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IEEE T r a n s a c t i o n s on Power ApparatusandSystems,

v o l . PAS-94, no. 5,SeptemberIOctober1975


Arndt Charles R.





Detroit, Michigan

This paper describes the investigation and evaluation of relationships between loss-ofexcitation/field (LOF) relaying and stabilityofa 595-MVA generator on theDetroit Edisonsystem. Need for the formulation of a plan of action to promote a reliable application of LOF relays is made evident. Operating guidelines are suggested which will safeguard the generator and system from damage during unstable swings while avoiding inadvertent generator tripping during stable swings. In addition, an examination of operatingcharacteristicsofa loss-of-field relay in response to changes in voltage and frequency is presented.

The studies conducted to date have been performedwith one machine working through a transformer and system impedance into an infinite bus as shown in Figure 1.
P+ J Q




At the presenttime,electricpowerutilities do not agree that LOF relay application to automaticallytripmachines is desirable. While Detroit Edison uses them to trip the generator, several other companies do not. It is felt by some companiesthat these relays have trippedmachines in past blackouts when the machines had not reached thepoint of instability.They,therefore, believe that these machines were removed from their systems unnecessarily and contributed to the blackout. Several relay manufacturers favor the use ofthese relays for machine protection and some have made studies of relay operations during the Northeast blackout. One study indicates that units which were tripped probably had already become unstable with swings which caused the system apparent impedance trajectory to enter the relay operating impedance zone. Another study indicates that of seventeen relay operations, ten were correct, five were undetermined, and two were incorrect. From the above, it is apparent that there is need for a clear and convincing solution which will lead to a reliable application of LOF relays, thus protectinggenerators from damage andyetnot initiating trips during stable swings. To help meet this need, the following course of action was undertakento gain the knowledge anddata necessary to evaluate of an LOF relay and a the characteristics and operation synchronous generator during system disturbances:



Figure 1. Simplified system studied (constants on plants MVA base)

The load seen by the machine at its terminals is represented on an R-X diagram, a typical example of which is shown as Figure 2. The results of the present study will be summarized using this figure as a guide. Point A corresponds to the load seen by the machine under normal steady-state operating conditions (unity power factor for this example). Point B represents the condition of a three-phase fault atthe high-voltage terminalsofthemachine transformer. Point corresponds C to the instantaneous load immediately afterthe fault is cleared, and the trajectory CDEF representsthetransient load impedance following the clearing of thefault. The circle of center G anddiameter HI is the 6GHz trippingcharacteristic of the loss~of-excitation relay, where point H corresponds to the relay characteristicoffsetand point I to the maximum ohmic reach. different initial T h e R-X trajectory was determined for operating conditions under three-phase faults and under loss of excitation. The following results were obtained:
1) Under three-phase faults, with clearing times close to critical, the R-X trajectory, in certain cases, penetrated therelaytripping circle while the machine was still stable. In several cases, the tripping circle was crossed in the vicinity of the maximum ohmic reach point I and,in a few cases, in the vicinity of the offset point H. The maximum timeduring which thetrajectorystayedwithin the relay operating circle was 0.21seconds (1 2.6 cycles) for the crossings at I and 0.10 seconds (6 cycles) for the crossing at H. Had these cases occurred in reality,the machine would have been tripped unnecessarily.

1) A mathematicalmodel was developed which simulates one of Detroit Edisons major units which is protected by a LOF relay. The model uses machine and regulator constants supplied by the manufacturer. Studies have been conducted using analog and digital computers to determine the apparent impedance trajectories of the generator following system disturbances. 2) An investigation of the generators LOF relay characteristics has been conducted which relates relay response to voltage and frequency.
3 ) Field tests are tentatively planned to determine, experimentally,transfer functions describing thedynamic behavior ofthegenerator. The performance of these tests would provide a more realistic mathematical representation of the machine.

