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TRAINING MODULE : 04

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 1 of 28

Rev. 1

1)

What is differential protection? What are the various types? zone and 'entering' currents entering a zone via each phase. At any given instant the currents entering a zone should be equal to the currents leaving the zone for a particular phase. In other words algebraic or the phasor sum of phase currents (entering or leaving) shall be zero. When this sum is not zero a fault inside the zone is indicated. Sum of R phase currents shall be zero, sum of Y phase currents shall be zero and sum of B phase currents shall be zero during healthy conditions. This balance is upset during fault . Bus zone protection and restricted earth fault protection are differential protections where the covered zone is at one voltage level. But in the case of Transformer differential protection the zone covered includes circuits at different voltages levels on either side of the transformer.

Differential protection basically checks the vector sum of 'leaving' currents leaving a

TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION This is a smaller version of the Bus zone differential protection where transformer is treated as a zone with one feeder feeding in and the other feeder feeding out of the transformer zone. The relay overrides magnetising inrush and is also delayed up to 60 ms. intentionally. The static 3 phase version would not indicate which phase is faulty. The relay requires a minimum of 15 mA (15% of 1A) or 75 mA (15% of 5A) for pickup. If the bias setting is say 30% then the spill current or the differential current shall exceed 30% of the outer circulating current. For example, if the outer circulating current is 5 amps, then the spill current shall exceed 5 x 0.3 = 1.5A, though the relay may be set for 0.3A. The need for Biased Differential Protection Differential protection in the simple form is handicapped by the following. [1] Whenever through faults occur, unless CT saturation is avoided, the difference in CT characteristics due to different ratios (as primary & secondary voltages are different) may cause appreciable difference in secondary currents during fault conditions, even though the currents may be equal during normal load conditions.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 2 of 28

Rev. 1

[2]

Unequal length of CT leads may cause a difference in VA burden between the two sets of CT's resulting in Ratio error.

[3]

Since most of the power transformers are provided with OLTC for voltage regulation, an imbalance current may flow in the differential relay at most of the taps.

To overcome the above mentioned difficulties, biased (restrained) differential relays are provided for large power Transformers. The differential current or the spill current shall exceed not only the current setting but also exceed (approximately) bias times the outer circulating current. 2) GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RELAY: after referred to as the DTH type relay, commonly used at all sites. This relay is housed in a 3D double ended vertical case and is generally flush mounted. The cradle switch on the left hand side with the red tab can be used to isolate the trip contact from the trip circuit. The relay being a static relay requires an auxiliary supply of 30 V,D.C. A higher auxiliary supply of 48 V,110 V or 220/250 V can be given with a matching external resistor. The relay is a low burden (low impedance) relay with a rated current of 1 Amp or 5 Amps. The relay also has a highset element which operates instantaneously when the differential current exceeds 10 times the rated current. The relay is provided with two pairs of output contacts which are normally open, self reset type and with a hand reset flag.
SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DTH TYPE RELAY:

This module is generally on relays equivalent to type DTH31 relay of M/s EE, herein

[1] [2] [3]

Variable bias setting (15 to 45% in steps of 15%) is available. The relay restrains from operating for magnetising inrush during switching of transformers by sensing second harmonic content in the current. There is a highset instantaneous element which operates whenever the differential current exceeds 10 times the relay rated current.

2.2)

CT CONNECTIONS FOR DTH TYPE RELAY:

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 3 of 28

Rev. 1

For simplicity sake let us at first consider a single phase circuit.

