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Research Project

MOTIVATION AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE A Case of Tesco Supermarket in East London


Motivation is one of the concepts that many organisations have been using to raise the performance of their employees. Although motivation seem to be applied in may organisation, whether motivation really enhances employee performance or not remain unclear. Some school of taught argue that, motivation cannot lead to employee performance, while others believe that through motivation employee performance could be enhanced. This study aimed at looking at motivation and employee performance. The study adopted the use of questionnaires as data collection tool. The findings showed that, although motivations seem to be used as a tool to motivate staff in Tesco the employees feel less motivated. Even if there are some reward systems, just few people are enjoying those benefits.

Table of Content Abstract .2 Chapter One: Introduction .5 1.1 Background to the Study ..........5 1.2 Motivation of the Study ...6 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research Project ...6 1.4 The Significance of the Study .7 Chapter Two: Literature Review ...8 2.1 Introduction .8 2.2 Overview of Motivation8 2.3 Theories of Motivation ..10 2.3 Types of Motivation12 2.3 Does Motivation Really Enhance Employee Performance?.......................................13 2.5 Summary 14 Chapter Three: Research Methodology and Methodology and Design 15 3.1 Introduction 15 3.2 Research Methodology and Rationale 15 3.3 Research Strategy and Design .16 3.4 Source of Data .16 3.5 Data Analysis ..17 3.6 Ethical Issues 17 3.7 Summary ..17 Chapter Four: Analysis and Discussion of Results 19 4.1 Introduction 19 4.2 Background and Activities of Respondents 19 4.3 Nature of Employee Motivation .19 4.4 Motivation and Job Satisfaction .22

4.5 Motivation and Employee Performance 24 4.6 Summary.26 Chapter Five: Conclusion, Recommendation and Limitations27 5.1 Conclusion ...27 5.2 Recommendation..27 5.3 Limitations ...28 5.4 Areas of Future Research .29 Reference 30 Appendix 33



1.1 Background to the Study Pay is one of the most important ways in through which employees of every firm or organisation will feel satisfied about the work they do or the benefit they may feel to be deriving from their work place. Although some people argue that it is not only pay that makes workers feel motivated and for that matter work hard or help to enhance their performance, but there are other things that come into play. Although motivation theorists argue that pay is also a motivation factor, this study is aimed at investigating whether it can really enhance the performance of employees in an organisation. Tesco is one of the biggest high street supermarkets in the United Kingdom (UK) and has many staff with different skills and backgrounds. Although there are many ways through which staff of Tesco and made to feel motivated or rewarded to perform their duties. Is pay the most important tool to make employees feel satisfied and perform better needs to be investigated. The use of pay is another way through which many employees feel they will be well motivated and it could enhance their performance. Especially in situation whereby inflation is very high and the cost of living is also very high in many countries around the world. If what people call their take-home pay is good enough it will not only help to increase their satisfaction at work, but also help to increase their performance. However, the concept of good enough as it will be argued is also very relative, because what one person may consider

good enough may be not be good for other person. This study will therefore examine whether pay could enhance the performance of employees in an organisation like Tesco. 1.2 Motivation of the Study The investigation has become very necessary, because of the following reasons; there have been many ways through which employees could be made to perform better if they are well paid. In some companies or supermarkets some employees are motivated through the use of incentives and other reward systems such as bonuses, holiday packages, sponsorship of employees children in schools, payment of employees hospital bills, etc. In some companies, the employees are motivated in many ways. For instance, opportunities like rapid promotion, ability to undertake further studies, good management styles and interpersonal skills, among others. In Tesco most employees seem to be enjoying their work, but whether it is pay that remains the most important factor to enhance performance of staff work needs to be investigated. Although some job seekers may have an idea of the pay package available when taking up some jobs, because of lack of employment, some of these job seekers especially new university graduates who may be seeking for employment for the first and may find it difficult to find one, may accept the employment more especially in supermarkets but may complain or leave after a short period on the job. Whether pay could be a tool to impact on the performance of employee needs to be investigated.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research Project Aim of the Research: This study is aimed at investigating the impact that pay will have on the performance of employees in an organisation like Tesco. In other words, it will examine