Paper T 73318-3, recommended and approved by the IEEEPower SysternRelaying Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEEPES Summer Meeting & EHV/UHV Conference, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, July 15-20, 1973. Manuscript submitted February 20, 1973; made arailable for printing April 19, 1973.

2) On three-phase faults when the clearing time was decreased, the dwelling time of the trajectory inside the relay operating circle also decreased so that below acertain clearing time the trajectory no longer crossed the circle. For the model used in this study,it was determined, for instance, that for 0.9 per unit (P.u.) power at unitypower factor (full load), the critical clearing time was 0.18 seconds (10.8 cycles), and the corresponding trajectory remained in the circle for about 0.10 seconds (6 cycles). For a clearing time of 0.15 seconds (9 cycles), the trajectory no longer crossed the circle. As a result of previous multimachine stability studies based on 1968 system impedance data, the breakers are normally set to clear such faults in 4 to 5 cycles with backup relaying set to clear the fault in 1 1 to 12 cycles. Itappears, therefore, that if a breaker operates properly, the R-X trajectory does not have the

opportunity of crossing the operating circle of the LOF relay. However, should a breaker fail to operate properly, the LOF relay may trip the machine unnecessarily. 3) On loss of excitation, the R-X trajectory always crossed the relay operating circle andintersectedthe X-axis within 0.35 to 0.90 seconds (21 to 54 cycles) after the crossing occurred. As the trajectory intersects the X-axis, the machine starts slipping a pole as aprelude to instability, and tripping may be indicated atthat point. Therefore, should a delay of approximately 0.25 seconds (1 5 cycles) be inserted in the operation of the relay, harmless excursions of the R-X trajectory intothe relay operating circle would not cause unnecessary trippings of the machine, and yet, loss of excitation would be duly detected and protected against.
4) Terminal voltage variations o f t 25 percent had no effect on the relay performance; however, frequency variations affected both theohmic reach (measured by distance 01) and the torque angle (angle between the positive R-axis and 01). At 60 Hz, the ohmic reach was 25 ohms at an angle of 2700; at 58 Hz and 62 Hz these values became respectively 23 ohms at 264O and 29 ohms at 276O (Figure 2). At no time during the test on the generator model did thefrequencyvariations exceed ? 2 Hz while experiencing stable transients. Under a threephase fault condition, the portion CD of the trajectory is covered while A f is positive ( A f is the variation of frequency from 60 Hz), and the portion DE, while A f is negative. Thus, the possibility of excursions into the relay operating circle is increased atpoint Hand decreased atpoint I. However, if the relay is provided with a delay of 15 cycles as already suggested, stable system swings which result in apparent impedance trajectories entering the circle will not trip the machine, while actual conditions of excitation loss will trip it.





5) This study was performed on the basis of one machine working against aninfinite bus and with the use of a simplified regulator-exciter model furnished by the manufacturer. Two methods, one analog and one digital, were employed to obtain the dynamic behavior of the system under the most severe three-phase fault conditions and both methods yielded comparable results. Although the conclusions to be drawn are meaningful anduseful, the extent of their validity still remains to be proven on the basis of a more realistic multimachine system. Furthermore, the mathematical representation of the regulatorexciter system must be experimentally determined through actual dynamic tests generator and excitation system. This performed on the actual should: a) yield a more accurate representation of the system, be )xplicitly show the d i f f e r e nc tomponents of the regulatorexciter system so that possible contingencies in these components can be readily simulated, and c) allow thestudy of periodic swings inherent to the system aswellas those caused by external disturbances.

