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The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D.

Roosevelt, was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies. In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902. The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security." The International Labour Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War. In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year. MILESTONES IN UNITED NATIONS HISTORY A selective chronology A presentation of the Department of Public Information Inter-Allied Declaration Signed in London on 12 June 1941, the Inter-Allied Declaration- "to work together, with other free peoples, both in war and in peace" -was a first step towards the establishment of the United Nations. Atlantic Charter On 14 August 1941, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the United States and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom proposed a set of principles for international collaboration in maintaining peace and security. The document, signed during a meeting on the ship HMS Prince of Wales, "somewhere at sea", is known as the Atlantic Charter. Declaration by United Nations On 1 January 1942, representatives of 26 Allied nations fighting against the Axis Powers met in Washington, D.C. to pledge their support for the Atlantic Charter by signing the "Declaration by United Nations". This document contained the first official use of the term "United Nations", which was suggested by President Roosevelt. Moscow and Teheran Conferences In a declaration signed in Moscow on 30 October 1943, the Governments of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and China called for an early establishment of an international organization to maintain peace and security. That goal was reaffirmed at the meeting of the leaders of the United States, the USSR, and the United Kingdom at Teheran on 1 December 1943. Dumbarton Oaks Conference The first blueprint of the UN was prepared at a conference held at a mansion known as Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, D.C. During two phases of meetings which ran from 21 September through 7 October 1944, the United States, the United Kingdom, the USSR and China agreed on the aims, structure and functioning of a world USSR Prem. Stalin, US Pres. Roosevelt organization. and UK PM Churchill, Yalta, USSR, 12 Feb 45 (24478 UN/DPI). Yalta Conference Conf. on Security Organization for Peace in Post-War World (Dumbarton Oaks). Washington, D.C.. 21 Aug 44 (24477 UN/DPI).

UK PM Churchill, US Pres. Roosevelt at Atlantic Charter. HMS Prince of Wales, 14 Aug 41 (24469 UN/DPI).

On 11 February 1945, following meetings at Yalta, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin declared their resolve to establish "a general international organization to maintain peace and security". San Francisco Conference On 25 April 1945, delegates of 50 nations met in San Francisco for the United Nations Conference on International Organization. The delegates drew up the 111-article Charter, which was adopted unanimously on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House. The next day, they signed it in the Herbst Theatre auditorium of the Veterans War Memorial Building. 24 October 1945 United Nations is created as its Charter is ratified by the five permanent members of the Security Council and the majority of other signatories, and comes into force. 10 January 1946 First General Assembly, with 51 nations represented opens in Central Hall, Westminster, London. 17 January 1946 Security Council meets for the first time in London, adopting its rules of procedure. 24 January 1946 General Assembly adopts its first resolution. Its main focus: peaceful uses of atomic energy and the elimination of atomic and other weapons of mass destruction. 1 February 1946 Trygve Lie of Norway becomes first Secretary-General. 24 October 1947 "United Nations Day" officially designated by the General Assembly. June 1948 First UN observer mission established in Palestine -the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO). 10 December 1948 General Assembly adopts Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 7 January 1949 A UN envoy, Ralph Bunche, secures cease-fire between the new State of Israel and Arab States. 24 October 1949 Cornerstone laid for present UN Headquarters in New York City. 27 June 1950 Security Council, acting in the absence of the Soviet Union, calls on Member States to help southern part of Korea repel invasion from the north. The Korean Armistice Agreement is signed on 27 July 1953 by the UN Command and the Chinese-North Korean Command. 1954 UN High Commissioner for Refugees wins first of two Nobel Peace Prizes, for its work with European refugees. 7 November 1956 First Emergency Special Session of the General Assembly meets on the Suez Canal crisis and, on 5 November, decides to establish the first UN peace-keeping force- the UN Emergency Force (UNEF). Korean civilians flee fighting, Korea, Jan 51 (32834 UN/DPI/US Army). SG Lie and Chief Architect W. Harrison seal cornerstone, New York, 24 Dec 49 (23397 UN/DPI). Mrs. Roosevelt holds a Declaration of Human Rights poster, Lake Success, New York, Nov 49 (23783 UN/DPI). SG Trygvie Lie, Norway, elected 1 Feb. 1946, Lake Success, New York, Aug 49 (22731 UN/DPI). First Security Council meeting, London, 17 Jan 46 (24481 UN/DPI/M. Bolomey). UK PM Atlee addresses GA1 opening, London, 10 Jan 46 (24480 UN/DPI).

UN Charter close-up; behind, Egypt signs. San Francisco, 26 Jun 45 (24479 UN/DPI).

