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but some living things are very small(tiny). They are so tiny that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. They can be seen only under a microscope. We called these tiny living things microorganisms. Microorganisms are different in shape, size and are found everywhere. Microorganisms are living things because they carry out life processes. There are 4 main types of microorganisms bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. o Characteristics of various type of microorganisms 1. Bacteria Definition: 2nd smallest living things can be seen by electron microscope, have the simplest structure, and have the largest number among the five groups of microbes. Size: Consists only one cell (about 0.5 to 10 micrometer) Shape: There are four general shapes: a) Cocci b) Bacili c) Spirilia Sampai d) Vibrio Structure: Vietnam Cium Baboon

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CLASSIFICATIONS OF MICROORGANISMS Type of microorganisms Definition: Tiny living things that cannot be seen by naked eyes, but can be seen by electron microscopes. They are also known as microbes. Some of microbes are harmful, but some of them are useful too Classification: There are 5 main groups for microbes: a) Bacteria Beruk b) Protozoa c) Fungi d) Algae e) Viruses Van Pergi Filipina Angkat

Nutrition: Some bacteria have chlorophyll, so they can make their own food by photosynthesis process. Some of bacteria dont have chlorophyll, so they have to be: a) Saprophytes - get food from decaying matters b) Parasites - get food from other living organisms

Respiration: Some of bacteria carry out aerobic respiration, and some of them carry out anaerobic respiration. Reproduction: a) By binary fission b) By spores. Habitat: Bacteria live in any damp places. 2. Protozoa Definition: Animals which are made up of only one cell. They are unicellular. Example: amoeba, paramecium and etc. Size: Consists only one cell (about 5 to 250 micrometer) Shape: Have various shapes, but mostly they have irregular shape (no fixed shape) Structure:

Reproduction: a) By binary fission b) By asexual reproduction (spore formation) c) By sexual reproduction (conjugation) Habitat: Protozoa live independently in any ponds, river, damp soils or in other organisms, and they lives in colonies. Exercise: 1. Name the five main groups of microorganisms 2. Bacteria can live in unfavorable conditions. Under such conditions, they. 3. Size of protozoa is about 4. What is the shape of paramecium? ............................ 3. Fungi Definition: Plants which do not have chlorophyll. They include mushrooms, moulds and yeast. They do not have root, stems or leaves. Size: Some of them are large (i.e mushroom), and some of them are tiny (i.e moulds and yeast) Shape: Have various shapes: i- round ball ii- long filaments. iii- oval-shaped

Nutrition: Some of protozoa live as parasites. E.g: plasmodium. Some of them obtain food from their surroundings. E.g: amoeba and paramecium. Some of protozoa make their own food. Respiration: All of protozoa carry out aerobic respiration


Nutrition: Algae possess chlorophyll, so that they can make their own food by photosynthesis. Respiration: Most of fungi carry out aerobic respiration Reproduction: Nutrition: Most of fungi live as parasites (i.e moulds) or saprophytes (i.e mucor) . Respiration: Most of fungi carry out aerobic respiration Reproduction: a) By spores. Fungi such a mushrooms form spores within their caps. Mucor form sporangium (containing spores). When it ripe, it bursts open and disperses the spore. b) By budding. Habitat: Fungi live in damp dark habitats. Example: Mucor grows on damp stale bread placed in the dark 4. Algae Definition: Very simple plants which have chlorophyll. Algae do not have root, stems or leaves Size: Some of them are large (i.e seaweed), and some of them are tiny (i.e diatoms, euglena and etc) Shape: Have various shapes: i- round ball ii- long filaments iii- oval-shaped iv- network-like structure Nutrition: Viruses live as parasites in living cell. Habitat: Viruses live only in living cell. a) By asexual reproduction (binary fission) b) By asexual reproduction (fragmentation) Algae reproduced by breaking a long filament into two. c) By sexual reproduction (conjugation) Habitat: Algae live in fresh water, salt water, damp soil or on damp bark of trees. 5. Virus Definition: Smallest microorganisms and it do not respire, do not excrete waste products, and do not possess nucleus, cell membrane and cytoplasm. Size: About 0.02 0.4 micrometer, and can be seen only by electron microscope Shape: Have various shapes, maybe in spherical, rectangular or rod-shaped Structure:

Exercise: 1. How do fungi continue its generation under adverse condition? 2. Why algae look greenish? 3. What a different between algae and tree? 5. State 3 properties of viruses which are not characteristics of living things

5. pH value Most of microorganisms prefer to live in neutral medium (pH = 7) In very acidic (pH = 1 to 3) and very alkaline (pH = 12 to 14) conditions, most of microorganisms will be killed.