Figure 2. Typical R - X diagram for a 3-phase fault at the machine transformer terminal

X'd/2 (transient reactance) and 01 equal to (direct-axis synchronous reactance) of the machine being protected. An auxiliary relay withdelayedpickup (4 to 5 cycles) is provided to interlock tripping from the distance element. This prevents tripping due to momentary contact closure resulting from of the unit vibration or other transient conditions not related to machine operation. Laboratorytests were conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the relay described above. From these teststhe following general conclusions were made: 1) A voltage variationof 2 2'5 percent of rated voltage hasa relay. This negligible effect on the impedance characteristic of the test was performed at 55 and 65 Hz as well as at the rated 6GHz frequency. 2) In general, an underfrequency condition will result in a lower relay maximum torque angle and a shorter relay ohmic reach. An overfrequency condition will give an increased maximum torque angle and longer ohmic reach. a) Maximum Torque Angle - With zero ohms offsetand the 6@Hz relay maximum torque angle set at 2700 thetorque angle at 55 Hz is 2520, and at65 Hz is 284O. Maximum torque is developed at these angles at both the minimum and maximum relay ohmic reach. As the impedance circle is offset from the origin of the R-X diagram, the maximum torque angle at both 55 and 65 Hz will tend to shift toward the 6GHz setting. b) Ohmic Reach - With zero ohms offset, the 5 5 Hz maximum ohmic reach is 78 percentof the60 Hz maximumohmicreach. T h e 65 Hz maximumohmicreach is 138percent of the60 Hz maximum ohmic reach. Figure 3, shows the laboratory results obtained from a test conductedon therelay. For this testthe relay's offsetand reach system were adjusted to correspond to the specifications of the under study. 1450

LOF relaying is provided on all hydrogen-cooled unitsonthe Detroit Edison system. T h e primary function of this relaying is to sense the loss of excitation on a unit and remove the unit from the system.

on a unit may cause the following Loss of excitation undesirable consequences:

1 ) System voltage reduction caused by excessive reactive power-flow into the unit.

2) Loss of synchronism resulting in theunit induction generator.

3) Possible thermal damage to therotor currents



due to induced eddy

The relay in this study is single-phase, a singleelement, high-speed mho distance-type relay. The operating characteristic of the relay is shown in Figure 2 where the offset OH and the maximum reach 01 are adjustable. Since the relay is energized by machine voltage and current,the origin of the R-X diagram is at the machine terminals. Normal relay settings are OH equal to

6CALIBRATION 0 HERTZ DIAMETER-23 O H M S 0 - N L 2 7 0 ' REACH-250HMS 0 - N L 270' OFFSET- 2 OHMS 0-p.~ 2700
90 '


Based on these assumptions, and with reference system under study can be mathematically represented following equations: Equation of Motion

to Figure 4, the by the


. .


- P)

Power Output P = Eq Iq
Q =

(active) (reactive at machineterminal) + XL) Id Iq

Eq Id - I2Xq


Components Infinite of E s = ~ ES COS Esd = Es sin

Bus Voltage

8 = E'q - (x'd + xt 8 = (Xt + XL + $1

Components of machine terminal voltage Vq = E1 - Xd Id Vd = Xq Iq Field Effects E1 = E'q pE'q


+ (Xd

- X'd)


2(Efd - EIS)

EIS = E1
260 250 2 70 290 200


= A eB(E'q-0.8)

Figure 3. Impedance characteristic for the LOF relay


E, = E1
Where: Machine Exciter

(Xd - Xq) Id A

6.4047 1.211

0.001 22

1) Only fundamental frequency currents and voltages were represented in the stator and the connected system. This was accomplished by setting the rates of change of flux linkage terms of the direct and quadrature axes equal to zero. 2 ) The effect of machine speed variations upon thegenerated voltage was neglected.

Analog Solution

3 ) Amortisseur damping and the shielding effect of the amortisseuresbetweenthe field and stator were neglected during transients. 4) During the period of interest, the action of the prime mover governor was assumed to be not sufficiently fast to change the mechanical power input following a small change in speed, so that the mechanical power input was constant.
5 ) Machine and system resistances along with all other factors which could cause damping, such as mechanical friction, windage, etc., were neglected.

