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TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA


Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

7. TRANSMISSION LINE

7.1.Content In this assignment the measurement of voltage standing wave (vswr) of waveguide components is undertaken using a waveguide slotted-line and probe detector. Voltage standing wave ratio, invariably abbreviated to vswr, is one of the fundamental parameters used in specifying component performance. It quantifies the degree of mismatch a component presents to the waveguide feed line. The concept of impedance in waveguides and the use of the Smith Chart in impedance and matching calculations are introduced. The measurement of impedance of a waveguide component is carried out and the results used to determine the position of a capacitative probe to effect matching.

7.2.Objectives 1. Understand the concept of Voltage Standing Wave Ratio in the transmission line; 2. Understand the concept of impedance and admittance in the transmission line 3. Understand how to use Smith Chart to determine the value of impedance and admittance in the transmission line.

7.3.Theory Energy moves along the transmission line as electromagnetic wave. The wave generated by the signal source and flows in a transmission line to load is called as incident wave. If the value of the load impedance, , is equal to the value of the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, , then all the energy comes from the source will be absorbed by the load. In other words, if the transmission line with finite length terminated with load impedance , then for the incident wave, line will appear as a line with an infinite length, because at all points, including at the load terminal, the ratio between the voltage and current will be equal to . If the load impedance is not equal to the characteristic impedance of the line, there is energy reflected back toward the source and called as reflected wave. In Figure 1.1 is shown a picture of a transmission line terminated by load.

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

Figure 7.1. A transmission line terminated by load These reflected waves set up standing wave patterns in the transmission lineas illustrated in figure 1.2.

Figure 7.2 standing wave The ratio of maximum and minimum voltage amplitude on a standing wave called as Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) and defined as: . (1.1) If the electric field is probed with a diode detector at low power levels, the diode detector will obey a square law. That is, the current measured in the diode detector will be proportional to the square of the electric field being probed so that: . (1.2) where k is a constant of proportionality.

.... (1.3)

The corresponding waveguide reflection coefficient is

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

. (1.4) The waveguide return loss (in dB) is defined as . (1.5)

There are two ways in determining the value of VSWR, namely: 1. Direct Methods By measuring the current values along the transmission line, the results of these measurements will obtain current value at each point in the transmission line, VSWR graphs can be drawn by plotting each value of current at any point in the transmission line. 2. Indirect method (Double minimum method) Indirect method is used to improve the direct method if the value of VSWR more than 10. Reflected waves indicate that the load impedance does not match to the line impedance.This causes the calculation of the amount of transmission becomes complicated. To simplify the calculations, we use Smith Chart. Smith Chart is a diagram used to understand the characteristics of transmission lines and microwave circuit elements. This diagram consists of real and imaginary component, in which the real component is shown by full circles, while the imaginary component is shown by the curved shape. Some characteristics of transmission line can be calculated by the Smith Chart, such as VSWR, load impedance, load admittance and reflection coefficient. From the Smith Chart, it can be determined whether the transmission line is matching or not. Impedance is the ratio of voltage to current at a point in the transmission line, while admittance is the ratio of current to voltage at a point in the transmission line.

7.4. Equipment Required All experiments using FEEDBACK Microwave Trainer MWT530. No 1 Component Microwave Trainer Board Quantity 1

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Variabel Attenuator

X-band CW Gun Oscilator Source 1 Slotted line Probe diode detector Short circuit plate Resistive termination Waveguide horn antenna E-plane tee 1 1 1 1 1 1

1. Microwave Trainer Board

Figure 7.3 Microwave Trainer Board

2. Variabel Attenuator Is a resistive vane-central slot type; used to set attenuation level and control power transmission in waveguides. Maximum attenuation vane setting 0 approx. 36 dB; minimum at 90 less than 1 dB.

Figure 7.4 Variabel Attenuator

3. X-band CW Gun Oscilator Source

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

Frequency:fixed 10.687 Ghz Output Power: 10 mW typical; 5Mw minimum.

Figure 7.5 X-band CW Gun Oscilator Source 4. Slotted line Waveguide slotted line; for sampling electric field pattern in waveguide; used with probe detector to measure guide wavelength, VSWR and impedance.

Figure 7.6 Slotted Line

5. Probe diode detector Probe detector, diode detector mounted in coaxial section with inner conductor acting as a probe;used in conjunction with slotted line and directional coupler to detect microwave signals. The diode detector in waveguide mount itself is used to rectify microwave signals for their detection; at low power levels diode detector output current is directly proportional to the microwave power being detected.

