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Laser Safety Training

Florida Institute of Technology Spring 2009

Basics of Lasers Laser Classes q p Beam Hazards and Protective Equipment Non- Beam Hazards Standards and Regulations

NOTE: Some illustrations used are extremely graphic. If you adverse to pictures of tissue damage please let me know now.

Laser Uses

Properties of Laser light

"Laser" is an acronym for Light Amplification by Sti l t d Emission Stimulated E i i of fR Radiation di ti Laser light is very different from normal light. Laser light has the following properties:
The light released is monochromatic. It contains one specific wavelength of light (one specific color). The wavelength of light is determined by the amount of energy released when the p to a lower orbit. electron drops The light released is coherent. It is organized -- each photon moves in step with the others. This means that all of the photons have wave fronts that launch in unison. The light is very directional. A laser light has a very tight beam and is very strong and concentrated. A flashlight, on the other hand, releases light in many directions, and the light is very weak and diffuse.

Properties of Light
Monochromatic, Monochromatic directional directional, and coherent coherent. Th These th three properties ti of fl laser li light ht are what can make it more hazardous than ordinary di li light. ht L Laser li light ht can d deposit it a l lot t of energy within a small area.

Light g t Wavelengths a e e gt s

Name Ult i l t Ultaviolet Visible Near Infared Far Infared

Wavelength 100 nm - 400 nm 400 nm - 750 nm 750 nm - 3000 nm 3000 nm - 1 mm

Laser Wavelengths
Here are some typical lasers and their emission wavelengths: Laser Type Argon fluoride (UV) Krypton fluoride (UV) Xenon chloride (UV) Nitrogen (UV) Argon (blue) Argon (green) Helium neon (green) Helium neon (red) Rhodamine 6G dye (tunable) Ruby (CrAlO3) (red) Nd:Yag (NIR) Carbon dioxide (FIR) Wavelength (nm) 193 248 308 337 488 514 543 633 570-650 694 1064 10600

Ultraviolet Response time 30,000 sec.

Visible p time Response 0.25 sec. Near Infrared Far Infrared Response time 10 sec

Response Time
Response Time is the time it takes for the person exposed to the laser to react.
Visible Light response time is 0 0.25 25 sec sec. or how long it takes to blink Infrared response is 10 sec or how long it takes for pain due to exposure

Laser Schematic

Types ypes of o Lasers ase s

There are many different types of lasers. The laser medium can be a solid, gas, liquid or semiconductor. Lasers are commonly designated by the type of lasing material employed: Solid-state lasers have lasing material distributed in a solid matrix (such as the ruby or neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet "Yag" lasers). The neodymium-Yag laser emits infrared light at 1,064 nanometers (nm). A nanometer is 1x10-9 meters. Gas lasers (helium and helium-neon, HeNe, are the most common gas lasers) have a primary output of f visible red light. CO2 CO lasers emit energy in the far-infrared, f f and are used for f cutting hard materials. Excimer lasers (the name is derived from the terms excited and dimers) use reactive gases, such as chlorine and fluorine, mixed with inert gases such as argon, krypton or xenon. When electrically stimulated stimulated, a pseudo molecule (dimer) is produced produced. When lased lased, the dimer produces light in the ultraviolet range. Dye lasers use complex organic dyes, such as rhodamine 6G, in liquid solution or suspension as lasing media. They are tunable over a broad range of wavelengths. Semiconductor lasers, sometimes called diode lasers, are not solid-state lasers. These electronic devices are generally very small and use low power. They may be built into larger arrays, such as the writing source in some laser printers or CD players.

