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Medium Voltage Switchgears for Offshore

Medium Voltage Switchgears for Offshore Mario Haim R&D Director Medium Voltage Switchgears

Mario Haim

R&D Director Medium Voltage Switchgears

Medium Voltage Switchgears for Offshore Mario Haim R&D Director Medium Voltage Switchgears
Our Offshore References Horns Rev 2 (14) Meerwind (32) Beatrice (6) Dan Tysk (24) Nordsee

Our Offshore References

Our Offshore References Horns Rev 2 (14) Meerwind (32) Beatrice (6) Dan Tysk (24) Nordsee Ost
Horns Rev 2 (14) Meerwind (32) Beatrice (6) Dan Tysk (24) Nordsee Ost (145) Robin
Horns Rev 2 (14)
Meerwind (32)
Beatrice (6)
Dan Tysk (24)
Nordsee Ost (145)
Robin Rigg (24)
Veja Mate (34)
Walney I+II (20)
Rödsand (16)
Ormonde (90)
Baltic II (30)
West of Duddon Sands (18)
Alpha Ventus (28)
Riffgat (12)
Barrow (12)
Cote
Global
Greater
Gunfleet
Thornton
D'Albatre
Tech (370)
Gabbard
Sands (10)
Banks (85)
Borkum West II (38)
(16)
(420)

With WS market leader in 5 MW offshore Windturbines

With GHA market leader in offshore substations

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012 2
Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012
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Offer for any MV offshore application

Offer for any MV offshore application GMA WS Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim –
Offer for any MV offshore application GMA WS Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim –

GMA

Offer for any MV offshore application GMA WS Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim –

WS

Offer for any MV offshore application GMA WS Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim –

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

WI

Offer for any MV offshore application GMA WS Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim –

GHA

Offer for any MV offshore application GMA WS Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim –

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Agenda

●Market trend
●Market trend

Wind park layout & Short circuit level

Requirements

Overvoltages & Insulation coordination

Preferred Solution

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

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Main areas for Wind Offshore in Europe Moray Firth Firth of Forfh Dogger Bank North

Main areas for Wind Offshore in Europe

Main areas for Wind Offshore in Europe Moray Firth Firth of Forfh Dogger Bank North Sea
Moray Firth Firth of Forfh Dogger Bank North Sea Hornsea Baltic Sea Iris h Sea
Moray Firth
Firth of Forfh
Dogger Bank
North Sea
Hornsea
Baltic Sea
Iris h Sea
32 GW
5 GW
18 GW
Eas t Anglia
25 GW
5 GW
Bristol Channel
10 GW
Has t ings
Is le of Wight
Le Treport
Fecamp
Courseuilles
Saint‐ Brieuc
Saint‐Nazaire
6 GW
6 GW
*Capacity to be inta lled until 2030
*Capacity to be inta lled until 2020

Carbon Trust

Carbon Trust Carbon Trust has brought together 8 offshore wind developers in a joint industry project

Carbon Trust has brought together 8 offshore wind developers in a joint industry project to work towards reducing the cost of offshore wind by at least 10% by 2015.

DONG Energy EON, Mainstream Renewable Power, RWE Innogy, Scottish Power Renewables, SSE Renewables (formerly Airtricity), Statkraft, Statoil,

(formerly Airtricity), ● Statkraft, ● Statoil, ● http://www.carbontrust.com/our-cli

http://www.carbontrust.com/our-clients/o/offshore-wind-accelerator

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Market trend

Market trend Clear recommendation: Go to 66 kV system voltage in tower to reduce costs Schneider

Clear recommendation:

Go to 66 kV system voltage in tower to reduce costs

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

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66 kV in tower + substation

66 kV in tower + substation -tower switchgear at 66 kV -platform switchgear at 66 kV
66 kV in tower + substation -tower switchgear at 66 kV -platform switchgear at 66 kV

-tower switchgear at 66 kV -platform switchgear at 66 kV -transformer at 66 kV -cable at 66 kV

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Agenda

Market trend

●Wind park layout & Short circuit level
●Wind park layout & Short circuit level

Requirements

Overvoltages & Insulation coordination

Preferred Solution

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Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