how the pay package staff get from Tesco could help make them perform better that they currently do at work. Objectives of the Research: A successful work will help to achieve the following research objectives by the end of the study; To ascertain the importance of motivation and how it enhance employee performance To find out the factors that really enhances the performance of employees more especially those who work in supermarkets. To examine the reward systems that could help increase the performance of employees to enable work hard so as to help the organisation meet its objectives. To find out what can be used to improve the performance of employees. To achieve the above research objectives the study will help organisations that rely solely on pay as the only strategy to motivate their staff to find other means of motivating them. It will also help to understand the reasons behind staff performance in an organisation. 1.4 The Significance of the Study The study of this topic is based on two main reasons; to understand what motivation factors could help improve the performance of employees at the workplace. Whether there are other motivation factors besides pay that could have some significant importance on the performance of employees in a supermarket like Tesco and to find out whether pay is an effective tool to make organisation achieve its objectives through staff performance. Even though inflation is very high and price of commodities continue to raise, workers pay seem to be stagnant. This has brought about labour mobility and employees leaving their places of work to seek for better employment opportunities in other organisations. A study of this topic

becomes very significant, because it will help employers to understand better way of getting the best from their staff.


LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction In chapter one the study looked at the background of the study and the motivation behind this investigation. The aim and objectives of the study was also looked at in the previous chapter. In this chapter the literature review, will examine performance-related pay as a tool to promote employees performance at work. The study will also examine the concept of pay and how it will help influence employers decision about ways to improve the performance of their staff. How staff in an organisation view pay in terms of whether it motivates or demotivates them. 2.2 Overview of Motivation

The term motivation comes from the Latin word movere, which means to move (Gill, 2009). That is, motivation is something that moves individuals to take some form of action to achieve specific goals. In other words, individuals may be inspired (that is highly motivated) to achieve their personal ambitions or organizational objectives or goals, while some may be less inspired not to put much efforts in what they do. Such individuals are said to be either motivated or demotivated, depending on the nature of effort they put into their work. However Mitchell (1982) argued that, the way we are moved into action or are motivated has

some psychological, social or physical effects that arouse us towards certain direction and are always directed towards those goals. According to Arnold et al (1991) motivation should always have a direction, focused towards the efforts and there must be some degree of persistence. In other words, the individual must aim at heading towards a certain direction or achieving objectives. The person must put in some effort to achieve that; and there must be some persistence or perseverance to enable them achieves those things. This explains Arnold et al argument that every motivational process must follow some steps; that is the effect being put into it, the nature of persistence and finally the direction or goal being aimed at achieving. The concept of motivation has

been applied in many organisations as means of getting the best out of their staff. In his explanation of the concept of motivation, Luthans (1992) noted that it is a combination of needs of the individuals, the driving forces as well as incentives that are associated with it. Luthans interpretation of the concept of motivation places emphasis on needs and incentives, rather than the satisfaction that employees may get from the work they do. This understanding of motivation, is in agreement with other critics such as Maslow who consider motivation on the basics of things that employee needs to feel motivated at work. Arguably motivation therefore makes individuals to do things which hitherto they may not intend to do so. It leads to service quality delivery (Donnelly, 1994). In a work or employment situation, employees are expected to perform their tasks in order to achieve the objectives set by their employer or what is expected of them to accomplish as employees. The willingness of employees to achieve the needed objectives (Beardwell and Claydon, 2007) is often considered as motivation strategy. It is however argued that, leaders and managers can motivate their employees through the use of pay increment, promotions, rewards and praises. Some employees also feel motivated due to the nature of interpersonal

relationships within the workplace or due to the fear of being reprimanded by their superiors at the workplace and are obliged to work but not because they are motivated. Some employees may also aim at seeking to develop themselves or take advantage of resources available to them at the workplace to enhance their career development or seek to achieve their career goals. It is however argued that motivation leads to achievement of organizational goals and objectives but not individuals goals. 2.3 Theories of Motivation Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Developed by Maslow in 1943, this theory explains the different needs of individuals that are often met but are done in a hierarchical manner which were placed in levels. Pettinger (2007) argued that, the needs that have to be met as explained by Maslow are placed in a pyramidal form, starting from the most needed or basic needs at the bottom of the pyramid to the least essential needs, being placed at the top of the pyramid. According to Pettinger, the needs are placed into five categories or as explained in Maslows five (5) levels of basic needs (see figure 1, below).