Laser Emission
Lasers are also characterized by the duration of laser emission - continuous wave or pulsed laser. A Q-Switched laser is a pulsed laser which contains a shutter-like device that does not allow emission of laser light until opened. Energy is built-up in a Q-Switched laser and released by opening the device to produce a single, intense laser pulse. CONTINUOUS WAVE (CW) lasers l operate t with ith a stable t bl average beam b power. In I most t higher hi h power systems, one is able to adjust the power. In low power gas lasers, such as HeNe, the power level is fixed by design and performance usually degrades with long term use. SINGLE PULSED (normal mode) lasers generally have pulse durations of a few hundred p is sometimes referred to as long g microseconds to a few milliseconds. This mode of operation pulse or normal mode. SINGLE PULSED Q-SWITCHED lasers are the result of an intracavity delay (Q-switch cell) which allows the laser media to store a maximum of potential energy. Then, under optimum gain conditions, emission occurs in single pulses; typically of 10(-8) second time domain. These pulses will have high peak powers often in the range from 10(6) to 10(9) Watts peak. REPETITIVELY PULSED or scanning lasers generally involve the operation of pulsed laser performance operating at a fixed (or variable) pulse rates which may range from a few pulses per second to as high as 20,000 pulses per second. The direction of a CW laser can be scanned rapidly using optical scanning systems to produce the equivalent of a repetitively pulsed output at a given location location. MODE LOCKED lasers operate as a result of the resonant modes of the optical cavity which can effect the characteristics of the output beam. When the phases of different frequency modes are synchronized, i.e., "locked together," the different modes will interfere with one another to generate a beat effect. The result is a laser output which is observed as regularly spaced pulsations Lasers operating in this mode pulsations. mode-locked locked fashion, fashion usually produce a train of regularly spaced pulses, each having a duration of 10(-15) (femto) to 10(-12) (pico) sec. A mode-locked laser can deliver extremely high peak powers than the same laser operating in the Q-switched mode. These pulses will have enormous peak powers often in the range from 10(12) Watts peak.

New Classes
Class 1 A class 1 laser is safe under all conditions of normal use. This means the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) cannot be exceeded. This class includes high-power lasers within an enclosure that prevents exposure to the radiation and that cannot be opened without shutting down the laser. For example, a continuous laser at 600 nm can emit up to 0.39 mW, but for shorter wavelengths, the maximum emission is lower because of the potential of those wavelengths to generate photochemical damage. The maximum emission is also related to the pulse l d duration ti i in th the case of f pulsed l dl lasers and d th the d degree of f spatial ti l coherence. h Class 1M A Class 1M laser is safe for all conditions of use except when passed through magnifying optics such as microscopes and telescopes. Class 1M lasers produce large-diameter beams, or beams that are divergent. The MPE for a Class 1M laser cannot normally be exceeded unless focusing or imaging optics are used to narrow the beam. If the beam is refocused, the hazard of Class 1M lasers may be increased and the product class may be changed. A laser can be classified as Class 1M if the total output power is below class 3B but the power that can pass thro through gh the p pupil pil of the e eye e is within ithin Class 1 Class 2 A Class 2 laser is safe because the blink reflex will limit the exposure to no more than 0.25 seconds. It only applies to visible-light lasers (400 700 nm). Class-2 lasers are limited to 1 mW continuous wave, or more if the emission time is less than 0.25 seconds or if the light is not spatially coherent. Intentional suppression of the blink reflex could lead to eye injury. Many laser pointers are class 2. Class 2 M A Class 2M laser is safe because of the blink reflex if not viewed through optical instruments. As with class 1M, this applies to laser beams with a large diameter or large divergence, for which the amount of light passing through the pupil cannot exceed the limits for class 2. Class 3R A Class 3R laser is considered safe if handled carefully, with restricted beam viewing. With a class 3R laser, the MPE can be exceeded, but with a low risk of injury. Visible continuous lasers in Class 3R are limited to 5 mW. For other wavelengths and for pulsed lasers, other limits apply. Class 3 B A Class 3B laser is hazardous if the eye is exposed directly, but diffuse reflections such as from paper or other matte surfaces are not harmful. Continuous lasers in the wavelength range from 315 nm to far infrared are limited to 0.5 W. For pulsed lasers between 400 and 700 nm, the limit is 30 mJ. Other limits apply to other wavelengths and to ultrashort pulsed lasers. Protective eyewear is typically required where direct viewing of a class 3B laser beam may occur. Class-3B lasers must be equipped with a key switch and a safety interlock. Class 4 Class 4 lasers include all lasers with beam power greater than class 3B. By definition, a class-4 laser can burn the skin, in addition to potentially devastating and permanent eye damage as a result of direct or diffuse beam viewing. These lasers may ignite combustible materials, and thus may represent a fire risk. Class 4 lasers must be equipped with a key switch and a safety interlock. Many industrial, scientific, and medical lasers are in this category.