Source: http://www.carbontrust.com/our-clients/o/offshore-wind-accelerator

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4 types of wind turbines

Induction (asynchronous) generator Vestas (Neg Micon), Siemens (Bonus) Strong points: robust and simple Weak points:
Induction (asynchronous) generator
Vestas (Neg Micon), Siemens (Bonus)
Strong points: robust and simple
Weak points: low efficiency (fixed speed), flicker, no
control of reactive power
G
8% of manufactured
No converter
Ageing technology
GENERATOR
CAPACITOR
INDUCTION
BANK
COUPLING
Doubly-Fed induction generator Vestas, General Electric, Gamesa, Nordex Strong points: variable speed (wide range),
Doubly-Fed induction generator
Vestas, General Electric, Gamesa, Nordex
Strong points: variable speed (wide range), control of
reactive power
Weak points: produces harmonics (but only 25% of the
power goes through the converter)
G
DC BUS
L1
L2
42% of manufactured
25% power through
converter
Main Onshore
technology

CONVERTER Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

Induction (asynchronous) generator with slip control Vestas (for US market), Gamesa (for US market), Suzlon
Induction (asynchronous) generator
with slip control
Vestas (for US market), Gamesa (for US market), Suzlon
Strong points: variable speed (limited range), low
harmonics
Weak points: low efficiency, no control of reactive power
G
Control
20% of manufactured
No converter
Ageing technology
R
CAPACITOR
R INDUCTION
BANK
COUPLING
Variable speed induction or synchronous generator Enercon, Multibrid, General Electric, Siemens, Clipper, Vestas Strong
Variable speed induction or
synchronous generator Enercon, Multibrid,
General Electric, Siemens, Clipper, Vestas
Strong points: total variable speed, control of reactive
power, fast answers to bad electrical conditions coming
from the grid
Weak points: expensive, huge size, produces harmonics
(100% of the power goes through the converter)
L1
30% of manufactured
L2
G
CONVERTER
100% power through
converter
Main offshore technology

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Wind park layout & grid model for 66 kV simulation

Wind park layout & grid model for 66 kV simulation ● Based on the defined network

Based on the defined network architecture the model was created For this model a static simulation (short circuit level) and dynamic simulation (transient recovery voltage) had been done

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Voltage / Power-Factor 33 kV vs. 66 kV

Voltage / Power-Factor 33 kV vs. 66 kV Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim –

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

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Static network simulation: Short circuit level

The thermic short circuit inside the 66 kV network architecture can be between 11,33 kA and 18,04 kA & 29,07 kAp and 46,24 kAp peak value for short circuit

Inside the tower the maximum thermal short circuit level is between 10,94 kA and 17,13 kA & the peak value between 27,86 kAp and 43,17 kAp

kA & the peak value between 27,86 kAp and 43,17 kAp A 25 kA System at

A 25 kA System at 66 kV is fully sufficient

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Agenda

Market trend

Wind park layout & Short circuit level

●Requirements
●Requirements

Overvoltages & Insulation coordination

Preferred Solution

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Key Requirements

Key Requirements Reliability Safety Cost efficient Offshore Wind Power Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim

Reliability

Key Requirements Reliability Safety Cost efficient Offshore Wind Power Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim
Key Requirements Reliability Safety Cost efficient Offshore Wind Power Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim

Safety

Key Requirements Reliability Safety Cost efficient Offshore Wind Power Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim
Key Requirements Reliability Safety Cost efficient Offshore Wind Power Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim

Cost efficient

Key Requirements Reliability Safety Cost efficient Offshore Wind Power Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim

Offshore Wind Power

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

Safety Cost efficient Offshore Wind Power Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012 Environment

Environment

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Reliability

Reliability General Service-Conditions for MV switchgear according to IEC 62271 ● In principle indoor switchgear

General Service-Conditions for MV switchgear according to IEC 62271

In principle indoor switchgear according IEC 62271-1

Offshore Conditions exceeding the ‘normal’-conditions

Standard -5….+40°C, 24h average < 35°C

Ambient air not polluted with corrosive materials like salt etc.

Relative 24h average humidity not exceeding 95%

condensation occasionally

Relative monthly average humidity not exceeding 90%

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Reliability

Reliability Additional Challenges for the switchgear: Harsh environment ● saline atmosphere ● humidity ●

Additional Challenges for the switchgear: Harsh environment

Additional Challenges for the switchgear: Harsh environment ● saline atmosphere ● humidity ● Corrosion

saline atmosphere

humidity

Corrosion resistive

Vibration due to operation of Windmill

Low temperature operation without external power supply

Operation starting at deep ambient temperature without any preload (cold start)

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Reliability

Design responding to additional challenges

Gas Insulated Switchgear with

Sealed Pressure System for Electrical active parts

Hermetical closed gas tanks

High-voltage parts are contained in a tightly sealed stainless steel tank

Corrosion resistive components:

