluble EXCEPT those of silver, lead and mercury(I). All sulphates are soluble EXCEPT those of silver, lead, mercury(I), barium, strontium and calcium. All carbonates, sulfites and phosphates are insoluble EXCEPT those of ammonium and Alkali metal (Group IA) cations. All hydroxides are insoluble EXCEPT those of ammonium, barium and alkali metal (Group I) cations. All sulfides are insoluble EXCEPT those of ammonium, Alkali metal (Group I) cations and Alkali earth metal (Group II) cations. All oxides are insoluble EXCEPT those of calcium, barium and Alkali metal (Group I) cations; these soluble ones actually react with the water to form hydroxides (hydrolyse).