Old Classes
Class I lasers are considered safe, based upon current knowledge, under any exposure condition inherent in the design of the product. The low powered devices (0.4 milliwatt at visible wavelengths) that use lasers of this category include laser printers, CD players, and survey equipment, and they are not permitted to emit levels of optical radiation above the exposure limits for the eye. A more hazardous laser may be incorporated within the enclosure of a Class I product, but no harmful radiation is permitted to escape during use or maintenance (this does not necessarily apply during service). service) No safety requirements are specified for the use of this class of laser laser. Class IA is a special designation for lasers that are not intended for viewing, such as supermarket laser scanners. A higher power is permitted than for Class I lasers (not more than 4 milliwatts), but the Class I limit must not be exceeded for an emission duration in excess of 1000 seconds. Class II are low-power lasers that must emit a visible beam. The brightness of the beam is relied upon to prevent staring into the beam for long enough periods to cause eye damage. These lasers are limited to a radiant power less than 1 milliwatt milliwatt, which is below the maximum permissible exposure for momentary exposure of 0 0.25 25 second or less. The natural aversion reaction to visible light of this brightness is expected to protect the eyes from damage, but any intentional viewing for extended periods could result in damage. Some examples of this class of laser are demonstration lasers for classroom use, laser pointers, and range-finding devices.

Class IIIA lasers are continuous wave intermediate power (1-5 (1 5 milliwatt) devices devices, with similar applications as Class II lasers, including laser scanners and pointers. They are considered safe for momentary viewing (less than 0.25 second), but should not be viewed directly (intrabeam), or with any kind of magnifying optics. Class IIIB lasers are of medium power (continuous wave 5-500 milliwatt, or 10 joules per square centimeter in pulsed devices), and are not safe for direct viewing or viewing of specular reflections. Specific safety measures are recommended in the standards for control of hazards with this laser class. Examples of applications of this laser type yp are spectroscopy, p py, confocal microscopy, py, and entertainment light g shows. Class IV lasers emit high power, in excess of the limit for Class IIIB devices, and require stringent controls to eliminate hazards in their use. Both the direct beam and diffuse reflections from these lasers are damaging to the eyes and skin, and are potential fire hazards depending upon the materials that they strike. Most laser eye injuries involve reflections of Class IV laser light, and consequently all reflective surfaces must be kept away from the beam, and appropriate eye protection worn at all times when working with these lasers. Lasers of this category are employed for surgery, cutting, drilling, micromachining, and welding.

Green laser

Class Differences - class IIIb compared to class IIIa

Beam Hazards

Common Injuries
Eye Injury. The main symptom of laser injury is reduction in visual acuity; another symptom may be pain. Person may report seeing bright flashes of light; experiencing eye discomfort and poor vision; and feeling unexplained heat. Medical examination may reveal lesions such as corneal burns, retinal injury and hemorrhage.
A major long long-term term effect of laser retinal injury is the scarring process which may degrade vision weeks or even months after the injury

Skin Burns. Burns Holes. Holes lesions and 3rd degree burns are symptoms of skin injury. The skin's threshold is much higher than that for the retina, since there is no focusing power as will occur in the eye.

Figure 1: The cornea and lens of the eye focus the laser beam to a very small spot on the retina, resulting in very high irradiance levels (power densities) on the retina. A conventional light source on the other hand usually represents an extended source which is imaged onto the retina as an extended image with a correspondingly smaller irradiance on the retina.

It may be thought that a burned spot on the retina measuring even 20 micrometers would not be significant to vision, since the retina contains millions of cone cells. Actual retinal injuries, however, are usually larger than the primary focused spot due to secondary thermal and acoustic effects, and depending upon the location, even an extremely t l small ll injury i j to t the th retina ti can significantly i ifi tl d damage vision. i i I In a worst-case t exposure, with ith th the eye relaxed l d (focused at infinity) and the laser beam entering the eye directly or from a specular reflection, the beam is focused to its minimum spot size on the retina. If damage occurs to the area where the optic nerve enters the eye, the result is likely to be complete loss of vision. Retinal burns are most likely to occur in the area of central vision, the macula lutea, having dimensions of approximately 2.0 millimeters horizontally by 0.8 millimeters vertically. The central region of the macula, termed the fovea centralis, is only about 150 micrometers in diameter and provides detailed high-acuity g y vision and color p perception. p The regions g of the retina outside this tiny y area p perceive light g and detect movement, constituting peripheral vision, but do not contribute to detailed vision. Consequently, damage to the fovea, even though the structure comprises only 3 to 4 percent of the retinal area, can result in instantaneous loss of fine vision.