Where,

B 0 CT1 CT2

Bias Winding/Transformer of the relay Operating coil of the relay CT on H.T side CT on L.T side

From the above circuit diagram it is apparent that if the C.T ratio's are matched and if the connections are made as per the above diagram then the operating coil of the differential relay will sense zero current. For C.T ratio matching refer to ECC standards CT/S/001 which is not enclosed as this is a design topic. However it should be noted that wherever the HVCT ratio is changed by changing the C.T primary links, the ICT ratio also has to be changed irrespective of whether ICT is between HVCT and relay or between LVCT and relay. It is also possible to avoid ICT by having perfectly matched CT ratios on HV and LV side. In the case of three phase transformers apart from matching the C.T secondary currents one has to also take care of the phase shift caused by the vector group of the power transformer. If the transformer winding is in star then the C.T winding is in delta and if the transformer winding is in delta then the C.T winding is in star. The vector group of the-C.T windings that are delta shall be identical to the vector group of the transformer. The star point of the CT's shall be made on the transformer side. Various circuit diagrams are enclosed (Fig 1 to 4) which are self explanatory and illustrate the conventions cited above.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 4 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-1 (CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION) NOTE: For simplicity, CT shorting switches have not been shown.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 5 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-2 (CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION) NOTE: For simplicity, CT shorting switches have not been shown.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 6 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-3 (CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION) NOTE: If it is required to use an ICT then an ICT with both primary and secondary star connected can be used. The main CTs can also be star connected provided the secondary of the CT is rated fir the relay current. For simplicity, CT shorting switches have not been shown.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 7 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-4 (CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION) NOTE: In any bus zone protection also all CT star points can be on the zone side and CT terminals on the feeder side. For simplicity, CT shorting switches have not been shown.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 8 of 28

Rev. 1

3)

Explain the salient aspects of the procedure for testing DTH type/equivalent relay for transformer differential protection?

TESTING THE DTH TYPE RELAY

The injection tests are explained in detail in the manufacturer's commissioning instructions. However general approach is dealt with briefly here. NEVER TEST A RELAY WITHOUT STUDYING THE VENDORs MANUALS. The Relay injection tests should be carried out with the external CT leads disconnected & isolated from the Relay. The feeder should be switched off before carrying out any of the tests. The features of DTH31 type relay that are to be tested by secondary injection tests are: [1] [2] [3] Sensitivity check. Bias percentage check. Second Harmonic restraint check.

Test to check the CT connections to DTH31 type relay is, Through fault stability check is to be done for checking the correctness of CT connections to the relay. This test ensures that for a fault external to the zone of protection the relay does not operate. EQUIPMENT NEEDED: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] 4) 0-230 V AC Dimmerstat of current rating 15A or 10A 2 nos. 0-1200 ohms 5A rheostats in case of IA relays 2 nos. 0-400 ohms 5A rheostats in case of 5A relays AC 1A ammeter and 2.5A ammeter for IA relays AC 2.5A ammeter and 15A ammeter for 5A relays Voltmeter (optional) 5A DC Ammeter 5A rated diode

PROCEDURE FOR TESTING


TRAINING MODULES Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 9 of 28

Rev. 1

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

CAUTION: The procedure described below is for general guidance. The specific instructions of the manufacturer of the relay shall be read carefully before commencement of testing and those instructions shall be implemented. The dimmerstat should be connected in potential divider mode of connection and should be kept in zero volt position. If two multimeters are available then the multimeters can be used. 1A ammeter for spill (operating) circuit and 2.5A ammeter for the outer circulating current are needed in the case of IA relay. While for 5A relays 2.5A ammeters are needed for spill circuit and 15A ammeters for the outer circuit. 5) CONNECTIONS FOR TESTING