September 1960 17 newly independent States, 16 from Africa, join the UN -the biggest increase in membership in any one year. 18 September 1961 Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold dies in an aircraft crash while on mission to Congo. 7 August 1963 Security Council votes voluntary arms embargo against South Africa. 4 March 1964 Security Council approves dispatch of peacekeeping force to Cyprus. 1965 UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 27 October 1966 General Assembly strips South Africa of its mandate to govern South-West Africa (Namibia). 16 December 1966 Mandatory sanctions are imposed against Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) by the Security Council. 22 November 1967 SC affirms establishment of peace in Mideast, New York, 22 Nov 67 (101873 Following the six-day war in 1967, the Security Council, after UN/DPI/Y. Nagata). lengthy negotiations, adopts resolution 242 (1967), as the basis for achieving peace in the Middle East. 12 June 1968 General Assembly approves Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and calls for its ratification. 4 January 1969 The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination comes into force. 1969 The International Labour Organisation (ILO) is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 25 October 1971 General Assembly votes to seat representatives of the People's Republic of China. June 1972 The first UN Environment Conference is held in Stockholm, Sweden, leading to the establishment of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), headquartered in Nairobi. 13 November 1974 Voting board as GA grants PLO observer status, New York, 22 Nov 74 (126887 UN/DPI/T. Chen). General Assembly recognizes the Palestine Liberation Organization as "the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people". June-July 1975 International Women's Year is marked by the first UN conference on women, held in Mexico City. 4 November 1977 Security Council adopts mandatory arms embargo against South Africa. Women at UNICEF-assisted family planning clinic, Settat, Morocco, Jul 87 (156359 UN/DPI/J. Isaac). PRC delegation formally seated in GA, New York, 15 Nov 71 (117269 UN/DPI/Y. Nagata). UN peacekeeper escorts Greek woman to Greek sector, Nicosia, 27 Apr 64 (84995 UN/DPI/B. Zarov). Young Indian boy carries bricks to earn a living, India, 1979 (148049 UN/DPI/J.P. Laffont/Sygma). Yugoslav troops with UNEF on patrol, El Arish, Egypt, Jan 57 (53061 UN/DPI). Flagraising of 16 new Member States at UN Headquarters, New York, 30 Sep 60 (67728 UN/DPI/M. Bordy).

May-June 1978 General Assembly convenes special session, for the first time, on disarmament. 18 December 1979 General Assembly adopts the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, covering political, economic, social, cultural and civic values. 8 May 1980 Three years after the last case was reported, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declares smallpox eradicated. 1981 UN High Commissioner for Refugees is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the second time, for its assistance to Asian refugees. 25 November 1981 General Assembly adopts Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief. 10 December 1982 New UN Convention on the Law of the Sea is signed by 117 States and two entities -the largest number of signatures ever affixed to a treaty on its first day. December 1984 Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar sets up a UN office for Emergency Operations in Africa to help coordinate famine relief efforts. 10 December 1984 General Assembly adopts the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. July 1985 Thousands gather in Nairobi to attend the third UN conference on women, marking the end of the UN Decade for Women. September 1987 A brilliant sun shining over Knoxville, Efforts of UNEP lead to the signing of the Treaty on the Protection Tennessee, US, 1978 (139312 UN/DPI/R. Kollar/TVA). of the Ozone Layer -known as the Montreal Protocol -a follow-up to the 1985 Vienna Convention on the Ozone Layer. 1988 UN Peacekeeping operations awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, at the time there were seven peacekeeping or observer missions in operation. April 1989 UN Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) is deployed throughout Nobel Peace Prize awarded to UN Namibia to monitor South Africa's withdrawal and provide electoral peacekeepers in 1988, New York, Oct assistance. Elections were held in November 1989; Namibia 88 (173115 UN/DPI/J. Isaac). becomes independent on 21 March 1990. 2 September 1990 Convention on the Rights of the Child comes into force. 29-30 September 1990 UNICEF convenes the World Summit for Children, attended by 71 Heads of State and Government. A Plan of Action is adopted. 31 May 1991 A cease-fire in the 16-year civil war in Angola is negotiated, then administered by the UN Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II). Cambodian girl holds UN flag, Cambodia, Oct 92 (186080 UN/DPI/S. Sudhakaran). UK Red Cross worker assists drought victims. Bati camp, Ethiopia, 5 Nov 84 (164669 UN/DPI/J. Isaac). FAO and UNDP assist in exploiting fish resources. Joal, Senegal, 1976 (137725 UN/DPI/J. Mohr). Congolese being vaccinated against smallpox, Leopoldville, Jan 62 (73798 UN/DPI/B. Zarov). In Lesotho, a female work crew builds a road, Lesotho, 1969 (118420 UN/DPI/K. Muldoon).

31 December 1991 Agreement signed at UN Headquarters, through the good offices of the Secretary-General, between the Government of El Salvador and FMLN (National Liberation Front). 31 January 1992 First ever Security Council Summit, with leaders from all 15 members in attendance, is held in New York leading to the Secretary-General's report, An Agenda for Peace. June 1992 The UN Conference on Environment and Development, the "Earth Summit", is held in Rio de Janeiro attended by leaders from over 100 countries, the largest intergovernmental gathering in history, resulting in Agenda 21, a plan of action for sustainable development. 17 June 1992 Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali issues "An Agenda for Peace" on preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peace-keeping and peace-building. 1993 Eritrean independence was declared on 27 April, 1993 as a result of a referendum held with UN verification, with more than 98.5% of registered voters voting. Eritrea was subsequently admitted to membership in the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity. 1993 UN-supervised elections were held in Cambodia resulting in a new government, and the drafting of a new constitution, ending nearly 15 years of strife in the war-torn country. June 1993 The World Conference on Human Rights is held in Vienna, which commemorated the International Year for the World's Indigenous People (1993). 6 May 1994 The Secretary-General produces a report on "An Agenda for Development", a blueprint for improving the human condition. 23 June 1994 Elections are held in South Africa from 26 to 29 April, observed by Ladakhi woman, a member of a Tibetan 2,527 staff of the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa ethnic group, Photoksar, India, Aug 92 (UNOMSA) deployed around the country. On 25 May, the Security (159644 UN/DPI/F. Charton). Council lifted the arms embargo and other restrictions against South Africa. On 23 June, after 24 years, South Africa took its place once again in the General Assembly. 5-15 September 1994 The International Conference on Population and Development, is held in Cairo, attended by representatives from 179 countries and addressed by 249 speakers. The Conference had population, sustained economic growth and sustainable development as its overall theme. October 1994 Mozambique's first multi-party elections are held on 27-29 October, monitored by some 2,300 international observers. 1995 A world-wide, year-long programme of activities and celebrations marks the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations. The theme of the anniversary was "We the peoples of the United UN-assisted elections - waiting to vote, Nations...United for a Better World". Xipamanime, Mozambique, 28 Oct 94 March 1995 (187016 UN/DPI/S. Sudhakaran). Bangladeshi PKOs teach demining to Cambodian, Cambodia, 1992 (159491 UN/DPI/J. Bleibtrev). Women celebrate UN-supervised referendum, Adi Segdo, Eritrea, Apr 93 (159900 UN/DPI/M. Grant). Workers walk home from vulcanizing plant, Copsa Mica, Romania, 1991 (158676 UN/DPI/R. Marklin).

