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# Ugn Kupryt 2010-02- 22

## The Latent Heat of Fusion

Aim: to determine the latent heat of fusion of ice Equipments: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. KERN EMB 220 1 was used for measuring weight. (Uncertainty: 0.2 g) Thermometer Calorimeter Ice cubes Graduated cylinder

Procedure: A small number of ice cubes is placed in a calorimeter containing water. By knowing the masses of the ice, the water, the calorimeter and the resulting temperature change after the ice melts, the latent heat of fusion of ice could be found. The significant measurements of this research are remarked below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Found mass of empty cup Found mass of cup with water Recorded temperature of water Dried small pieces of ice and melted them in water Recorded temperature of water with melted pieces of ice

Data of the measurements: Mass of water ( m1 ) Mass of ice cubes ( m2 ) The specific heat capacity of water at 25 C (c ) 147.0 0.2 g 34.4 0.2 g 4.20 J/(g C)

The temperature of water before putting the 18 C ice cubes in it ( T1 ) The temperature of water with melted ice 0.5 C cubes ( T2 ) Counting the latent heat of fusion of ice:

Q gained = Qlost
L f m1 + cm1 T1 = cm 2 T2 Lf = cm 2 T2 cm1 T1 (10804.5 0.06) (72.24 2.00 ) = = (311984.30 0.03) = (0.0344 0.0002) m1

= (3.11 10 5 0.03 10 5 ) J / kg
Counting the percentage error:

L f Lf

100% =

100% =

## 0.22 10 5 100% = 6.61% 3.33 10 5

The experimental value of the specific latent heat of fusion of ice: - 0.03 10 5 + 0.03 10 5 L, J kg 1

3.11 10 5
Conclusion and Evaluation: The aim of this experiment was to determine the latent heat of fusion of ice. During the experiment I found out that the specific latent heat of fusion of ice is L f = (3.11105 0.03 105 ) J / kg . Thus, the experimental value of L is not equal to the

accepted value which I found in the textbook (Giancoli Physics. Fith Edition, 425 psl). Giancoli provided me with the accepted value that is equal to the L f = 3.33 10 5 J/kg. Therefore, there were some systemic errors which changed my result. The percentage error was 6.61%. It is not a big error, but still the result is not accurate. In addition, there were several random and systemic errors which have to be taken into consideration since they could have affected the outcome of my experimental. The first one is that I did not calculate the heat given off by the thermometer. This might introduce a random error and that it could either make L f higher or lower depending on the actual heat given off. Furthermore, one more assumption might be made that no energy is being transferred from the stirrer to the system. The action of stirring will add kinetic energy to the system and cause a random error (as the amount of kinetic energy is dependent on the stirrer and can be considered random).This error will make L f higher than it should be. In order to do this experiment more precisely and to reduce systemic errors, it is necessary to change several things in process of research. Firstly, the initial temperature of warm water should be made about 10C above room temperature. In this way, the final temperature of water and melted ice should be about the same number of degrees below room temperature as the initial temperature was above room temperature. Therefore, this theory will help us to make an experiment more accurately since the amount of ice cubes placed in a calorimeter could be changed versus its temperature. In addition, needless to say, the pieces of ice added to the water should be neither too big nor too small. Consequently, the bigger ice cubes should be used in this experiment in order to get the more accurate data that leads to the experiment being extremely precise. Also, the value of the specific heat capacity of water could be changed into the more precise number 4.19 J/(g C) ( instead of 4.20 J/(g C)). Furthermore, the quantity of trials should be increased since then the average L f could be found that makes the experiment value of L f more similar to the accepted value, given by Giancoli Physics. Fith Edition.