The model consisted of three parts: 1) the regulator-exciter analog, 2 ) the analog of thegenerator-transformer-transmission to the infinite bus, and 3 ) the analog used to compute the resistance (R) andthereactance (X) seen by the machine atits terminals. The block diagram of the regulator-exciter system is shown as Figure 5. This is an IEEE Type I representation for a continuously acting regulator and exciter for which the manufacturer provides dataT . he analog implementation of the machine-transformer-transmission line is shown as Figure 6 . The mathematical equations developed in the preceding paragraph were used to implementthis model. The third part of the model was programmed to calculate R and X.



I 1 I









TE=0.52 F = 0.08 TF = 0.963

Figure 4. Phasor diagram generator-transformer-infinite bus

Figure 5. IEEE Type Iexcitationsystemrepresentation for continuously acting regulator and exciter.


the high-voltage terminals of the main unit transformer and is organized into four groups according to real power and line impedance. Within each group, power factor was varied to determine the effect of different levels of excitation. Prefault line impedance was the same as the postfault impedance. A group of figures representative of data tabulated in Table I have been included in this report. These figures are analog and digital plots of machineimpedance following a three-phase fault, and indicate the relationship tothe60 Hz LOF relay operating characteristic. The effect of power factor is shown in Figures 7, 8 and 9. They demonstratethat reducedexcitationreduces critical clearing time and results in an apparent impedance trajectory which more closely approaches or enters the relay operating circle for a given clearing time. Figures 8 and 10 reflect the reduced tendency to enterthe operating circle andan increase of critical clearing time at reduced power levels. Figure 11 illustrates the tendency of the trajectory to stay within the circle for longer periods of time with reduced excitation levels. Data obtained using a transmission impedance of 0.176 p.u. ohms, which is twice that of the other tests, indicate critical clearing times are reduced and impedance trajectories are more removed from the operating circle for stable conditions. Table I1 is asummaryof LOF data obtainedfrom the models for various conditions. In each case, the loss of excitation was due to a simulated short-circuited field. A typical example of LOF trajectory is shown in Figure 12. Unstable transients with their excursion intothe negative R region are typified by the curve in Figure 13. The trajectory of the not reverse but instead apparent impedance in Figure 13 does continues toward the negative R region and crosses the Requals zero axis, and. the machine slips a pole. Figure 14 is a plot o f a v s t, R vs t, and X vs t. dt This type of plot was made for all tests conducted on the analog solution to help relate the model response to the frequency characteristics of the relay. Another approachdemonstrating the stability or instabilityof the machine response to the transient disturbance is shpwn in Figure 15. This phase planetrajectory is a plot of ) for a stable and an unstable condition. The curve A B C D and back to A illustrates a stable machine swing following a disturbance applied when the machine was operating at point A. During the 0.18 second fault ,(& 8 ) followed curve AB. At B, the fault cleared and the ensuing spiral back to the steady-state condition occurred. When the fault time was increased to0.20 seconds, curve AEF resulted, with never reversing polarity and the machine was unstable.

Figure 6. Equivalent analog of the basic system.

The analog studies were conducted as follows: The voltage (Es) of the infinitebusand theinput power(Pm) were chosen such thatthe steady-state real power (P) and the reactive power(Q) were fixed to predetermined values. For each set of (P,Q) values, a three-phase fault at the transformer secondary (high-voltage terminals) was simulated. Under fault conditions, the equations describing the system were modified as follows: Et=P=Iq=O Eq = (Xd


+ Xt)


A l l other equations were unchanged. In each case, the fault was cleared after atimeand the transformer was reconnected tothe infinite bus through the prefault im edance. For each fault condition, R vsX, R v s t , X vs.t, and vs.t were displayed on an X-Y plotter. dt


Digital Solution

1. Loss of excitation and the specific unstable swings which were observed invariably operated the relay, as desired. 2. Underparticularoperatingconditions,certainstable also resulted in relay operation, which is undesirable.