Due to the very small spotsize on the retina a 40 mW HeNe laser can retina, produce an irradiance on the retina of about 10 kW cm-2. Such an irradiance causes almost immediate thermal damage of the retina by denaturation of proteins, proteins comparable to boiling of egg-white. Short-pulsed lasers with their high peak powers can cause optical breakdown and mechanical damage of the retinal tissues due to shock waves waves, which also often result in heamorrhage, i.e. a hole in the retina and bleeding. Injury statistics identify short pulsed lasers, particularly qswitched Nd:YAG lasers, as the type of lasers which caused the most frequent and most serious eye injuries [Rockwell 1999]. Even minimal retinal lesions may result permanent serious vision loss, especially if the damage is located in the centre of the retina retina. A fundus photograph with several types of retinal injuries in a rhesus monkey eye is shown in figure on the right.

Figure: A range of injuries induced with a Nd:YAG laser on a monkey retina. The white spots in the centre are thermal burns, i.e. coagulation of retinal layers. With larger energies, holes in the retina are produced which result either in bleeding into the vitreous (the gel-like substance which fills the centre of the eye ball), or the bleeding is contained in the layers of the retina, which results in functional loss in the affected area. Photograph courtesy of J. Zuclich, TASC Litton, TX, USA.

Corneal Injury

Cornea (1) Ultraviolet and low energy far-infrared radiation can injure the epithelial layer of the cornea; a condition that is painful and visually handicapping. At lower powers, this injury is primarily due to a photochemical reaction. A latency period of hours may exist between the time of exposure and the development of the corneal pathology pathology. Minimal corneal lesions heal within a few days, but meanwhile they produce a decrement in visual performance. (2) High energy far-infrared radiation is absorbed mainly by the cornea, producing immediate y An infrared laser can p produce a burn resulting g in immediate burns at all corneal layers. visual incapacitation and may lead to permanent cornea scarring. Very high energy can perforate the cornea; this perforation may lead to loss of the eye.

Lens injury
Opacification p of the Lens is a cataract causing g clouding of the lens.
Ultraviolet Action Spectrum at 300 nm (UV-B) Infrared or heat cataract cataract- common in glassblowers and foundry workers. Requires years of exposure to excessive infrared radiant energy.

How to prevent Eye injuries

Wear Laser goggles
Googles should not be scratched Goggles should be rated for the laser
Just because theyre colored does not mean youre safe

DO not wear watches or reflective jewelry Use barriers Control laser area Illuminate door signs

Laser goggles should be stored so as to not cause scratches Examine goggles for scratches prior to use Clean goggles with lens wipes to prevent infections

Protective Equipment



Skin Burns
Skin injury
Ultraviolet sunburn sunburn or reddening from UV-B UV B and UV UV-C C
long term effect is skin cancer

CO2 laser most notable are:

Holes in fingers 3rd degree burns

Nd:YAG laser skin burns are more penetrating and take longer to heal

How to Prevent Injuries

Engineering g g Controls Interlocks Enclosed beam Administrative Controls Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Training Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) Eye protection

Non-Beam Non Beam Hazards

Chemical : Some lasers require q hazardous or toxic substances to operate (i.e., chemical dye, Excimer lasers). Electrical El i l : Most M lasers l utilize ili hi high h voltages l that h can be lethal. Fire : The solvents used in dye lasers are flammable. High voltage pulse or flash lamps may cause ignition. Flammable materials may be ignited by direct beams or specular reflections from high power continuous wave (CW) infrared lasers lasers.

How to Prevent Non-Beam Non Beam Hazards

Have safety assessment performed before use of the laser
Safety Assessment outlines:
PPE Engineering controls Support equipment required (ie. Fume extractors)

Laser Safety Terms

MPE is Maximum Permissible Exposure
This is the maximum level of exposure to a laser without harm. MPE depends on wavelength of light, energy involved, length of exposure

NHZ is Nominal Hazard Zone

This is the space or area by the laser in which the level of direct, reflected, or scattered laser light exceeds safe limits. This zone may not be in the direct laser path. At some distance, the laser light is less than the MPE.