Woman votes in Angola's UN-assisted elections, Luanda, 29 Sep 92 (159419 UN/DPI/M. Grant).

Intl. Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, Sep 94 (UN/DPI/E. Schneider).

The World Summit for Social Development -one of the largest gathering of world leaders in history- meets in Copenhagen to renew the commitment to combating poverty, unemployment and social exclusion. 26 June 1995 A conference is held in San Francisco, California to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the signing of the United Nations Charter. September 1995 The Fourth World Conference on Women meets in Beijing to continue international efforts to advance the status of women worldwide. 22-24 October 1995 A special commemorative meeting attended by Heads of State and Government is held at Headquarters culminating the observance of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations. Secretariat lit up for UN's 50th Anniversary, New York, 21 Dec 94 (188956 UN/DPI/E. Schneider).

Group photograph of the world leaders at the Special Commemorative Meeting. (UN/DPI Photo # 190891 by Paul Skipworth for Eastman Kodak Company. Copyright United Nations, Paul Skipworth and Eastman Kodak Company).

10 September 1996 The General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear TestBan Treaty. This is a turning point in the history of efforts towards nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. The treaty was opened for signature on 24 September. Fiftieth Session of General Assembly votes on item relating to Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, New York, 10 Sep 96 (192255 UN/DPI/E.Schneider).

17 December 1996 The General Assembly appoints by acclamation Kofi Annan, of Ghana, as the seventh United Nations Secretary-General with a term begining on 1 January 1997 and ending 31 December 2001. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, Ghana, New York, 17 Dec 96 (193355C N/DPI/M.Grant).

29 June 2001 Acting on a recommendation by the Security Council, the General Assembly appointed Kofi Annan by acclamation to a second term of office, beginning on 1 January 2002 and ending on 31 December 2006. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, Ghana, New York, 29 June 2001.

Major Achievements of the United Nations [The Nobel Peace Prize] The United Nations was established in the aftermath of a devastating war to help stabilize international relations and give peace a more secure foundation. Amid the threat of nuclear war and seemingly endless regional conflicts, peace-keeping has become an overriding concern of the United Nations. In the process, the activities of blue-helmeted peace-keepers have emerged as the most visible role associated with the world organization.