5.1) General Make the connections through MPB test plug with DTH 31 relay (or any relay with 10 terminals at the bottom & 10 at the top). Two test plugs are needed for isolating the relay, one at the bottom as well as one at the top. The existing connections may get mixed up with test kit supply and may cause fuse blow out if the top test plug is not inserted. Where connection with external circuit (relay/panel wiring) is needed, at selected terminals like 1 and 2 for annunciation and for DC supply, wander plugs can be used to bypass the MPB test plug. For all the tests auk DC supply shall be given at the appropriate terminals with external resistor if any. 5.2) SENSITIVITY CHECK [1] Refer Fig 5. Ensure that the dimmerstat is connected as potential divider only and the two out put leads are at zero position. Keep the 2 switches (in operating circuit and outer circuit) open. Switch on the supply and read the voltage on the voltmeter as zero. [2] [3] Check and ensure that the two rheostats are in max position. Close the operating circuit switch alone and start adjusting the voltage and rheostat and check that the operating current (spill circuit) gradually increases from zero till the relay operates.The relay will operate at 0.15 amps for IA relay and at0.75 amp for 5A relays irrespective of the bias setting as the outer circuit is kept open.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 10 of 28

Rev. 1

Repeat the test at other bias settings and confirm that the operating (pickup) value does not change. The values given above are for a particular make and test results obtained must be compared with the values stipulated in the manufacturer's catalogues. PRECAUTION: Immediately after each tripping bring back the potential divider to zero position and the rheostats to maximum position. 5.3) BIAS CHECK [1] [2] Refer Fig 5. Ensure that the potential divider is at zero position, rheostats in max position and all switches open. Close the main switch and read the voltage on the voltmeter as zero. Then close outer circuit switch and spill circuit switches and adjust the voltage and rheostats such that the spill current (I d) is less than the bias percent of the outer current (Ib) and raise lb till you reach twice the relay rated current. Then raise the spill current (I d) till the relay operates and note this value while always maintaining the outer circuit current (I b) at twice the relay rated current. The bias percentage is given by the formula 100 x Id Bias Percentage = ------------Ib + 0.5 Id Where Id is the differential circuit current and Ib is the bias current. [3] Use appropriate fuses to protect the spill circuit and the outer circuit from damage.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 11 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-5 (DIFFERENTIAL RELAY TESTING BIAS CHECK) X ,Y ,Z are the three terminals of the differential relay requiring current injection for a particular phase, Terminal no. X can be interchanged with terminal no. Y. Approximate ammeter range and rheostat to be selected depending on 1A or 5A relay. Id Differential current or spill current or operating current Ib Bias current also called the outer circuit current

RESTRAINT BIAS SETTING: RELAY PHASE A DTH 31 B C INJECTION TERMINAL 14 (X) 14 18 18 10 10 11 (Y) 12 (Z) 15 16 7 8 Measure Ib at 11 Measure Id at 12 Measure Ib at 15 Measure Id at 16 Measure Ib at 7 Measure Id at 8

SECOND HARMONIC RESTRAINT CHECK:


Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 12 of 28

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Rev. 1

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

FIGURE-6 (DIFFERENTIAL RELAY TESTING) SECONDARY HARMONIC RESTRAINT CHECK X ,Y ,Z are the three terminals of the differential relay requiring current injection for a particular phase. Terminal no. X can be interchanged with terminal no. Y. Approximate ammeter range and rheostat to be selected depending on 1A or 5A relay. I1 AC current feed to the relays I2 Rectifier current feed to the relays

RELAY

PHASE A

INJECTION TERMINAL 14 (X) 14 (X) 18 18 10 10 11 (Y) 12 (Y) 15 16 7 8

DTH 31

B C

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 13 of 28

Rev. 1

5.4) HARMONIC RESTRAINT CHECK: [1] The magnetising inrush of the transformer is sensed by the relay from the second harmonic content in the current passing through the relay. If the second harmonic current is more than 15% of the fundamental, then the relay restrains from operating. [2] [3] This can be checked either by use of an oscillator to generate second harmonic current or by a rectifier circuit as described below: Both the AC & DC currents are fed to the relay from the same source as shown in Fig 6. The percentage of second harmonic current component generated in the circuitry is: 0.212 x I2 ------------------ X 100 0.45 I1 + 0.5 I2 Where, I1 = AC current fed into the differential circuit of the relay. I2 = DC current through the rectifier. [4] Testing Keep the rheostats in the maximum position and the dimmerstat in the minimum position and the switch open. Close the switch and adjust the voltage and the rheostat R1 so that the AC current fed to the relay is equal to the rated current of the relay viz. IA or 5A as the case may be while keeping the rectifier current minimum. Now the relay will be in operated condition. Slowly increase the rectifier current till the relay shows tendency to reset. This will occur at 0.467A (d.c.) for 1A relay, 2.46A for 5A relay as seen from the above calculation for a second harmonic content of 15%. 5.5) THROUGH CURRENT STABILITY CHECK