Source: Adapted in Pettinger (2007)


1. The psychological needs, which include basic necessities in life; some of which include: food, shelter, clothes, good and healthy living environment, and any other basic essentialities in life. 2. The safety and security needs are those needs that help one to protect him or herself against attacks, ill-treatment, neglect or deprivation. 3. Social needs are some of the satisfying needs that one may get when he or she is in a community, society or an organization. In other words, it is a form of social belonging or how individuals are accepted in the organization or community and how one is allowed to actively participate in the affairs of the organization. 4. Esteem needs show how individuals are appreciated or welcomed in a particular area, society, organization or community or how one is regarded by others or the status that individuals attain within an organization. 5. The self-actualisation needs are the self-fulfilling, personal development and growth, social development, etc that are expected to be achieved in a society. Self-actualization needs are fulfilled when individuals are given tasks that challenge their thinking and their way of undertaking their duties at work (see Beardwell and Claydon, 2007; 1994). The Herzbergs Two Factor Theory: Developed in the 1960s, Pettinger (2007) argued that, Herzberg grouped theoretical factors into two sets of motivational factors that affect individuals at the workplace; that is factors that make individuals to feel dissatisfied with the job they do or the environment in which they find themselves, while the other factors lead to extreme form of satisfaction with the job or the environment. Pettinger (2007:559) further argued that factors that lead to satisfaction he called motivators, while those giving rise to dissatisfaction he called hygiene factors. He identified the motivators as the nature of

responsibilities one have in the workplace, opportunities for personal development and advancement, recognition and achievement, etc. all those factors are those that are associated with the work that the individual does. The hygiene factors may depend on how the organization is managed. For instance bad managers, bad interpersonal skills, poor communication at work and very bad employees relations could be hygiene factors that will demotivate staff. Expectancy Theory of Motivation: The expectancy theory as explained by Pettinger (2007) places emphasis on efforts that individuals put into their work and the kind of rewards they normally expect as a result. Pettinger pointed out that, there is distinction between the effort that people put into their work and the results they get. In other words, rewarding individuals will not automatically lead to effective performance. Most individuals are rewarded but do not do any extra work, besides what they are supposed to do or what their job specifications are. They do their daily routine, regardless of what they may get as reward, incentives or pay package available. Furnham (1997) and Wright (2004) argued that the expectancy theory places emphasis on reward as a key motivating factor to employees performance. That is, if employees are well rewarded they will feel motivated to perform well and by so doing it helps the organization to achieve its objectives. This falls short of other theories, because if employees are performing their work effectively and efficiently, that is what they are supposed to be doing because they are paid to do that job. Furnham and Wrights argument of motivation seem not to go far enough to explain the argument being put forward by other critics of the expectancy theory.


2.3 Types of Motivation Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivation is a type of motivation strategy where the individuals feel motivated either in their workplace of within themselves based on how they feel at the workplace. As explained by Mullins (2005) and Parr (1999) these type of motivational system develops inside the individuals and they help him or her to achieve his or her potential or organizational objectives. For example, the love of work which makes individuals to work hard or put in extra effort to achieve what they want in life or at the workplace is referred to as intrinsic motivational factors. Extrinsic Motivation: According to Mullins (2005) payment of salary and other reward systems given to employees working in an organization may be considered as extrinsically motivating factors. For instance promotion of staff, holiday package, scholarship schemes are some of the rewards systems that extrinsically motivate staff and make them to feel satisfied to work hard for the organization (Gill, 2009). Such factors normally help the individuals to feel happy to work for the organization. 2.4 Does Motivation Really Enhance Employee Performance? It has often been argued that, motivation is one of the most crucial forms of enhancing employees performance in every organization and therefore helps to enhance their performance. However, this notion has been challenged by many writers and researchers of the concept of motivation alone cannot make employees happy, because if employees are not happy in an organisation, no matter how they are motivated they will still leave. Marsden and Richardson (1992) argued that some people can perform poorly even though they are well motivated, while others also may perform better even though they may not be motivated


