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New Tool-life Relationships for Machining Processes

New Tool-life Relationships for Machining Processes Research Team: Principal Investigator: Postdoctoral Researcher: K.C.

Research Team:

Principal Investigator:

Postdoctoral Researcher: K.C. Ee

Graduate Students:

Professor I. S. Jawahir

Abhijit D. Kardekar Xiqun Wang

Sponsors: Ford Motor Company National Science Foundation Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation

Objectives

Develop a new methodology for characterizing tool-wear parameters in tool inserts for turning and milling operations through an experimental study of the effect of chip flow on tool-wear progression

Establish the effects of cutting conditions, operation types, tool coatings and chip-groove configurations on tool-wear and tool-life

Develop new tool-life relationships for turning and milling (face and end milling) operations based on experimental work and a detailed analysis of machining parameters, cutting conditions, work and tool material properties and tool geometry

work a nd tool material properties and tool geometry Measurable Tool-wear Parameters in a Grooved Tool

Measurable Tool-wear Parameters in a Grooved Tool for Turning

Tool-wear Parameters in a Grooved Tool for Turning VB flank wear width of groove backwall wear

VB

flank wear

width of groove backwall wear

BL

depth of groove backwall wear

SW

SD

N

NL

NW notch wear width on main cutting edge
1

KT

length of groove backwall wear

BW

width of secondary face wear

depth of secondary face wear

nose wear

notch wear length on main cutting edge

1

NL notch wear length on secondary cutting edge
2

NW notch wear width on secondary cutting edge

2

A New Tool-life Relationship For Turning with Grooved Tools

New Tool-life Equation

T

=

T W

R

g

V

V

R

W

c

1

n

where W is coating effect factor and W is chip-groove effect factor

Where

Where,

c

W

g

=

g

km

f

n1

a

n2

k

= bl

l

= engaged cutting edge length

f

= feed

a

= depth of cut

m

= machining operation effect factor (m = 1 for turning)

n1, n2 and b

= empirical constants

Tool-wear Patterns of Typical Grooved Tools for Turning

Tool-wear Patterns of Typi cal Grooved Tools for Turning Tool-wear Progression in Different Grooved Tool Inserts

Tool-wear Progression in Different Grooved Tool Inserts (V = 274 m/min, f = 0.25 mm/rev, a = 1.9 mm, tool coating: KC850)

Influence of Cutting Conditions on Tool-life for Different Chip-grooves and Tool Coatings

on T ool-life for Different Chip-grooves and Tool Coatings Tool-life Versus Cutting Speed(CNMG 432K) (f =

Tool-life Versus Cutting Speed(CNMG 432K) (f = 0.254 mm/rev, a = 2.54 mm and Work material = 1037M Steel)

0.254 mm/rev, a = 2.54 mm and Work material = 1037M Steel) Tool-life Versus Feed (V

Tool-life Versus Feed (V = 274.32 m/min, a = 0.254 mm and Work material = 1037M Steel)

274.32 m/min, a = 0.254 mm and Work material = 1037M Steel) Tool-life Versus Depth of

Tool-life Versus Depth of Cut (V = 274.32 m/min, a = 0.254 mm and Work material = 1037M Steel)

Validation of Current Tool-life Relationships for Milling Operations

Tool-life Equation

where

End Milling

T =

K D

1

m

δ 1/

n

5

V 1/ n

f

z

1/

n

1 a

1/

n 2

a a

1/ n

3

r z

1/ n

4

Face Milling

T

=

K D

2

m

n , n, n, n, n

12345

1/ n

V f

z

1/

n

1 2

a

a

1/

n

a

r

1/ n

3

z

1/ n

4

V

D

1/ n V f z 1/ n 1 2 a a 1/ n a r 1/

f

z

= cutting speed

= cutter diameter

= helix angle

= feed per tooth

axial depth of cut

a =

a

a =

z

radial depth of cut

= number of teeth

= tool-life constants

r

K , K

1

2

and

m

= empirical constants

SEM Observation of Flank, Face and Nose Wear of End Mill Tool Inserts

of Flank, Face and Nose Wear of End Mill Tool Inserts Work material = 4140 Steel,
of Flank, Face and Nose Wear of End Mill Tool Inserts Work material = 4140 Steel,

Work material = 4140 Steel, TiN Coated Carbide Tool Inserts (V = 400 m/min, f = 2 m/min and a = 4 mm) Tool-life (ISO standard: 0.8 mm localized flank wear) = 5 min. 54 sec.

(ISO standard: 0.8 mm localized flank wear) = 5 min. 54 sec. Work material = 4140
(ISO standard: 0.8 mm localized flank wear) = 5 min. 54 sec. Work material = 4140

Work material = 4140 Steel, TiN Coated Carbide Tool Inserts (V = 400 m/min, f = 1 m/min and a = 7 mm)

 

Tool Deterioration

Criteria

Illustrations

Tool-life (ISO standard: 0.8 mm localized flank wear) = 9 min. 8 sec.

Phenomena

(mm)

 

Flank wear

(VB, uniform)

0.5

Flank wear ( VB, uniform) 0.5 Future Research Direction

Future Research Direction

ISO Standards for Tool-life in Milling Operations

Flank wear

(VB, localized)

0.8

Develop a complete tool-life model for milling, which incorporat es the effects of tool material, tool coating, tool geometry and machining ing, which incorporates the effects of tool material, tool coating, tool geometry and machining parameters

Extend the new tool-life relationships to drilling operations onships to drilling operations

Develop a new methodology for characterizing tool-wear in end milling

Face wear (Crater depth, KT)

 
Face wear (Crater depth, KT )  
 

0.1

Form a universal tool-life model for all turning, milling and drilling processes  0.1