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# MATH 146: Linear Algebra 1 (Advanced Level)

## Assignment 9; due Wednesday, 20 March 2013

Preamble: Let K be a commutative ring with identity. [Recall this is like a eld except that we do not allow for division. For example, the space of polynomials over a eld F is a commutative ring with identity.] For the rst three problems on this assignment, recall that a determinant function D is a function on n n matrices over K into K such that D is n-linear. That is, if we keep n 1 of the rows xed, then D(A) is linear as a function of the remaining row. D is alternating. That is, D(A) = 0 whenever two rows of A are identical. D(I ) = 1. We will show in class that there always exists a unique determinant function for any n. We also have an explicit formula for the determinant function in the cases n = 1 and n = 2: n=1: n=2: det a = a. det a c b d = ad bc.

[1] Each of the following expressions denes a function D on the set of 3 3 matrices over Q. For each of these, state whether or not D is a 3-linear function. [a] D(A) = A11 2A22 + 3A33 . [b] D(A) = (A12 )2 + (A23 )2 + (A31 )2 . [c] D(A) =
2 17 A13 A21 A32 .

## [d] D(A) = 0. [e] D(A) = 144.

[2] Let K be a commutative ring with identity. If A is a 2 2 matrix over K , the adjugate of A is the 2 2 matrix adj A dened by A22 A12 adj A = . A21 A11 Let det denote the unique determinant function on 2 2 matrices over K . [a] Show that (adj A)A = A(adj A) = (det A)I . [b] Suppose now that K is a eld. Prove that A is invertible if and only if det A = 0. When A is invertible, give an explicit formula for A1 . [c] Show that adj(AT ) = (adj A)T .

[3] Let A be an n n matrix over C. Let j1 , . . . , jn , k1 , . . . , kn be integers in {1, 2, . . . , n}. Dene a map D : Cnn C by D(A) = Aj1 k1 Aj2 k2 Ajn kn . Prove that D is n-linear if and only if all the j1 , j2 , . . . , jn are distinct.

Interlude: Unless noted otherwise, K will always denote a commutative ring with identity. Let det denote the determinant function on n n matrices over K , which we proved exists and is unique. In fact, we derived the general formula det A =
Sn

## sgn( )A1(1) A2(2) An(n)

where Sn is the set of permutations of {1, . . . , n} and sgn( ) is the sign of the permutation , which is +1 is is even and 1 if is odd. Furthermore, we proved that determinants can also be evaluated by Laplace expansion along any column. Specically, if A(i|j ) denotes the (n 1) (n 1) matrix obtained from A by deleting the ith row and the j th column, then
n

det A =
i=1

(1)

i+j

## Aij det A(i|j ).

Finally, if A and B are n n matrices over K , we proved that det AB = det A det B , and also that det AT = det A, where AT is the transpose matrix of A. [4] Compute the determinants of the following matrices A over K : [a] K = C[x], [b] K = Q[x], 2x + i 3i 2 x + i xd c a xd b , A= c a b xd 0 3 0 2 19 0 0 1 e A= 1 1791 19 93 0 4 0 3 A=

where a, b, c, d Q.

[c] K = R,

## [Think before computing. This is easy.]

[5] Let F be a eld. Let A be an n n matrix over F . Let I be the n n identity matrix over F , and consider the n n matrix xI A, whose (i, j ) entry is xij Aij . Note that this is an n n matrix over F [x], the ring of polynomials over F . Dene p(A) = det(xI A). [a] Using the permutation denition of the determinant, prove that p(A) is a monic polynomial over F of degree n. This is called the characteristic polynomial of A. [b] Show that the constant term of p(A) (the coecient of x0 ) is equal to (1)n det(A). [c] Show that the coecient of xn1 of p(A) is equal to Tr(A) = trace of A.
n k=1

## Akk , the negative of the

[6] Let A be an n n matrix over a eld F . Prove that there exists a nonzero polynomial p F [x] such 2 that p(A) = 0. Hint: Consider the n2 + 1 matrices I, A, A2 , . . . , An in F nn .