adequately. Their argument raises questions as to whether motivating employees better will make them feel encouraged and perform very well. Some writers like Collins also argued that, the way employees are motivated also plays an important part in attracting and retaining employees, who have the best skills and quality, which are the underpinning drive towards organizational performance and is ability to change (Collins 1991, cited in Storey and Sisson, 1998). It has been acceptable knowledge in many motivation discourses that, companies systems of rewarding its staff, more important and become very significant to the performance and improvement of the organization (Wiersma, 1992). Every employee in any organization will expect their authorities to reward them irrespective of the nature of job they do. This is what Herzberg and others, over the several years of studies have tried to ascertain that out of employee motivating attributes that were used in their studies to ascertain what actually motivate employees, pay is ranked sixth out of attributes like, job security and satisfaction, happiness at work, opportunity for advancement, work appreciation and even the style of management. 2.5 Summary In summary, the concept of pay has been observed to be one of the major reasons to improve staff performance at work, but other incentives can also contribute for the workers to do their best for the organisation to improve.



RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 3.1 Introduction In the previous chapter concept of and theories of motivation were examined; ways of motivating employees and the concept of pay were critically looked at. This chapter looks at the research methodology and design. The chapter explains and justifies performance-related pay the chosen research methodology and methods and how it was selected against other methods. The chapter also looks at the relevance of the methods, the research respondents and how the data was gathered. It also looks at some of the ethical issues considered during the study. The final part looks at the validity and reliability as well as some of the limitations that affected the methodology used to gather the data. 3.2 Research Methodology and Rationale The study adopted mainly quantitative research methodology. As explained by Blaikie (2003), Robson (2003) and others, the use of quantitative approach was to allow the research to explore the topic in a more open-ended way without any prejudice of what was supposed to be investigated. The research methodology was chosen taken into consideration the research questions, the objectives of the study and the respondents from whom the data were to be gathered. Since the study is an exploratory one, the use of the adopted methodology was considered the most appropriate, because it allowed the researcher to understand in very detailed the topic under investigation (Gray, 2004) and how some of the key concepts the study aimed at investigating could apply it in an organization like Tesco. The data were gathered using

mainly by distributing questionnaires to all respondents. The questionnaires gave the respondents the opportunity to freely express themselves while at the same time helped to achieve the research objectives. Robson (2003) and May (2001), have explained that the use of questionnaires avoided any researcher influence on the responses being provided by the respondents. 3.3 Research Strategy and Design The use of only Tesco as the only organisation being used for the study justifies the case study approach being adopted. As it has been argued by May (2001), the exploratory study helped to develop understanding and analysis of the issue under investigation. The data collection tools were designed in a way that could make it possible for the research objectives to be achieved. One of the main factors that were taken into consideration when designing the questions was participants level of understanding of the English Language. Although they were all employees of the same organization, there was no assumption made when setting the questions. There were no jargons used in the questions. The questions were set using very short-short sentences with very clear and simple English so that the respondents could understand and provide the correct responses. After the questions had been set, they were given to some of my colleagues to proof-read for comments and suggestions before the questions were re-written finally for administration. 3.4 Source of Data The data was collected from two different sources; the employees those who would be described as the junior staff members mostly those working on the till, stacking food stuffs, those working in the warehouse, etc; while those in senior staff members, that will also be described as senior staff members. As already stated above, the types of data were mainly primary data sources, because the information was gathered through the use of only

interviews. There were few occasions that information from the supermarket website was added, but that was used to triangulate the primary data that was gathered. In all, questionnaires were distributed to all those working in the supermarket. 3.5 Data Analysis Analysis of the data started immediately I started receiving the responses. Answers to the questions were put into tables, graphs and pie charts. The similar themes were put together before the actual analysis and discussion of the results. The various themes were then compared and analyzed according to the research objectives. The results were categorized to make the various relationships that exist between them clearer. 3.6 Ethical Issues The importance of ethical issues was one of the main watchdogs during the study. All the participants were informed about the study and its objectives. The participants were briefed about the study and its benefits, how it could contribute towards the improvement of organizational performance. Consent of all participants were sought and enough time given for them to prepare and decide if they could take part in the study. This was done to avoid the deceitful notion about the researcher who they might consider to be undercover investigator (May 2001). Anything in terms of bad language that could damage rapport or ill treatment, during the course of the data collection was avoided (Robson, 2003). And all the respondents were guaranteed high degree of anonymity and confidentiality of any information that was obtained from them.