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 14 of 28

Rev. 1

For transformers with H.T winding rated for more than 3.3 kV apply 440V, 3 phase to the high voltage winding with a three phase short circuit on the low voltage side, outside the protected zone i.e. the CT's on the secondary side should be able to sense this fault current. An adequately sized cable or bus bar should be used to short on the secondary side to carry the fault current. The 3 phase 440 V supply shall be capable of feeding this load. With reference to the enclosed drawing ENJ/EW/674 Sheet 1 to 4 apply the 3Ph, 440V supply at terminals 1U, 1V, 1W and short terminals 2U, 2V, 2W with adequate sized lead or busbar. If the connections from the current transformer to the relay terminals are made correctly as shown in drawing ENJ/EW/674 sheet 1-4 for various vector group connections and the polarities of CTs are alright. Then the differential currents measured at terminals 12,16 or 8 will be negligible and the relay will not operate However, if the CT polarities found are not as marked or there are some mistakes in the connections between CT terminals and relay terminals, the spill current will be appreciable and the relay may operate if it exceeds the setting. It is possible to analyse cause for the spill current from the magnitude of spill current and rectify the mistake. 6) ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR TESTING THROUGH FAULT STABILITY OF DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS (NOT APPLICABLE FOR BUSHING MOUNTED CTs) WITH Yy VECTOR GROUP. 6.1) For checking through fault stability of differential relays (DTH 31 or equivalent) primary injection must be done simultaneously on both EHT side CT and the LV side (11KV or 6.6KV or 3.3KV) CT thus bypassing the power transformer altogether. However as two identical primary injection kits are never available, the test cannot be done. 6.2) On the secondary side CTs (LV side CTs), the current to be injected is I x EI/E2, where I is the current injected into the primary of EHT side CT and El/E2 is the ratio of line to line voltage of the primary and secondary side of the power transformer. It may be noted that El/E2 is not the transformation (turns) ratio except when primary and secondary have the same type of connection (Yy, Zz or Dd)

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 15 of 28

Rev. 1

Specimen Calculation for ICT ratios 132/6.9 KV Yy Transformer El/E2 ratio = CT ratio = 19.13 (also equal to turns ratio because of Yy) Primary (132KV side) 150-75/0.577 (Delta connected) Secondary side (6.9KV side) 2000/0.577 (Delta connected) Case 1 (Star-Star): ICT connected between relay and 6.9KV side CT CT ratio on 132KV a) ICT ratio (with 150A tap on 132KV CT)= --------------------CT ratio on 6.9KV 150 = 0.577 = 0.577 2000 x V. ratio

------- x -------- x 19.13

1.43 or 1.4 A

Here 1.43 A or 1.4A winding to be on 6.9KV CT and 1A winding on relay side.

75 b) ICT ratio (with 75A tap on 132KV CT) = 0.577 1 = ---1.4

0.577 2000

------- x -------- x 19.13

Here 1.4A winding to be connected to the relay and 1A winding of ICT to be connected to 6.9KV side CTs.
TRAINING MODULES Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 16 of 28 Rev. 1