The digital solution was performed on an on-line time-sharing digital computer. The exciter-regulatorsimulated was identical to theone shown on Figure 5 , and the system equations were those described in the previous section.Alibrary program was used to digitally solve the anal-og representation shown in Figure 6. I n this study, the secondorder Runge-Kutta integration technique is employed since low oscillation frequencies inherent in power system work make the secondader routine more than acceptable as a solution technique for the differential equations. Finally, R-X tabulations were obtained for three-phase faults at different values of P and Q in a similar fashion as for the analog simulation. The R-X values thus obtained were plotted on a R-X diagram.

3. Insertionofatime relay operatingsequence

delay of 0.25 seconds (15 cycles) in the will prevent undesirable relay operation.


1. Amultimachinesimulation study should be made to verify the results of this basic model study. 2. Actualdynamictestsshould be made on theunit tested to verify the accuracy of the model and constants used in this study.

The test results from the model for a three-phase fault and LOF conditions are summaried in Tables I and 11. Table I contains data obtained following a three-phase fault at


1.0 P U



i7 ' \

1 . 0 PU.


Figure 7. Impedance trajectory flagging PF) for PIC = 0.9, QIC = 0.252, t c = 0.19,

X ,

= 0.088

Figure 8. Impedance trajectory fPF nem Unity) for


0.9, QIC
= 0.088

= 0.05, t c = 0.18,

Figure 11. Impedance trajectow (reduced power leveland leading PF) for PIC = 0.75, QIC = -0.25 t c = 0.18, x, = 0.088



I .o P.U.

Figure 9. Impedance trajectory (leading PF)for PIC = 0.9, QIC = -0.13, t c = 0.17,


= 0.088


Transient After ThreephaseFault Initial Conditions Line Impedance Reactive Real Power Power Figure Test N0. (P.U.) No. (D.U.) Time of First Intersection

1 2 0.93 4 5 0.96 7 8 9 10 11

(D.U.) - -

0.49 0.28 0.25 0.25 0.09 0.05 0.005 -0.04 -0.12 -0.12 -0.24 0.47 0.27 0.07 -0.04 -0.06 -0.25

Duration of Fault

Time In Circle

None None None +

Point of Intersection None None None

Stable or Unstable

8 -

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.90.088 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088


0.18 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.15 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.15 0.14 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.16 0.18

None None None


0.57 0.43 0.19 0.68 0.25 0.52
None None None 0.45 0.4 1 0.43 None None None None None None None 0.57 0.66 0.25 0.25

0.12 0.10 0.10 0.29 0.09


None None None 0.10 0.19 0.21 None None None None None None None 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.1ot

Bottom Bottom TOP TOP Bottom TOP Bottom

None None None Bottom Bottom Bottom None None None None None None None Bottom Bottom



12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

0.088 0.088
0.088 0.088 0.088

11 0.45 0.45 0.38 0.36 -0.02 -0.20

0.176 0.176 0.176 0.176 0.176 0.176

S U** S U*+ S

27 28

0.37 -0.08 -0.12 -0.25 -0.25

0.176 0.176 0.176 0.176 0.176


*Not Available Trajectory above circle on first swing

Table I headings are defined as follows: 1) Duration of Fault is defined as the length of time during which the short circuit was applied, and any value shown 0.01 seconds, the less than 0.1 8 secondsindicates,within critical clearing time for that set of conditions. Critical clearing time is defined as the maximum fault duration time which does not cause instability.


I 0 P.U.

2) Time of First Intersection is the time between fault clearance and the f m t intersection of the mho circle.
3) Time in Circle is the time that thetrajectory remains in thm e ho circle for stable transients. This time was determined by using R-X, R-t, and X-t plots with the analog model and from graphing and interpolating the digital data.
4) Point of Intersectionindicates

, I .o P.U.

the general area in which the trajectory intersects the mho circle.

5 ) In the Stable or Unstable column, S indicates thatthe transient was stableandUindicates that thetransient was unstable.