Drive for devices

Housing

Connections

LV-equipment

Vibration withstand

Vibration tests with dedicated frequencies

Low temperature withstand

Mechanical operations tests at low temperature

Dielectric performance at low temperature

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

temperature ● Dielectric performance at low temperature Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012
temperature ● Dielectric performance at low temperature Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

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Safety

Safety Design responding to safety requirements ● Optimum safety of operation due to a complete interlocking

Design responding to safety requirements

Safety Design responding to safety requirements ● Optimum safety of operation due to a complete interlocking

Optimum safety of operation due to a complete interlocking system Degree of protection: IP65 for the primary part Personal safety due to Internal Arc withstand: IAC AFLR up to 40 kA Switchgear tested and certified according to IEC 62271

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Safety for operating personal

Safety for operating personal Internal arc classification according IEC 62271-203 ● Internal arc events could cause

Internal arc classification according IEC 62271-203

Internal arc events could cause effects like pressure increase and burn through of enclosure (no effect on personnel is considered) Durations of 0.1 s up to 0.3 s are considered (switch off by protection equipment) No test procedure to qualify personnel safety in high voltage standard

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Safety is no Option!

Safety is no Option! Internal arc classification according IEC 62271-200 ● Internal arc test as Type

Internal arc classification according IEC 62271-200

Internal arc test as Type Test according t0 IEC 62271-200 Chapter 6.106 safety for personnel as important feature Improved safety for the operator (defined areas of access for the user) Durations of arcing from 0.1 s up to 1 s are considered and tested (min selectivity) All criteria to pass the test have to be fulfilled:

● All criteria to pass the test have to be fulfilled: ● Doors / covers do

Doors / covers do not open

No fragmentation of enclosure

No holes on accessible areas

Indicators do not ignite

Earthing remains in service

Design for safety according IEC 62271-200

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Cost efficient

Size is Key!

Less material Less weight Less space Less volume inside the tower Less transportation costs

Less volume inside the tower ● Less transportation costs ● Predefined interface between MV switchgear and:
Less volume inside the tower ● Less transportation costs ● Predefined interface between MV switchgear and:

Predefined interface between MV switchgear and:

wind turbine MV-cable control and protection Metering mechanic

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

● control and protection ● Metering ● mechanic Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim –

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Cost efficient

Cost efficient ● Switchgear section preinstalled on base frame ● Completely pretested in factory ● Less

Switchgear section preinstalled on base frame

Completely pretested in factory Less transport efforts

Completely pretested in factory ● Less transport efforts ● Predefined interface ● No erection on site

Predefined interface

No erection on site Commissioning of protection and control done in factory

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Environment

Environmentally friendly construction

Environment Environmentally friendly construction ● No gas handling at site ● Space saving due to compact
Environment Environmentally friendly construction ● No gas handling at site ● Space saving due to compact
Environment Environmentally friendly construction ● No gas handling at site ● Space saving due to compact
Environment Environmentally friendly construction ● No gas handling at site ● Space saving due to compact

No gas handling at site

Space saving due to compact design

handling at site ● Space saving due to compact design ● Switching in Vacuum with Vacuum

Switching in Vacuum with Vacuum Interrupter

All materials are fully recyclable

At end of life time, the SF6 gas will be fed into recycling process hence - no factory-special tool required for gas removal - all gas tanks are equipped with a valve in standard use

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Agenda

Market trend

Wind park layout & Short circuit level

Requirements

●Overvoltages & Insulation coordination
●Overvoltages & Insulation coordination

Preferred Solution

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Insulation level based on Ur=72.5 kV

Insulation level based on Ur=72.5 kV Except of IEC 62271-1 [1] U s y s =

Except of IEC 62271-1 [1]

U sys = 66kV; Δ = ± 10%

of IEC 62271-1 [1] U s y s = 66kV; Δ = ± 10% U r

U r = 72.5 kV

[1] IEC 62271-1: High voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 1: Common specifications,

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

Edition 1.1, IEC 2011

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Overvoltages – Insulation Level (BIL)

Overvoltages mainly due to lightning strike or switching operations (TRV) (IEC 60071-2)

Lightning strike mainly in overhead-lines

Switching operations, especially in case of switching inductive or capacitive loads, e.g. cables

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Transient recovery voltage

Transient recovery voltage Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012 30

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

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Lower Insulation level required

With surge arrester installed directly at the switchgear (L=0), the effect of travelling wave can be disregarded. Thus, the second part of the equation will equal to 0:

BIL K s ·U res

As recommended in [2], K s = 1.15 should be applied as safety factor for internal insulation coordination:

required BIL for the switchgear

BIL = 1.15 x 3.33 x 72,5 kV = 277 kV << 325 kV

BIL = 1.15 x 3.33 x 72,5 kV = 277 kV << 325 kV [2] IEC
BIL = 1.15 x 3.33 x 72,5 kV = 277 kV << 325 kV [2] IEC

[2] IEC 60071-2: Insulation co-ordination – Part 2: Application Guide, Third edition, IEC 1996

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Transient recovery voltage

Transient recovery voltage Excerpt of IEC 62271-100 Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

Excerpt of IEC 62271-100

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Transient recovery voltage

EMTP-ATP simulation in 66kV windpark with one wind turbine in operation, in parallel with utility network

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

BCT Y BCT UI Y BCT Utility data: Y -20MVA@0.8 Ur (kV) 155 kV PQ
BCT
Y
BCT
UI
Y
BCT
Utility data:
Y
-20MVA@0.8
Ur (kV)
155 kV
PQ
Load-
Rated short-circuit power 9000 MVA
flow
BCT
Y
155/66kV
400mm2
BBAR FAULT
VCB
FAULT
Aux. TR
400mm2
FEEDER FAULT
3.3/66kV
Aux. TR
WT@5MVA
33
M
MODEL
TRV
V
V
UI
I

Transient recovery voltage

TRV envelopes for feeder fault Uc = 129kV and busbar fault Uc = 114kV

(red) 150 Uc.kV 120 90 60 30 0 63,470 63,616 63,762 63,908 64,054 t.ms64,200
(red)
150
Uc.kV
120
90
60
30
0
63,470
63,616
63,762
63,908
64,054
t.ms64,200

(green)

120 Uc.kV 100 80 60 40 20 0 69,55 69,68 69,81 69,94 70,07 t.ms 70,20
120
Uc.kV
100
80
60
40
20
0
69,55
69,68
69,81
69,94
70,07
t.ms 70,20

Conclusion: TRV parameters are within IEC 62271-100, recalculated for rated voltage Usys = 66kV

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Lower Insulation level required

Maximum voltage level for insulation coordination including safety factor is

277 kV BIL

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Agenda

Market trend

Wind park layout & Short circuit level

Requirements

Overvoltages & Insulation coordination

●Preferred Solution
●Preferred Solution

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

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Preferred Solution What is really needed?

IEC 62271 differentiate between applications (Transmission or Distribution) and voltages (IEC 62271-200 vs. 62271-203)

Offshore application inside & between tower is 100% distribution

All benefits & requirements of distribution (IEC 62271-200) are mandatory

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66 kV switchgear acc. to IEC 62271-200

66 kV switchgear acc. to IEC 62271-200 Reliability: Fully tested for required ratings (U r =
66 kV switchgear acc. to IEC 62271-200 Reliability: Fully tested for required ratings (U r =
66 kV switchgear acc. to IEC 62271-200 Reliability: Fully tested for required ratings (U r =
66 kV switchgear acc. to IEC 62271-200 Reliability: Fully tested for required ratings (U r =

Reliability:

Fully tested for required ratings (U r = 72.6 kV, BIL <= 277 kV)

Environment:

Vacuum circuit breaker, less material, no gas handling

Safety:

IAC acc. IEC 62271-200 Chapter 6.106, complete interlocking

Cost efficient:

less CAPEX, less transport costs, less OPEX Less size: 600 mm width for 3 Phase metal enclosed switchgear

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

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Preferred Solution What is really needed?

Preferred Solution What is really needed? Ratings U s BIL I r I s c =

Ratings

U s

BIL

I r

I sc

= 66 kV; U r = 72.5 kV

<= 277 kV

= 1,250 A / 2,500 A

= 25 kA

Requirements

Cost efficient

Reliability

Safety is no Option!

Environmental friendly

Reliability Safety is no Option! Environmental friendly 66 kV Switchgear acc. IEC 62271-200 Schneider Electric -

66 kV Switchgear acc. IEC 62271-200

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Schneider Electric Infrastructure Equipment Mario Haim R&D Director Rathenaustr. 2, 93055 Regensburg, Germany

Schneider Electric Infrastructure Equipment Mario Haim R&D Director Rathenaustr. 2, 93055 Regensburg, Germany +49 151 14758993 mario.haim@schneider-electric.com

Schneider Electric

Schneider Electric - Infrastructure – Mario Haim – 2012

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