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Case 2: If ICT is connected between 132KV CT and DTH relay a) ICT ratio (with 150A tap on 132KV CT) needed is same 1.43 or 1.40, but 1.4A winding to 'be connected to relay and IA winding to be connected to 132KV CT. b) ICT ratio with 75A tap on 132KV CT is 1/1.4 A with IA winding of ICT connected to relay and 1.4A winding connected to 132KV CT. SUMMARY: 132KV CT primary Tap at 150 Connect 1A winding a ICT on 132 KV side of ICT 132KV CT primary Tap at 75

to relay to CT (132) Connect 1.4A winding 1.4 winding to CT to relay (132KV ) Connect 1A winding 1A winding to 6.9KV

ICT on 6.9KV side

to relay CT Connect 1.4A winding 1.4A winding to relay to 6.9 KV

With DY transformers the ICT connections are not only for ratio correction to neutralise (E1/E2 ratio and ratio of CT ratios) but also to neutralise phase shift. Other sources of error leading to maloperation of differential relays: (Refer Fig 7 to 11 for Connection Diagram) [1] 1) If one set of 3 CTs on one side is connected with reverse polarity, then the differential spill current will be 2.1 as the currents will add instead of, opposing each other. (Refer sketch where I is the Pilot current) [2] If the wires on one side are wrongly connected with R phase CT lead to a Y terminal of the relay, Y phase CT lead to a B terminal of the relay and B phase CT lead to a R terminal of the relay, then the differential circuit (spill) current will be I x sq.root 3 instead of 0. (Refer sketch)

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 17 of 28

Rev. 1

[3]

If Y and B phase wires are interchanged, then Y and B phase relays will carry operating current of I x sq.root 3 while R phase current in the relay circuit is 0. (Refer sketch)

[4] [5]

If one set of the 3 leads to the relay are transposed and one set of CTs reverse connected, then the differential operating current will be I. If one set of CTs are reversed and Y &B lead wires to relay are also interchanged, then R phase relay will carry 21 and Y and B phase relay will carry I in the spill circuit.

[6]

Incorrect ICT ratio or tapings

In all the above cases, I is not the secondary current delivered by CT, but is the current in the outer circulating circuit, or the current in the pilot wires (The wires interconnecting the CT with the Relay or the ICT with the relay). Reverse CT connection arises out of incorrect star or delta formation of CTs or ICTs.

FIGURE-7 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 1) (One set of 3 CTs on one side Reverse Connected)

FIGURE-8 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 2) (All three wires from CT to relay transposed DTH or equivalent)
TRAINING MODULES Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 18 of 28 Rev. 1

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

FIGURE-9 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 3) (Y and B leads to relay interchanged)

FIGURE-10 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 4) (One set of 3 CTs on one side CT Reverse connected and also three wire transposition)

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 19 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-11 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 5) (One set of 3 CTs on one side of the 2 sides. Reverse connected with Y & B leads transposed) I in the above sketches is not the CTsec current. But the current delivered into pilot wires or interconnecting wires between CT & relay. The current delivered into pilot wires is dependent on I CT ratio as well as star or delta connection of CTs and ICTSs

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 20 of 28

Rev. 1

6.3) Calculation of ICT ratio of Dy transformers. The CTs on the delta side of the transformer are star connected and the CTs on the star side are delta connected. When the CTs are star connected, the CT secondary current is equal to the current in pilot leads (interconnecting leads between CT and relay) When CTs are delta connected then the current delivered to pilot wires is 1 x sqr.root 3 times the CT secondary current. [1] If the ICT is on LV side then Primary Rating of LVCT CT Ratio on HV side x El/E2 = -------------------------- x ICT Ratio LV pilot wire current LVCT primary rating x ICT Ratio = --------------------------------------LVCT secondary rating x sqr.root 3 LVCT Ratio = ------------ x ICT Ratio sqr.root 3 HVCT Ratio ICT Ratio = ------------- x sqr.root 3 x ----LVCT Ratio Where E1 and E2 are line to line voltages on HV & LV sides. If ICT ratio is k then k amp winding (or 5k winding) is to be connected to LV side CT and 1 amp (or 5 amp) winding of ICT to be connected relay. ICT will be Yy connected. E2 E1