The United Nations, however, is much more than a peace-keeper and forum for conflict resolution. Often without attracting attention, the United Nations and its family of agencies are engaged in a vast array of work that touches every aspect of people's lives around the world. Child survival and development. Environmental protection. Human rights. Health and medical research. Alleviation of poverty and economic development. Agricultural development and fisheries. Education. Family planning. Emergency and disaster relief. Air and sea travel. Peaceful uses of atomic energy. Labour and workers' rights. The list goes on. Here, in brief, is a sampling of what the United Nations organizations have accomplished since 1945 when the world organization was founded. 1. Maintaining peace and security - By having deployed a total of 54 peace-keeping forces and observer missions as of September 2001, the United Nations has been able to restore calm to allow the negotiating process to go forward while saving millions of people from becoming casualties of conflicts. There are presently 15 active peace-keeping forces in operation. Making peace - Since 1945, the United Nations has been credited with negotiating many peaceful settlements that have ended regional conflicts. Recent cases include an end to the Iran-Iraq war, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, and an end to the civil war in El Salvador. The United Nations has used quiet diplomacy to avert imminent wars. Promoting democracy - The United Nations has enabled people in many countries to participate in free and fair elections, including those held in Cambodia, Namibia, El Salvador, Eritrea, Mozambique, Nicaragua, South Africa, Kosovo and East Timor. It has provided electoral advice, assistance, and monitoring of results. Promoting development - The UN system has devoted more attention and resources to the promotion of the development of human skills and potentials than any other external assistance effort. The system's annual disbursements, including loans and grants, amount to more than $10 billion. The UN Development Programme (UNDP), in close cooperation with over 170 Member States and other UN agencies, designs and implements projects for agriculture, industry, education, and the environment. It supports more than 5,000 projects with a budget of $1.3 billion. It is the largest multilateral source of grant development assistance. The World Bank, at the forefront in mobilizing support for developing countries worldwide, has alone loaned $333 billion for development projects since 1946. In addition, UNICEF spends more than $800 million a year, primarily on immunization, health care, nutrition and basic education in 138 countries. Promoting human rights - Since adopting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, the United Nations has helped enact dozens of comprehensive agreements on political, civil, economic, social and cultural rights. By investigating individual complaints of human rights abuses, the UN Human Rights Commission has focused world attention on cases of torture, disappearance, and arbitrary detention and has generated international pressure to be brought on governments to improve their human rights records. Protecting the environment - The United Nations has played a vital role in fashioning a global programme designed to protect the environment. The "Earth Summit," the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, resulted in treaties on biodiversity and climate change, and all countries adopted "Agenda 21" - a blueprint to promote sustainable development or the concept of economic growth while protecting natural resources. Preventing nuclear proliferation - The United Nations, through the International Atomic Energy Agency, has helped minimize the threat of a nuclear war by inspecting nuclear reactors in 90 countries to ensure that nuclear materials are not diverted for military purposes. Promoting self determination and independence - The United Nations has played a role in bringing about independence in countries that are now among its Member States. Strengthening international law - Over 300 international treaties, on topics as varied as human rights conventions to agreements on the use of outer space and seabed, have been enacted through the efforts of the United Nations. Handing down judicial settlements of major international disputes - By giving judgments and advisory opinions, the International Court of Justice has helped settle international disputes involving territorial issues, non-interference in the internal affairs of States, diplomatic relations, hostage-taking, the right of asylum, rights of passage and economic rights. Ending apartheid in South Africa - By imposing measures ranging from an arms embargo to a convention against segregated sporting events, the United Nations was a major factor in bringing about the downfall of the apartheid system, which the General Assembly called "a crime against humanity." Elections were held in April 1994 in which all South Africans were allowed to participate on an equal basis, followed by the establishment of a majority government. Providing humanitarian aid to victims of conflict - More than 30 million refugees fleeing war, famine or persecution have received aid from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees since 1951 in a continuing effort coordinated by the United Nations that often involves other agencies. There are more than 19 million refugees, mostly women and children, who are receiving food, shelter, medical aid, education and repatriation assistance. Aiding Palestinian refugees - Since 1950, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) has sustained four generations of Palestinians with free schooling, essential health care, relief assistance and key social services virtually without interruption. There are 2.9 million refugees in the Middle East served by UNRWA. Alleviating chronic hunger and rural poverty in developing countries - The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has developed a system of providing credit, often in very small amounts, for the poorest and most marginalised groups that has benefited over 230 million people in nearly 100 developing countries. Focusing on African development - For the United Nations, Africa continues to be the highest priority. In 1986, the United Nations convened a special session to drum up international support for African economic recovery and development. The United Nations also has instituted a systemwide task force to ensure that commitments made by the international community are honoured and challenges met. The Africa Project Development Facility has helped entrepreneurs in 25 countries to find financing for new enterprises. The Facility has completed 130 projects which represent investments of $233 million and the creation of 13,000 new jobs. It is expected that these new enterprises will either earn or save some $131 million in foreign exchange annually.