3.7 Summary The study adopted quantitative research methodology and the data was gathered using questionnaire. Although other methods were considered, it was deemed appropriate to use questionnaire for the study. The questions were piloted to check the accuracy before they were used for the study and with high degree of ethical considerations. Although there were some limitations that might have affected the results, the study will help organisations for future practice and policy formulation.



ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 4.1 Introduction In the previous chapter, the method of data collection, the approach used to gather the data was explained. The research methodology was explained to illustrate how it was used to gather the data, taking into considerations the ethical issues in research. This chapter

examines the nature of motivation as employed in Tesco to enhance the performance of the employees. 4.2 Background and Activities of Respondents All the participants involved in the study are all full-time employees of Tesco, although their activities vary, based on the job they do and their experience. In all twenty five workers participated in the study. Twenty junior staff answered the questionnaires and the remaining five were all senior members in the supermarket. Three are supervisors and the remaining two were managers. They never indicated their specific roles, whether they human resource managers or work in the financial department. Three supervisors look after the junior staff who works on the till and those stacking food stuffs on the shelves. All the respondents have worked in the supermarket for at least one or more years. 4.3 Nature of Employee Motivation Employee motivation has been a concern to many managers, stakeholders and shareholder or many organisations these days. With the ever increasing economic hardships and many customers reducing their buying rate, which is forcing companies to collapse, motivating employees who are under performing will not only annoy shareholders but other stakeholder.

When asked whether the supermarket effectively motivates all employees, the responses provided have been indicated in the table below. A Table showing the nature of motivation of employees Effective motivation of employees Strongly disagree Disagree No comment Agree Strongly agree Total Source: Author As it became obvious from the figure 1, below, the nature of motivation system in the supermarket is very effective. However 5% of the respondents did not give any comments and 10% also disagreed to the statement that the supermarket effectively motivates all the employees. The information provided shows that, there are many motivation systems being initiated by the supermarket. Nearly all the respondents 95% showed that, the reward systems that used in the supermarket are good. Although they indicated that, they are not satisfied the way the way they are being motivated. Over 85% strongly disagree or disagree that the employees are satisfied the way they are being motivated. Percentage of Response 0 10 5 5 80 100


A graph showing effective motivation systems of employees

Source: Author As to whether the employees are well remunerated to carry out their job, the response provided has been indicated in Table 2 below. It became clear that, 80% and 10% strongly disagree or disagree respectively with the statement that they are well remunerated to do their work. This contradicts the earlier respondents that the system of motivation is good, when it is obvious that they are not well remunerated. A table showing whether employees are well remunerated Adequate remuneration for employees Strongly disagree Disagree No comment Agree Strongly agree Total Source: Author The results have been shown in Graph 2 below. Percentage of Response 80 10 0 10 0 100


Source: Author The evidence showed that, majority of the respondents does not agree that remuneration for employees is good. This could affect the way employee work and could also reduce their satisfaction in the workplace. 4.4 Motivation and Job Satisfaction

Motivation and job satisfaction was another issue that was noted during the investigation as one of the important components of motivation systems. When asked whether the respondents get all that they need to make their work easier, the responses were very convincing that they get everything they need to make their work easier. Almost the whole respondents agreed to that statement. Fifty five (55%) percent and 45% agreed or strongly agreed that, they get all that is needed for their work. However, when the respondents were asked whether, they were satisfied with their work, the responses provided has been put in Table 3, and the Pie Chart below. When asked whether they were satisfied, 60% and 10% strongly disagree or disagree respectively. Just 10% and 15% said they and strongly agree respectively to the statement.

A Table showing whether employees are satisfied at their work Employee satisfaction at work Strongly disagree Disagree No comment Agree Strongly agree Total
Source: Author

Percentage of Response 60 10 5 10 15 100

As it would be observed from the pie chart below, majority either strongly disagrees or disagree that they are satisfied with the work they do.