OD is Optical Density
This describes the ability of a filter to attenuate optical radiation at t a particular ti l wavelength. l th

AEL is Accessible Emission Limit

Applies to manufacturers who determine the product classification

MPE OD MPE, OD, NHZ Calculations

These are specific to each laser application Web tools - Easy HAZ Basic MPE See Table III:6-6 of OSHA technical manual OD Formula OD = log10 Ho MPE Where Ho = Anticipated worst case exposure(J/cm2 or W/cm2) MPE = Maximum permissible exposure level expressed in the same units as Ho NHZ based on intra beam exposure exposure, Lens-on Lens on laser and diffused reflection exposure. Calculation parameters are: Wavelength, beam power, Beam divergence, beam size at aperture, Beam size at lens, lens focal length, MPE.

Nd:Yag g Laser example p

Diode Laser example p


Your Responsibility
Have an eye exam Read signs Follow written operating p gp procedures Wear protective equipment If in doubt ask
University Safety Officer Laser L S Safety f t Officer Offi The equipment Manufacturer Your Professor

Eye exam
Eye exams are required for all researchers using lasers at the start of their research.
This includes students and professors professors.

Eye exams are scheduled through the Laser Safety Officer.

Standards and Regulations

American National Standards Institute, Inc., American N ti National l St Standards d d f for th the S Safe f U Use of fL Lasers, Z136 Z136.11 2000 American National Standards Institute, Inc. American N ti National l St Standard d df for S Safe f U Use of fL Lasers i in Ed Educational ti l Institutions, Z136.5-2000 Florida Administrative Code, Control of Non-Ionizing Radiation Hazards Hazards, Chapter 64 64-E4.001-.016 E4 001 016 US Code of Federal Regulations: 29 CFR Part 1040.10, Laser Products Florida Fl id Institute I tit t of f Technology T h l University U i it Policy P li and d Procedure, Laser Use and Safety Policy

Back up up information

How lasers work

A red laser contains a long crystal made of ruby (shown here as a red bar) with a flash tube (yellow zig-zag lines) wrapped around it. The flash tube looks a bit like a fluorescent strip light, only it's coiled around the ruby crystal and it flashes every so often like a camera's flash gun. How do the flash tube and the crystal make laser light?

1. A high-voltage electric supply makes the tube flash on and off. 2. Every time the tube flashes, it "pumps" energy into the ruby crystal. The flashes it makes inject energy into the crystal in the form of photons. 3. Atoms in the ruby crystal (large green blobs) soak up this energy in a process called absorption. When an atom absorbs a photon of energy, one of its electrons jumps from a low energy level to a higher one. This puts the atom into an excited state, but makes it unstable. Because the excited atom is unstable, the electron can stay in the higher energy level only for a few milliseconds. It falls back to its original level, giving off the energy it absorbed as a new photon of light radiation (small blue blob). This process is called spontaneous emission. 4. Th 4 The photons h that h atoms give i off ff zoom up and dd down i inside id the h ruby b crystal, l travelling lli at the h speed d of f li light. h 5. Every so often, one of these photons hits an already excited atom. When this happens, the excited atom gives off two photons of light instead of one. This is called stimulated emission. Now one photon of light has produced two, so the light has been amplified (increased in strength). In other words, "light amplification" (an increase in the amount of light) has been caused by "stimulated emission of radiation" (hence the name "laser", because that's exactly how a laser works!) 6. A mirror at one end of the laser tube keeps the photons bouncing back and forth inside the crystal. 7. A partial mirror at the other end of the tube bounces some photons back into the crystal but lets some escape. 8. The escaping photons form a very concentrated beam of powerful laser light. Source: Explain that Stuff -

Radiometric Units
Radiant Energy gy (Q) (Q): Joule = to the energy gy emitted in the form of radiation. Radiant Power (, phi): Watt or Joule/sec. = R di Radiant energy/ / time. i Radiant Exposure or Energy Density (H): Joule/cm2 = Radiant energy striking a surface/ the area of the surface hit. ad a ce o or Power o e Density e s ty ( (E) ) Watt/cm att/c 2 = Irradiance Radiant power striking a surface/ the area of the surface hit.