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16. Promoting women's rights - A long term objective of the United Nations has been to improve the lives of women and to empower women to have greater control over their lives. Several conferences during the UN-sponsored International Women's Decade set an agenda for the advancement of women and women's rights for the rest of the century. The UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) have supported programmes and projects to improve the quality of life for women in over 100 countries. They include credit and training, access to new food-production technologies and marketing opportunities, and other means of promoting women's work. 17. Providing safe drinking water - UN agencies have worked to make safe drinking water available to 1.3 billion people in rural areas during the last decade. 18. Eradicating smallpox - A 13-year effort by the World Health Organization resulted in the complete eradication of smallpox from the planet in 1980. The eradication has saved an estimated $1 billion a year in vaccination and monitoring, almost three times the cost of eliminating the scourge itself. WHO also helped wipe out polio from the Western hemisphere, with global eradication expected by the year 2000. 19. Pressing for universal immunization - Polio, tetanus, measles, whooping cough, diphtheria and tuberculosis still kill more than eight million children each year. In 1974, only 5 per cent of children in developing countries were immunized against these diseases. Today, as a result of the efforts of UNICEF and WHO, there is an 80 per cent immunization rate, saving the lives of more than 3 million children each year. 20. Reducing child mortality rates - Through oral rehydration therapy, water and sanitation and other health and nutrition measures undertaken by UN agencies, child mortality rates in the developing countries have been halved since 1960, increasing the life expectancy from 37 to 67 years. 21. Fighting parasitic diseases - Efforts by UN agencies in North Africa to eliminate the dreaded screw worm, a parasite that feeds on human and animal flesh, prevented the spread of the parasite, which is carried by flies, to Egypt, Tunisia, sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. A WHO programme also has saved the lives of 7 million children from going blind from the river blindness and rescued many others from guinea worm and other tropical diseases. 22. Promoting investment in developing countries - The United Nations, through the efforts of the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), has served as a "match-maker" for North-South, South-South and East-West investment, promoting entrepreneurship and self-reliance, industrial cooperation and technology transfer and cost-effective, ecologically-sensitive industry. 23. Orienting economic policy toward social need - Many UN agencies have emphasized the need to take account of human needs in determining economic adjustment and restructuring policies and programmes, including measures to safeguard the poor, especially in areas of health and education, and "debt swaps for children." 24. Reducing the effects of natural disasters - The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has spared millions of people from the calamitous effects of both natural and man-made disasters. Its early warning system, which utilizes thousands of surface monitors as well as satellites, has provided information for the dispersal of oil spills and has predicted long-term droughts. The system has allowed for the efficient distribution of food aid to drought regions, such as southern Africa in 1992. 25. Providing food to victims of emergencies - Nearly 815 million people are currently suffering from chronic malnutrition, including 300 million children. In 2001, the World Food Programme (WFP) distributed 4.2 million tons of food to 77 million people in 82 countries for a total operational expenditure of $ 1.74 billion. 20 million people received, through development projects, aid in food-for-work projects to promote agriculture, improve the environment, and in school feeding, health, and nutrition projects, and 57 million people were offered assistance through short- and long-term operations.These beneficiaries include internally displaced people, refugees, and victims of natural disasters such as floods and drought. 26. Clearing land mines - The United Nations is leading an international effort to clear land mines from former battlefields in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador, Mozambique, Rwanda and Somalia that still kill and maim thousands of innocent people every year. 27. Protecting the ozone layer - The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) have been instrumental in highlighting the damage caused to the earth's ozone layer. As a result of a treaty, known as the Montreal Protocol, there has been a global effort to reduce chemical emissions of substances that have caused the depletion of the ozone layer. The effort will spare millions of people from the increased risk of contracting cancer due to additional exposure to ultraviolet radiation. 28. Curbing global warming - Through the Global Environment Facility, countries have contributed substantial resources to curb conditions that cause global warming. Increasing emissions from burning fossil fuels and changes in land use patterns have led to a build-up of gases in the atmosphere, which experts believe can lead to a warming of the Earth's temperature. 29. Preventing over-fishing - The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) monitors marine fishery production and issues alerts to prevent damage due to over-fishing. 30. Limiting deforestation and promoting sustainable forestry development - FAO, UNDP and the World Bank, through a Tropical Forests Action Programme, have formulated and carried out forestry action plans in 90 countries. 31. Cleaning up pollution - UNEP led a major effort to clean up the Mediterranean Sea. It encouraged adversaries such as Syria and Israel, Turkey and Greece to work together to clean up beaches. As a result, more than 50 per cent of the previously polluted beaches are now usable. 32. Protecting consumers' health - To ensure the safety of food sold in the market place, UN agencies have established standards for over 200 food commodities and safety limits for more than 3,000 food containers. 33. Reducing fertility rates - The UN Population Fund (UNFPA), through its family planning programmes, has enabled people to make informed choices, and consequently given families, and especially women, greater control over their lives. As a result, women in developing countries are having fewer children - from six births per woman in the 1960s to 3.5 today. In the

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1960s, only 10 per cent of the world's families were using effective methods of family planning. The number now stands at 55 per cent. Fighting drug abuse - The UN International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) has worked to reduce demand for illicit drugs, suppress drug trafficking, and has helped farmers to reduce their economic reliance on growing narcotic crops by shifting farm production toward other dependable sources of income. Improving global trade relations - The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has worked to obtain special trade preferences for developing countries to export their products to developed countries. It has also negotiated international commodities agreements to ensure fair prices for developing countries. And through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which has now been supplanted by the World Trade Organization (WTO), the United Nations has supported trade liberalization, that will increase economic development opportunities in developing countries. Promoting economic reform - Together with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations has helped many countries improve their economic management, offered training for government finance officials, and provided financial assistance to countries experiencing temporary balance of payment difficulties. Promoting worker rights - The International Labour Organization (ILO) has worked to guarantee freedom of the right to association, the right to organize, collective bargaining, the rights of indigenous and tribal peoples, promote employment and equal remuneration and has sought to eliminate discrimination and child labour. And by setting safety standards, ILO has helped reduce the toll of work-related accidents. Introducing improved agricultural techniques and reducing costs - With assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) that has resulted in improved crop yields, Asian rice farmers have saved $12 million on pesticides and governments over $150 million a year in pesticide subsidies. Promoting stability and order in the world's oceans - Through three international conferences, the third lasting more than nine years, the United Nations has spearheaded an international effort to promote a comprehensive global agreement for the protection, preservation and peaceful development of the oceans. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which came into force in 1994, lays down rules for the determination of national maritime jurisdiction, navigation on the high seas, rights and duties of coastal and other states, obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment, cooperation in the conduct of marine scientific research and preservation of living resources. Improving air and sea travel - UN agencies have been responsible for setting safety standards for sea and air travel. The efforts of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have contributed to making air travel the safest mode of transportation. To wit: In 1947, when nine million travelled, 590 were killed in aircraft accidents; in 1993 the number of deaths was 936 out of the 1.2 billion airline passengers. Over the last two decades, pollution from tankers has been reduced by as much as 60 per cent thanks to the work of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Protecting intellectual property - The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) provides protection for new inventions and maintains a register of nearly 3 million national trademarks. Through treaties, it also protects the works of artists, composers and authors world-wide. WIPO's work makes it easier and less costly for individuals and enterprises to enforce their property rights. It also broadens the opportunity to distribute new ideas and products without relinquishing control over the property rights. Promoting the free flow of information - To allow all people to obtain information that is free of censorship and culturally unbiased, UNESCO has provided aid to develop and strengthen communication systems, established news agencies and supported an independent press. Improving global communications - The Universal Postal Union (UPU) has maintained and regulated international mail delivery. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has coordinated use of the radio spectrum, promoted cooperation in assigning positions for stationary satellites, and established international standards for communications, thereby ensuring the unfeterred flow of information around the globe. Empowering the voiceless - UN-sponsored international years and conferences have caused governments to recognize the needs and contributions of groups usually excluded from decisionmaking, such as the aging, children, youth, homeless, indigenous and disabled people. Establishing "children as a zone of peace" - From El Salvador to Lebanon, Sudan to former Yugoslavia, UNICEF pioneered the establishment of "Days of Tranquillity" and the opening of "Corridors of Peace" to provide vaccines and other assistance desperately needed by children caught in armed conflict. Generating worldwide commitment in support of the needs of children - Through UNICEF's efforts, the Convention on the Rights of the Child entered into force as international law in 1990 and has become law in 166 countries by the end of September 1994; following the 1990 World Summit for Children convened by UNICEF, more than 150 governments have committed to reaching over 20 specific measurable goals to radically improve children's lives by the year 2000. Improving education in developing countries - As a direct result of the efforts of UN agencies, over 60 per cent of adults in developing countries can now read and write, and 90 per cent of children in these countries attend school. Improving literacy for women - Programmes aimed at promoting education and advancement for women helped raise steadily the female literacy rate in developing countries from 36 per cent in 1970 to 56 per cent in 1990 and to 72 per cent in 2000. Safeguarding and preserving historic cultural and architectural sites - Ancient monuments in 81 countries including Greece, Egypt, Italy, Indonesia and Cambodia, have been protected through the efforts of UNESCO, and international conventions have been adopted to preserve cultural property. Facilitating academic and cultural exchanges - The United Nations, through UNESCO and the United Nations University (UNU), have encouraged scholarly and scientific cooperation, networking of institutions and promotion of cultural expressions, including those of minorities and indigenous people.