Source: Author It was made clear from the study that, employees personal and work related needs are not fulfilled by the organization. The findings showed that, 85% and 15% strongly disagreed and disagreed respectively that, the supermarket is meeting their needs. Although the study did not investigate the type of personal needs, but it was made clear that, because they are not

well motivated at work it presupposes that their needs are not met. This also shows why they maintained that they not well remunerated at in the work they do. Although out of the 100% responses, 10% agreed while 90% disagreed that they are well remunerated. The 10% might be from those who are either in management position or supervisors who are rewarded. 4.5 Motivation and Employee Performance Motivation and employee performance is one of the areas that was considered during the investigation. When asked if the nature of employee performance is measured objectively, there were conflicting responses provided. Seventy percent (70%) strongly disagree or disagree that performance is measured objectively, while the remaining 30% either agree or strongly agree that employee performance was measured objectively. The responses provided have been shown in Table 4 and the pie chart below. A Table showing objectiveness of how employee performance is measured Objective measurement of employee Percentage of Response performance Strongly disagree Disagree No comment Agree Strongly agree Total Source: Author The pie chart makes the response provided in the table above very explicit. The figure clearly shows that majority of the respondents show some high degree of subjectivity in terms of 40 30 0 20 10 100


how performance is measured. That clearly shows that, it not clear and does not show what they measure for performance.

Source: Author A Graph showing employee appraisal systems and work

It was observed from the results that, the supermarket profit sharing is not used as mechanism to reward higher performance staff. All the respondents agreed (100%) that, the way

employees are rewarded is not based on higher performance. However, the overall nature of employee appraisal systems has a strong influence in individuals work pattern and behaviour, although the nature of motivation is relatively low. 4.6 Summary The study concludes that, for employees to become encouraged to do their best, there is the need to motivated them very well. The motivation systems should be made known to the employees so that, they can work hard and achieve their potential. The study concludes that, employees of Tesco feel better and are encouraged to work if the reward system is better.



CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS 5.1 Conclusion The literature showed that, motivation is one of the key ingredients to make employees feel happy and become encouraged to work. Although in most of the management discourses, motivation and reward are well considered to be important way of enhancing employee performance, many organisation do not take those things seriously. It would be concluded from the study that, the nature of motivation system in Tesco supermarket is not very good as indicated in the study. Most of the employees personal and work related needs are not fulfilled by the organization. It would be concluded that the supermarket is not meeting the needs of the workers and this could demotivate them. It became obvious that, they are not well motivated or remunerated for the work they do. This was made obvious in the overwhelming response that, there is little remuneration for the workers and this could demotivate them and also weaken the performance. Although a small number indicated that, they were remunerated, this could be due to the small number of supervisors and managers who might said are remunerated, did so because the rewards they receive from the work they do. It would be concluded that, if employees are well rewarded and appraised, it will have significant impact on their performance. 5.2 Recommendation The study has therefore proposed the following recommendations as some of the things that organisations can do to improve their staff performance and overall organisational improvement, performance and achievement of objectives.

o The way organisations motivate their staff must be made known to all employees, to reduce the level of jealousy, anger and lack of cohesion among staff, but also make the workers know and understand what they need to do so that they do not complain when others are rewarded. o It became evident that employee satisfaction is dependent on the work they do and not the position they occupy. Therefore all employees who perform well must be rewarded so that they can perform well and become motivated to work to their best. Well motivated staff is more likely to become satisfied and work to achieve their potential and organisational objectives. o It would be recommended that, although pay can make employees happy and stay in the job, other factors can also play an important role in retaining employees. Holiday entitlements, healthcare schemes for employees family members, bonuses, pension schemes, just to mention a few, could be given to all staff who perform well to enable them feel motivated and work harder. 5.3 Limitations In spite of the degree of success, there were some limitations that in one way of the other affected the results. The use of questionnaires alone to gather the data, although gave the opportunity for the respondents to freely express themselves and provided the needed information for the study, there were not opportunity to probe back some of the unclear responses. Therefore if interviews had been used to support the questionnaire data, it would have helped to increase the validity of the results. Some of the responses were not returned also affected the results, however it would help organisation to effectively the concept of motivation to enhance their employee performance.


5.4 Areas of Future Research This study has thrown light onto new areas that need to be investigated to improve the work of organisations, more especially private sector companies. The following has been suggested for future study; o What are the underlining reasons behind employees relentless strike actions?: In this study, the researcher will find out why workers embark on strike actions and what could be done to reduce these negative practices that affect the performance of organisation. o Understanding different ways to motivate employees: a comparative study between the bigger supermarkets and corner shops. In this study, an investigation would be carried out to ascertain whether corner shops or bigger supermarkets which one better motivate their staff.