Figure 13. Impedance trajectory - unstable for P I c = O . 9 , Q 1 ~ = - 0 . 0 4t,C = 0 . 1 8 ,


= 0.088


Results - Loss of Field Initial Conditions Line Power (P.U.) Time of First Intersection

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.9 0.75 0.75

Real Impedance Reactive Power (P.U.)


Time In Circle To R Equals Zero


Total Observed Time In Circle


0.03 00
-0.25 0.48 0.44 0.09

0.088 0.088


0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.176 0.1 76 0.176

-0.126 -0.26 -0.02 -0.12


1.9 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.05 2.85 2.10 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.3

0.35 0.60

0.50 0.75 0.70 0.70

0.65 0.60 -

0.75 0.70 0.95 0.90 1.10 0.55


0.90 0.35 0.65 0.55

0 . ao 0.80

Column headings are defined as follows: 1) Time of First Intersection

is the time between loss-of-field voltage and trajectory intersection of the operating circle.
the circle and crossing the R equals zero axis.


Time in Circle to R Equals Zero is the time between entering

Total Observed Time in Circle is the time between entry into the circle and exit from the circle or the end of the test, whichever occurred first (the function generator used in the analog model was valid for plus or minus 1800).

200 400 600 800 1 0 0 0 Figure 15. Phase plane trajectory f o r PIC = 0.9, QIC = 0.1 7, t c = 0.18 & 0.20, XL = 0.088


The material presented in this paper resulted from the efforts of the Generator System Dynamics Task Force of which the authors are members. The remaining members who contributed directly are M. S. Mashikian, J. R. Mather, and C. E. Ojanen. Figure 14. Frequency deviation and impedance as a function of time for PIC = 0.9, tc = 0.18, XL = 0.088

Futhermore, the authors acknowledge the valuable contribution of T. A. Laichalk who conducted the laboratory tests on the LOF relay. 1455



terminal voltage of the machine field

open circuit generator

field time constant of the


stator voltage induced by the field current

neglecting saturation


machine output voltage at terminals



stator voltage induced by the field current including saturation voltage behind the quadrature axis reactance

direct axis and quadrature axis components of the machine terminal voltage (at machine terminal) per unit

reactance X q d , Xd

quadrature axis component of the voltage behindtransientreactance xd infinite bus voltage the direct and quadrature a x i s components of the infinite bus voltage

direct and quadrature-axis synchronous reactances direct-axis reactance transient per unitreactance system per unit transformer reactance angle between the q-axisthe and bus voltage operator infvlite



f H

transformer voltage differentialP frequency 60 Hz machine inertia machine phase current the direct and quadrature axis component of I regulator gain exciter constant related to self-excited field regulator stabilizing circuit gain real electrical power output mechanical power input reactive power output resistance (at machineterminal)per regulator amplifier time constant unit

subscript IC indicates the steady-state value o f the variable at an operating point



(1) IEEE Working Group of the Excitation


System Subcommittee of the IEEEPower GenerationCommittee, Computer Representation ofExcitation Systems, IEEE Transaction Paper No. 3 1TP67-424.

(2) Ewort, D. N.,

and F. P. dehlello. FACE-A Digital Dynamic Analysis Program, Power Industry Computer Applications Conference, May 15-17, 1967.

(3) Fitzgerald, #. E., and C. Kingsley, Jr. Electric Machinery, 2nd ed, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961.
(4) DetroitEdison,GeneratorSystems Report, May, 197 1.

Dynamics Task Force

(5) IEEE Power System Relay Committee, Loss-Of-Field

Relay Operation During System Distrubances, 1970. February,

fault clearing time(seconds) excitertime constant

(6) Mason, C.

R. The Art and Science of Protective Relaying, Wiley & Sons, New York, 1956.

(7) General Electric, NotesFrom Power Systems Engineering

regulator stabilizing circuit time constant Course, 1968- 1969.