Remarks by Secretary-General Kofi Annan at the Public Lecture by Stephen Schlesinger, author of Act of Creation the Founding of the United Nations, 11 October 2006 conference [66 minutes] Watch the video of the

In celebration of the United Nations sixtieth anniversary, the United Nations Department of Public Information organized a commemoration of the signing of the United Nations Charter, which took place in San Francisco on 26 June 1945. The event started at 9:30 a.m. in the General Assembly Hall on Monday 27 June 2005. The President of the General Assembly and the Secretary General spoke. Three United Nations tour guides read the Preamble of the Charter and the United Nations Singers performed. Watch the video FORTY-FIVE NATIONS, including the four sponsors, were originally invited to the San Francisco Conference: nations which had declared war on Germany and Japan and had subscribed to the United Nations Declaration. One of these, Poland, did not attend because the composition of her new government was not announced until too late for the conference. Therefore, a space was left for the signature of Poland, one of the original signatories of the United Nations Declaration. At the time of the conference there was no generally recognized Polish Government, but on June 28 such a government was announced and on October 15, 1945 Poland signed the Charter, thus becoming one of the original Members. The Declaration of St. James's Palace In June 1941, London was the home of nine exiled governments. The great British capital had already seen twenty-two months of war and in the bomb-marked city, air-raid sirens wailed all too frequently. Practically all Europe had fallen to the Axis and ships on the Atlantic, carrying vital supplies, sank with grim regularity. But in London itself and among the Allied governments and peoples, faith in ultimate victory remained unshaken. And, even more, people were looking beyond military victory to the postwar future. Would we win only to live in dread of yet another war? Should we not define some purpose more creative than military victory? Is it not possible to shape a better life for all countries and peoples and cut the causes of war at their roots? Such were the anxious questions which troubled many minds, not only in Britain, but in all Allied countries. On the twelfth of that month the representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa and of the exiled governments of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and of General de Gaulle of France, met at the ancient St. Jamess Palace and signed a declaration. These sentences from this declaration still serve as the watchwords of peace:

The only true basis of enduring peace is the willing cooperation of free peoples in a world in which, relieved of the menace of aggression, all may enjoy economic and social security; It is our intention to work together, and with other free peoples, both in war and peace, to this end. Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta The principles of the world organization-to-be were thus laid down. But it is a long step from defining the principles and purpose of such a body to setting up the structure. A blueprint had to be prepared, and it had to be accepted by many nations. For this purpose, representatives of China, Great Britain, the USSR and the United States met for a business-like conference at Dumbarton Oaks, a private mansion in Washington, D. C. The discussions were completed on October 7, 1944, and a proposal for the structure of the world organization was submitted by the four powers to all the United Nations governments, and to the peoples of all countries, for their study and discussion. According to the Dumbarton Oaks proposals, four principal bodies were to constitute the organization to