TABLE III:6-6. SUMMARY: MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMITS* Wavelength Laser type CO2 (CW) Nd: YAG (CW) Nd: YAG (CW) Nd: YAG (Q (Qswitched) GaAs (Diode/CW) HeNe (CW) Krypton (CW) (m) 10.6 1 33 1.33 1.064

-------------- MPE level (W/cm2) -------------0.25 sec ------10 sec 100.0 10-3 5 1 10-3 5.1 5.1 10-3 600 sec ------30,000 sec 100.0 10-3 1 6 10-3 1.6 1.6 10-3

1.064 0.840 0.633 0.647 0.568 0.530 0.514

----2.5 10-3 2.5 10-3 31.0 10-6 16.7 10-6 2.5 10-3

17.0 10-6 1.9 10-3 ----------6

----293.0 10364.0 106

2.3 10-6 610.0 10-6 17.6 10-6 28.5 10-6 18.6 10-6 1.0 10-6 1.0 10-6

2.5 10-3 2.5 10-3 16.7 10-6

Argon (CW) XeFl (Excimer/ CW) XeCl (Excimer/ CW)





33.3 10-6





1.3 10-6

ANSI z136-1, 2007 Table 5a lists MPE by wavelength

Reference only I. Optical density should be determined for each laser installation
TABLE III:6-8. OPTICAL DENSITIES FOR PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR FOR VARIOUS LASER TYPES Laser type and power XeCl 50 Watts XeFl 50 Watts Argon 1.0 Watts Krypton 1 0 Watt 1.0 W tt Krypton 1.0 Watt HeNe 0.005 Watt Krypton 1 Watt GaAs 50 mW Nd: YAG 100 Watt Nd: YAG (Q-switch)b Nd: YAGc 50 Watts CO2 1000 Watts Wavelength (mm) --- Optical density for exposure durations -0.25 10 600 30,000

0.308a 0.351a 0.514 0 530 0.530 0.568 0.633 0.647 0.840c 1.064a 1.064a 1.33a 10.6a

--3.0 30 3.0 3.0 0.7 3.0 ------

6.2 4.8 3.4 34 3.4 3.4 1.1 3.4 1.8 4.7 4.5 4.4 6.2

8.0 6.6 5.2 52 5.2 4.9 1.7 3.9 2.3 5.2 5.0 4.9 8.0

9.7 8.3 6.4 64 6.4 6.1 2.9 5.0 3.7 5.2 5.4 4.9 9.7

a. Repetitively pulsed at 11 Hertz, 12 12-nanosecond nanosecond pulses, 20 mJ/pulse. b. OD for UV and FIR beams computed using a 1-mm limiting aperture, which presents a "worst-case" scenario. All visible and NIR computations assume a 7-mm limiting aperture. c. Nd:YAG operating at a less-common 1.33 m wavelength. Note: All OD values determined using MPE criteria of ANSI Z 136.1 (1993).

Reference only Nominal Hazard Zone should be calculated by trained professional

TABLE III:6-7. III:6 7 NHZ DISTANCE VALUES FOR VARIOUS LASERS Exposure Laser type Nd:YAG 100 Watt 1.064 m CO2 500 Watt 10.6 m Argon 5.0 Watt 0.488 m criteria ----- Hazard range (meters) ----Diffuse Lens-on-laser Direct

8 hours 10 seconds 8 hours 10 seconds 8 hours 0.25 seconds

1.4 0.8 0.4 0.4 12.6 0.25

11.3 6.3 5.3 5.3 1.7 103 33.3

1410 792 309 390 25.2 103 240

Laser criteria used for NHZ distance calculations: Laser parameter Nd YAG Nd-YAG CO2 Argon 0.488 5.0 1.0 2.0 30 3.0 200.0 1.0 2.5 103

Wavelength (m) Beam power (Watts) Beam divergence (mrad) Beam size at aperture p ( (mm) ) Beam size at lens (mm) Lens focal length (mm) MPE for 8 hours (w/cm2) MPE for 10 seconds (w/cm2) 5.1103 MPE for 0.25 second (w/cm2)

1.064 10.6 100.0 500.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 20.0 6.3 30.0 25.4 200.0 1.6 103 1.0 105 1.0 105 -------