There are 5 main factors that affect the growth of microorganism: 1. Nutrients Microorganisms need nutrient to live, and they get it by being: a) Autotrophic. b) Saprophytic. c) Parasitic. 2. Humidity Microorganisms need living place with high level of humidity. That means, they need moisture or water to live, and they will die if they do not get water for a period of time. However, some bacteria can live in a place without waters presence by forming spores. For amoeba, they form cyst (spore with outer ring). 3. Light Most of virus, fungi and protozoa and some of bacteria prefer dim or dark habitat, while algae and few of bacteria tend to live in bright place since they have chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis process. 4. Temperature

1. In the Digestion of Food Some bacteria and protozoa help herbivores (e.g: rabbit, goat, cows and etc) and termites digest their food They produce an enzyme called cellulose to help herbivores and termites digest cellulose into glucose cellulose 2. In Decay 2.1 Formation of humus Some of saprophytic bacteria and fungi decompose organic matter into humus 2.2 Production of biogas and fertilizers Some of saprophytic bacteria decompose organic waste (e.g: waste from oil palm, paddy and coconut) and turn it into methane gas 2.3 Disposal of oil spills Some of bacteria break up oil spills and decompose it into less harmful substance. 3. In Medicine

enzyme glucose cellulase

Most suitable temperature for the microorganisms growth and live is about 37C (humans body temperature). High temperature will kill microorganisms, while low temperature makes them inactive.

3.1 Antibiotics There are 2 common antibiotics in world, which are: a) Penicillin (prepared from penicillium notatum bacteria)

b) Streptomycin (prepared from streptomyces griseus bacteria) Antibiotics can only kill bacteria Some algae used to produce beneficial chemicals for human beings. For the example: a) beta-carotene which has anti cancer properties b) fatty acids which make cholesterol level in humans blood become low 5. In Industry 3.2 Vaccines 5.1 Making breads and cakes Vaccines are prepared from dead or very weak bacteria and viruses. It used to stimulate the body to produce antibodies. Vaccination refers to an injection containing certain vaccines that can prevent a person being infected to a certain disease. Example: BCG injection for dry cough disease. 4. In Agriculture 4.1 Maturing of tobacco leaves Bacteria used to make tobacco leaves mature, so that they can emit desirable smell and taste. 4.2 Nitrogen cycle Yeast is used in the making breads and cakes. It is mixed with flour, sugar and water; and made into dough Yeast will reacts with sugar to produce alcohol (ethanol), carbon dioxide and energy. By the way, this process is known as fermentation. yeast + sugar

enzyme zymase

carbon dioxide + ethanol + energy

Carbon dioxide released makes the dough rise, so that breads and cakes become very soft. 5.2 Making ethanol Yeast is also used to produce alcohol (ethanol) instead of carbon dioxide. 5.3 Production of vinegar, and yoghurt Vinegar (ethanoic acid) is prepared by using bacteria to change ethanol into ethanoic acid.

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Nitrogen gas

Denitrifying bacteria



Plant and animal proteins Nitrifying bacteria Ammonium compounds

Figure 4.2- A (Simple nitrogen cycle)

ethanol (alcohol) + oxygen

ethanoic acid (vinegar) + water

Yoghurt (contains lactic acid) is prepared by the action of bacteria on milk. Bacteria will reacts with lactose in milk and turns it into lactic acid.

Bacteria of decay

lactose 5.4 Production of soy sauce


lactic acid

4.3 Productions of chemicals from algae

Soy sauce is produced from the fermentation of a mixture containing mould, yeast, flour and soy beans. Salt is added to make it become salty.

Exercise: 1. List all factors affect to the growth of microorganism 2. Which microorganisms that can live in bright place? 3. Tell the range of air humidity which most of microorganisms are very active.