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There was to be a General Assembly composed of all the members. Then came a Security Council of eleven members. Five of these were to be permanent and the other six were to be chosen from the remaining members by the General Assembly to hold office for two years. The third body was an International Court of Justice, and the fourth a Secretariat. An Economic and Social Council, working under the authority of the General Assembly, was also provided for. The essence of the plan was that responsibility for preventing future war should be conferred upon the Security Council. The General Assembly could study, discuss and make recommendations in order to promote international cooperation and adjust situations likely to impair welfare. It could consider problems of cooperation in maintaining peace and security, and disarmament, in their general principles. But it could not make recommendations on any matter being considered by the Security Council, and all questions on which action was necessary had to be referred to the Security Council. The actual method of voting in the Security Council -- an all-important question -- was left open at Dumbarton Oaks for future discussion. Another important feature of the Dumbarton Oaks plan was that member states were to place armed forces at the disposal of the Security Council in its task of preventing war and suppressing acts of aggression. The absence of such force, it was generally agreed, had been a fatal weakness in the older League of Nations machinery for preserving peace. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals were fully discussed throughout the Allied countries. The British Government issued a detailed commentary, and in the United States, the Department of State distributed 1,900,000 copies of the text and arranged for speakers, radio programs and motion picture films to explain the proposals. Comments and constructive criticisms came from several governments, e.g., Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, the Union of South Africa, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States. Extensive press and radio discussion enabled people in Allied countries to judge the merits of the new plan for peace. Much attention was given to the differences between this new plan and the Covenant of the League of Nations, it being generally admitted that putting armed forces at the disposal of the Security Council was a notable improvement. One important gap in the Dumbarton Oaks proposals had yet to be filled: the voting procedure in the Security Council. This was done at Yalta in the Crimea where Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin, together with their foreign ministers and chiefs of staff, met in conference. On February 11, 1945, the conference announced that this question had been resolved, and it summoned the San Francisco Conference. We are resolved, the three leaders declared, upon the earliest possible establishment with our Allies of a general international organization to maintain peace and security We have agreed that a Conference of United Nations should be called to meet at San Francisco in the United States on the 25th April, 1945, to prepare the charter of such an organization, along the lines proposed in the formal conversations of Dumbarton Oaks. The invitations were sent out on March 5, 1945, and those invited were told at the same time about the agreement reached at Yalta on the voting procedure in the Security Council. Soon after, in early April, came the sudden death of President Roosevelt, to whose statesmanship the plans for the San Francisco Conference owed so much. There was fear for a time that the conference might have to be postponed, but President Truman decided to carry out all the arrangements already made, and the conference opened on the appointed date.

Functions and Powers of the General Assembly Forum for multilateral negotiation Established in 1945 under the Charter of the United Nations, the General Assembly occupies a central position as the chief deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations. Comprising all 192 Members of the United Nations, it provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter. It also plays a significant role in the process of standard-setting and the codification of international law. The Assembly meets in regular session intensively from September to December each year, and thereafter as required. Functions and powers of the General Assembly According to the Charter of the United Nations, the General Assembly may:

Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining international peace and security, including disarmament;

Discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except where a dispute or situation is currently being discussed by the Security Council, make recommendations on it; Discuss, with the same exception, and make recommendations on any questions within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations; Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, the development and codification of international law, the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and international collaboration in the economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, educational and health fields; Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that might impair friendly relations among nations; Receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs; Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the financial assessments of Member States; Elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of other United Nations councils and organs and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General.

Pursuant to its Uniting for Peace resolution of November 1950 (resolution 377 (V)) [PDF], the Assembly may also take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression. The Assembly can consider the matter immediately with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security (see "Special sessions and emergency special sessions). While the Assembly is empowered to make only non-binding recommendations to States on international issues within its competence, it has, nonetheless, initiated actionspolitical, economic, humanitarian, social and legalwhich have affected the lives of millions of people throughout the world. The landmark Millennium Declaration, adopted in 2000, and the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document reflect the commitment of Member States to reach specific goals to attain peace, security and disarmament along with development and poverty eradication; safeguard human rights and promote the rule of law; protect our common environment; meet the special needs of Africa; and strengthen the United Nations. The search for consensus Each Member State in the Assembly has one vote. Votes taken on designated important issues, such as recommendations on peace and security and the election of Security Council members, require a twothirds majority of Member States, but other questions are decided by simple majority. In recent years, a special effort has been made to achieve consensus on issues, rather than deciding by a formal vote, thus strengthening support for the Assemblys decisions. The President, after having consulted and reached agreement with delegations, can propose that a resolution be adopted without a vote.

Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:

to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations; to investigate any dispute or situation which mightlead to international friction; to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement; to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments; to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken; to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression; to take military action against an aggressor; to recommend the admission of new Members; to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas"; to recommend to the GeneralAssembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

Membership in 2009 The Council is composed of five permanent members China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States and ten non-permament members (with year of term's end):

Austria (2010) Burkina Faso (2009) Costa Rica (2009) Croatia (2009)

Japan (2010) Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (2009) Mexico (2010) Turkey (2010)

Uganda (2010) Viet Nam (2009)

The General Assembly elected Austria, Japan, Mexico, Turkey and Uganda to serve as non-permanent members of the Security Council for two-year terms starting on 1 January 2009. The newly elected countries will replace Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, Panama and South Africa. About the Council The Presidency of the Security Council is held in turn by the members of the Security Council in the English alphabetical order of their names. Each President holds office for one calendar month. Ten non-permament members, elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms and not eligible for immediate re-election. The number of non-permanent members was increased from six to ten by an amendment of the Charter which came into force in 1965. Each Council member has one vote. Decisions on procedural matters are made by an affirmative vote of at least nine of the 15 members. Decisions on substantive matters require nine votes, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. This is the rule of "great Power unanimity", often referred to as the "veto" power. Under the Charter, all Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to Governments, the Council alone has the power to take decisions which Member States are obligated under the Charter to carry out. Committees: Standing Committees -- There are three committees at present, and each includes representatives of all Security Council member States.