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 21 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-12 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 1 Vide Page no. 21)

FIGURE-13 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 2 Vide Page no. 21)

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 22 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-14 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 1a Vide Page no. 14) When 132kV CT is set for 150/0.577A

FIGURE-15 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 1b Vide Page no. 15) When 132kV CT is set for 75/0.577A

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 23 of 28

Rev. 1

FIGURE-16 (TESTING PROCEDURE - CASE 3 Vide Page no. 22)

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 24 of 28

Rev. 1

6.4) Specimen calculation for ICT Ratio for Dy transformer differential protection: Data - 20 MVA Dy transformer 110/11 KV Case 1: HV CT Ratio 150/5 star connected LV CT Ratio 1250/5 delta connected ICT on LV side star-star connected CT Ratio of HV side ICT Ratio = CT Ratio of LV side 30 = = ------------------- x 10 x sqr.root 3 (250 x Sq.root 3) 2.08 E1 E2

---------------------- x sqr.root 3 x ------

Now - 5A winding of ICT is to be connected to relay and 2.08 x 5A (10A) winding to be connected to 11KV side CT. If the LV side delta connected CTs had been rated for 5 / sqr.root 3 (=2.88) instead of 5A then ICT Ratio HV CT Ratio = -------------- x sqr.root 3 x -----LV CT Ratio 30 = = ------------------ x sqr.root 3 x 10 250 x Sq.root 3 1.2 E2 E1

Now 5A winding of ICT is to be connected to relay and 1.2 x 5 (6A) winding of ICT to be connected to 11 KV CT.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 25 of 28

Rev. 1

Case 2: Data 20 MVA 110/11 KV HVCT 150/5 star connected LV CT 1250/5 star connected ICT on LV side star-delta for phase shift. ICT delta winding on relay side ICT ratio (pilot current ratio) = HV CT Ratio -------------- x ----LV CT Ratio 30 = = ------- x 10 250 1.2 Here 1.2 is the ratio of the pilot currents on the two sides of ICT with 6A (1.2 x 5) star winding connected to 11KV CT and 5A output of the delta winding of ICT is got out of 5/sqr.root 3 windings. Therefore the ICT Ratio 1.2 x 1.732 = 2.08. With 1.2 x 5 winding connected to CT & 5 / 1.732 winding connected to relay. E2 E1

WHEN ICT IS LOCATED ON THE HV SIDE BETWEEN HV CT AND RELAY Data: 110/11 KV 20 MVA Dy transformer with 150/5 A Cts star connected on HV side and 1250/2.88 A Cts on LV side delta connected. The star star ICT is between the relay and 110 KV CTs.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 26 of 28

Rev. 1

Calculation of ICT Ratio HV CT Primary Rating Pilot Current E1 E2 LV CT Primary Rating = ----------------------LV Pilot Current LV CT Primary Rating = ------------------------------LV CT Seco, Current x 1.732 LV CT Ratio = -------------Sqr.root 3 1250 = --------------2.88 x 1.732 LV CT Ratio ICT Ratio = HV CT Ratio E2 E1 1 1.732

------------------------- x ICT Ratio x ----

-------------- x ------ x ---------

1250 = 2.88 250 = ----300

1 x 30

1 -------10 x

1 -------1.732

------- x -----

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 27 of 28

Rev. 1

1 = ---1.2 5A = ---6A Now 5A winding to be connected to 110 KV star connected CTs and 6A winding terminal to be connected to relay.

Note: It is preferable to insert phase shift by connecting the main CTs in delta than introducing the phase shift in the ICT by star-delta ICT. If should have the same internal delta formation as the Main power transformer (Dy-11 or Dy-1) Incorrect delta formation in ICT not matching the delta formation of the power transformer will lead to tripping.

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ECC Division - EDRC Module No.5 Differential Protection for Transformers

Prepared : S.Srinivasan, S.Mohan, S.S. Raghavan Sheet 28 of 28

Rev. 1