Figure 7.7 Probe diode detector

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

6. Short circuit plate Metal plates used to short-circuit waveguide section; employed in impedance measurements to determine reference planes, also used to measure guide wavelength and crystal detector law in conjunction with slotted line.

Figure 7.8 Short Circuit Plate

7. Resistive termination Is a waveguide section containing a taper lossy material to absorb incident microwave signals; ideally should absorb totally incoming signals without any reflection- it then acts as a matched load.

Figure 7.9 Resistive Termination

8. Waveguide horn antenna Is an important microwave antenna widely used as a feed to microwave parabolic reflectors in radio, satellite, and radar systems, and also as an antenna in its own right.

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

Figure 7.10 Waveguide horn antenna

9. E-plane tee Acts as a power divider in the plane containing the incident E (electric field).

Figure 7.11 E-Plane Tee

7.5. Experiment Procedure 1.2.1 Measurement of VSWR using Direct Method 1. Set up the equipment as shown in figure 1.12 . 2. Set up the switch conditions on the console as follows: Amplifier and detector: switch to detector output. Left-hand keying switch: switch to internal keying. Right-hand switch: initially off.

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

Figure 1.12 3. Set the sensitivity to mid-position. Set the attenuator at position 20. After switch on the console power supply, the main green switch, then energize the microwave bench by switching the right-hand switch on. 4. When the detector probe is moved along the slotted line, then the value of current will vary. Adjust the sensitivity and, if necessary, the attenuator setting to obtain a meter reading close to full-scale deflection. 5. Carefully move the probe detector to locate the position of the first minimum current. Record the and the postition as x1.

6. Carefully move the probe detector to locate the position of the first maximum current. Record the current ( and the postition as x2. And also the next minimum

) and the postition as x3.

7. Using the same procedure, do it for short circuit and horn antenna.

1.2.2 Measurement of Impedance (normalized) Here is how to determine the load impedance by using the Smith Chart: 1. Determine the VSWR with a direct method;

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

2. Draw VSWR circle on the Smith Chart; 3. Point Q where r = 1/VSWR represents the input impedance of the load at electric field minimum 4. Calculate the length of guide wavelength by the formula

5. The distance d of first electric field minimum from the load input is defined by

6. Move

from the point Q .

7. Find the value of normalized load impedance. 1.2.3 Caution and equipment explanation WARNING: Although the microwave power levels generated by the equipment are below 10 mW and not normally dangerous, the human eye can suffer damage by exposure to direct microwave radiation. Therefore: NEVER look directly into an energized waveguide.

REFERENCE: 1. Manual Feedback Microwave Trainer MWT530 2. William H.Hyat and John A.Buck. Elektromagnetika, 7th ed. Erlangga. 2006 3. Stuart M. Wentworth. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics with Engineering Aplications.Wiley.2005

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

PRACTICAL SHEET-PRACTICAL 1 TRANSMISSION LINE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM 2011 TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Name NPM

:__________________ :__________________

Group :______________ Assistant:______________

1. What do you know about transmission line? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. What do you know about VSWR, Reflection Coefficient , Return Loss and Matching condition? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Write the objective of this experiment and the devices that is used! ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

4. Experimental Data a. Short Circuit x1min x2max x3min x4max x5min mm mm mm mm mm mA mA mA mA mA b. Resistive Load x1min x2max x3min x4max x5min mm mm mm mm mm mA mA mA mA mA

c. Antenna Load x1min x2max x3min x4max x5min mm mm mm mm mm mA mA mA mA mA

5. Data Processing a. experiment dan d load g = 2 (x3 SCmin x1 SCmin) 13 = ____ 35 = ____ average = _____ Antenna Load = Resistive Load =

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

b. VSWR i. Resistive Load S21= ___ S= (Imax/Imin)1/2 S23= ___ S25= ___ S41= ___ S43= ___ S45= ___

Saverage=_____ ii. Antenna Load S21= ___ S= (Imax/Imin)1/2 S23= ___ S25= ___ S41= ___ S43= ___ S45= ___

Saverage=_____ c. Reflection Coefficient = (Srata-rata - 1) / (Srata-rata + 1)

i. Resistive Load ii. Antenna Load d. Return Loss

=____________ =____________

10 log Pr / Pt = 20 log

i. Resistive Load ii. Antenna Load

=____________ =____________

e. % Reflection Power

2 . 100 %

i. Resistive Load ii. Antenna Load

=____________ =____________

f. Load impedance

TELECOMMUNICATION LABORATORY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus Baru UI Depok 16424 Telp. 7270078 ext.131, Fax 7270050

i. Resistive Load ii. Antenna Load

=____________ =____________

6. Conclusion ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________