Security Council Committee of Experts Security Council Committee on Admission of New Members Security Council Committee on Council meetings away from Headquarters

Ad Hoc Committees -- They are established as needed, comprise all Council members and meet in closed session.

Governing Council of the United Nations Compensation Commission established by Security Council resolution 692 (1991) Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) concerning Counter-Terrorism Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004)

Sanctions Committees Sanctions Committees Bureaux for 2008

Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Leone Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution and the Taliban and associated individuals and entities Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Democratic Republic of the Congo Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution d'Ivoire Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution

751 (1992) concerning Somalia 918 (1994) concerning Rwanda 1132 (1997) concerning Sierra 1267 (1999) concerning Al Qaida 1518 (2003) 1521 (2003) concerning Liberia 1533 (2004) concerning The 1572 (2004) concerning Cte 1591 (2005) concerning The Sudan 1636 (2005) 1718 (2006)

Terminated Sanctions Committees

Security Council Committee established by resolution 661 (1990) concerning the situation between Iraq and Kuwait (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1483 (2003) of 22 May 2003 - see 1518 Committee above) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 748 (1992) concerning the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1506 (2003) of 12 September 2003) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) concerning the situation in Angola (Monitoring Mechanism on Sanctions against UNITA) (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1448 (2002) of 9 December 2002). Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 985 (1995) concerning Liberia (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1343 (2001) of 7 March 2001, see above) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1343 (2001) concerning Liberia (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1521 (2003) of 22 December 2003, see above ) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1160 (1998) (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1367 (2001) of 10 September 2001) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1298 (2000) concerning the situation between Eritrea and Ethiopia (Terminated in pursuance of Presidential Statement S/PRST/2001/14 of 15 May 2001)

Working Groups: Working Groups Bureaux for 2008

Security Council Security Council Security Council Security Council Security Council Security Council

Working Group on Peacekeeping Operations Ad Hoc Working Group on Conflict Prevention and Resolution in Africa Working Group established pursuant to resolution 1566 (2004) Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict Informal Working Group on General Issues of Sanctions Informal Working Group on Documentation and Other Procedural Questions

Peacekeeping Operations Since 1948 there have been 63 United Nations peace-keeping operations.

International Tribunals

International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 established by S/RES/808 (1993) - International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY); International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States between 1 January and 31 December 1994 - established by S/RES/955 (1994).

Sources: Basic Facts About the United Nations, Sales No.E.98.I.20., Press Release GA/9784 (10 Oct. 2000), and the Office of the Director of Security Council Affairs Division, Department of Political Affairs. Last updated on 8 June 2006

Committees: Standing Committees -- There are three committees at present, and each includes representatives of all Security Council member States.

Security Council Committee of Experts Security Council Committee on Admission of New Members Security Council Committee on Council meetings away from Headquarters

Ad Hoc Committees -- They are established as needed, comprise all Council members and meet in closed session.

Governing Council of the United Nations Compensation Commission established by Security Council resolution 692 (1991) Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) concerning Counter-Terrorism

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004)

Sanctions Committees Sanctions Committees Bureaux for 2008

Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Leone Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution and the Taliban and associated individuals and entities Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Democratic Republic of the Congo Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution d'Ivoire Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution

751 (1992) concerning Somalia 918 (1994) concerning Rwanda 1132 (1997) concerning Sierra 1267 (1999) concerning Al Qaida 1518 (2003) 1521 (2003) concerning Liberia 1533 (2004) concerning The 1572 (2004) concerning Cte 1591 (2005) concerning The Sudan 1636 (2005) 1718 (2006)

Terminated Sanctions Committees

Security Council Committee established by resolution 661 (1990) concerning the situation between Iraq and Kuwait (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1483 (2003) of 22 May 2003 - see 1518 Committee above) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 748 (1992) concerning the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1506 (2003) of 12 September 2003) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) concerning the situation in Angola (Monitoring Mechanism on Sanctions against UNITA) (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1448 (2002) of 9 December 2002). Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 985 (1995) concerning Liberia (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1343 (2001) of 7 March 2001, see above) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1343 (2001) concerning Liberia (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1521 (2003) of 22 December 2003, see above ) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1160 (1998) (Terminated pursuant to resolution 1367 (2001) of 10 September 2001) Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1298 (2000) concerning the situation between Eritrea and Ethiopia (Terminated in pursuance of Presidential Statement S/PRST/2001/14 of 15 May 2001)

Working Groups: Working Groups Bureaux for 2008

Security Council Security Council Security Council Security Council Security Council Security Council

Working Group on Peacekeeping Operations Ad Hoc Working Group on Conflict Prevention and Resolution in Africa Working Group established pursuant to resolution 1566 (2004) Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict Informal Working Group on General Issues of Sanctions Informal Working Group on Documentation and Other Procedural Questions

Peacekeeping Operations Since 1948 there have been 63 United Nations peace-keeping operations.

International Tribunals

International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 established by S/RES/808 (1993) - International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY); International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens

Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States between 1 January and 31 December 1994 - established by S/RES/955 (1994). Sources: Basic Facts About the United Nations, Sales No.E.98.I.20., Press Release GA/9784 (10 Oct. 2000), and the Office of the Director of Security Council Affairs Division, Department of Political Affairs. Last updated on 8 June 2006