REFERENCES Blaikie, N (2003) Designing Social Research: The Logic of Anticipation, Cambridge: Polity Press. Cattell, A. (1999) Performance Management and Human Resource Development, in Wilson, J. P. (ed) Human Resource Development: Learning and Training for Individuals and Organisations, London: Kogan Page, pp137-167. Gray, D E (2004) Doing Research in the Real World, London: Sage Publications. Harrison, D. A., Virick, M., and Williams, S. (1996) Working without a Net: Time Performance and Turnover under Maximally Contingent Rewards, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 81, pp331-345 . Herzberg, F. (1966) Work and the Nature of Man, Cleveland, OH: World Publishing. Lawler, E. E. (1971) Pay and Organizational Effectiveness: A Psychological View, New York: McGraw Hill. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., Grob, A., Suh, E. M., and Shao, L. (2000). Cross-cultural Evidence for the Fundamental Features of Extraversion; Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 79, pp 452468. Marsden, D. and Richardson, R. (1992) Motivation and Performance Related Pay in the Public Sector: A Case Study of the Inland Revenue, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics, A Discussion Paper, No 75 . May,T (2001) Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process, Buckingham: Open University Press .


Moussa, F. M. (1996) Determinants and Process of the Best Workplaces? Best Workplaces 2003, Special Report, Financial Times, 28 March . Mullins, L (2005) Management and Organizational Behaviour, New York: FT Pitman. Pettinger, R (2007) Introduction to Management (4th ed) Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan . Pitts, C (1995) Motivating Your Organization, New York: McGraw-Hill . Robson, C (2003) Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and PractitionerResearchers, Oxford: Blackwell. Rynes, S. L., Gerhart, B. and Minette, K. A. (2004) The Importance of Pay in Employee Motivation: Discrepancies between What People Say and What They Do, Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp381-394, accessed at www.http//interscience.wiley on 04/07/2011 . Stewart, G. L. (1996) Reward Structure as a Moderator of Relationship between Extraversion and Sales Performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 81, pp619-627 . Storey, J. and Sisson, K (1998) Performance-Related Pay, in Mabey, C., Salaman, G., and Storey, J (eds) Strategic Human Resource Management: A Reader, London: Sage Publications pp144-151. Torrington, D., Hall, L., and Taylor, S (2005) Human Resource Management, Essex: Pearson Education Limited . Trank, C. Q., Rynes, S. L., & Bretz, R. D. (2002). Attracting applicants in the War for Talent: Differences in Work Preferences among High Achievers, Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 17, pp331345.


Wiersma, U. J. (1992) The Effects of Intrinsic Rewards in Intrinsic Motivation: A Metaanalysis, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 65, No, 2, pp101-114


Appendix Questionnaire for Respondents I am undertaking a research survey to ascertain the nature of employee motivation in this supermarket. Please answer the following questions based on your understanding and agreement with the responses. Note that the responses you provide will be treated confidential and no third party will have access to the information. Thanks in advance for agreeing to answer the questions. Personal Information 1. What is your gender? a. male b. female

2. How long have you been working in this supermarket? a. less than a year b. one year c. about five years d. over ten years b.

3. What is the nature of your job in this organisation? a. work on the till machine pack food stuffs on the shelves c. supervisor d. manager e. security


Please tick from a scale below which have been indicated 1-5 one showing strongly disagree and 5 strongly agree. Tick you response to show whether you agree or disagree base of your feelings about the statement. 1=strongly disagree I. 2=disagree 3=neutral 4= agree 5= strongly agree

Motivation and Employee Performance 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5

Nature of Employee Motivation

4. This supermarket effectively motivates all the employees. 5. There are many motivation systems in this supermarket

6. The reward systems that are used in this supermarket is good

7. I can confidently say that the employees are satisfied the way they are motivated. 8. I am adequately remunerated to carry out my job

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Motivation and Job Satisfaction 9. I get all I need to make my work easy.
10. On the whole, I am satisfied with my job.

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11. Generally, I can confidently say that my personal and work related needs are fulfilled. 12. The supermarket cares about all employees wellbeing, progress and advancement 13. Conditions of my job allow me to be productive as work for this organization Employee Performance 14. Employees have faith in performance appraisal system. 15. Performance is measured objectively based on how employee works 16. Employees are provided performance based feedback and counseling. 17. In our organization, profit sharing is used as a mechanism to reward higher performance 18. Overall the nature employee appraisal systems has a strong influence on individuals work behavior

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