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Restrained Beams

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Introduction

Shear Resistance

Plastic Shear Resistance

Shear Area

Shear Buckling Resistance

Moment Resistance

Outline

Moment Resistance with High Shear

Serviceability

Beam Deflections

Examples

Example RB 1 (Section resistance and deflection of UB)

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Introduction

Beams are structural members which transfer transverse loads on the member to the supports through bending and shear.

Beams which are unable to deflect laterally are termed restrained .

Restrained beams are often designed on the basis of bending moment resistance which is dependent on section classification.

Deflection is normally significant and has to be checked at serviceability limit state.

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Fully Restrained Beam

Full lateral restraint may be assumed to exist if the frictional or positive connection of a floor (or other) construction to the compression flange of the member is capable of resisting a lateral force of more than 2.5% of the maximum force in the compression flange of the member. This load should be considered as distributed uniformly along the flange. Examples of full lateral restraint are:

1) in–situ or precast concrete slab which is supported directly on the top flange or cast around it 2) steel plate floor which is welded or bolted to the flange at closely spaced intervals 3) provision of closely spaced bracing elements so that the minor axis slenderness is low (

)
Min. friction or connection resistance req’d= 2.5% * max. moment in member
(h – t f ) * L
Friction force
(h – t f )
t w
L

C = M/(h-t f )

M = Applied Moment

T

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 8/14/2012 Shear Resistance 5 8/14/2012 Shear Resistance Shear Check EN 1993-1-1 (Cl 6.2.6) The design shear force, V Ed , should satisfy: V c,Rd is the design shear resistance, which may be calculated based on a plastic or an elastic distribution of shear stress. The usual approach is to use the plastic shear resistance, V pl,Rd . Plastic Shear Resistance The design plastic shear resistance is given by: where A v is the shear area. 6

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Shear Area

r
t f
t w
b

Rolled I and H sections,

h w
t w
Welded I, H & box sections,
h
w
r
t f
t w
b

Rolled I and H sections,

h w
t w
h
w

Welded I, H & box sections, load parallel to flange

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Shear Area

Rectangular hollow sections, load parallel to depth

Rolled channel sections,

Circular hollow sections

Rectangular hollow sections,

Rolled T sections,
t f

b

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Shear Buckling

EN 1993-1-5 (Cl 6.2.6(6))

The shear buckling resistance for webs should be checked if

Shear buckling is unlikely to affect rolled sections.

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Moment Resistance

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 8/14/2012 Moment Resistance Moment Check EN 1993-1-1 (Cl 6.2.6) The design bending moment, M Ed , should satisfy the following cross-section check: The bending moment resistance, M c,Rd about a principal axis depends on the class of the section: Class 1 and 2 sections Class 3 sections Class 4 sections 11 8/14/2012 Section classification for bending only The following sections are class 3 (semi-compact), all other UB and UC sections are either class 1 (plastic) or class 2 (compact): Grade S275 steel 152 × 152 × 23 UC Grade S355 steel 152 × 152 × 23 UC 305 × 305 × 97 UC 356 × 368 × 129 UC ‘ Non of the UB and UC under bending is class 4. Notes • The Corus Advance range of sections includes UB and UCs that are not in BS446, these are included in the above. • Dimensions of all sections in the Advance range are given in SCI publication No P-363. 12

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 8/14/2012 Moment Resistance with High Shear EN 1993-1-1 (Cl 6.2.8) When the design value of the shear force is less than 50% of the design plastic shear resistance, i.e. V Ed ≤ 0.5 V pl,Rd , its effect on the moment resistance may be neglected. When the design value of the shear force exceeds 50% of the design plastic shear resistance i.e. V Ed > 0.5 V pl,Rd , the yield strength f y should be reduced by (1 – ) in the determination of the moment resistance, M c,Rd . where Class 1 & 2 I sections with equal flanges and bending about major axis An alternative approach is available to determine the reduced design plastic resistance moment for class 1 and 2 I sections. but where 13 8/14/2012 Serviceability 14

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Deflection Check

EN 1993-1-1 (Cl 7.2)

Excessive deflection at service load may impair the function of a structure. Deflection check should be carried using the unfactored variable actions Q k .

 Maximum Deflection due to unfactored imposed load Cantilevers Length/180 Internal beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish Span/360 or 40mm Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails) Span/200 or 40mm Edge beam Span/300 to span/500 or 20mm Vertical deflection due to static vertical wheel loads from overhead traveling cranes Span/600 Horizontal deflection (calculated on the top flange properties alone) due to horizontal crane loads Span/500

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Beam Deflections

Examples of simple beam and cantilever forces

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Examples
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Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures
R Liew & S D Pang
Example RB-1: Section resistance and deflection of UB
A beam of span 10 m is simply supported at its ends and fully restrained along its length. It
supports a uniformly distributed load across the entire span and a point load at its mid-span.
Check and verify if section UB 533×210×101 in S355 steel is suitable for this beam. Assume
that the beam carried plaster finish.
UDL
5 kN/m
UDL
10 kN/m
50 kN
100 kN
50 kN + 100 kN
5 kN/m + 10 kN/m
5m
5m
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Ultimate Limit State

67.5 kN + 150 kN

6.75 kN/m + 15 kN/m

5m
5m

217.5 kN

217.5 kN

Design Moment

Maximum bending moment at mid-span: M Ed = (6.75+15)*10 2 /8 + (67.5+150)*10/4 = 816 kNm.

Design Shear

Maximum shear force at the supports: V Ed = 217.5 kN.

 19 8/14/2012 Yield Strength t w = 10.8mm, t f = 17.4mm. Maximum thickness = 17.4mm < 40mm (EN 10025-2) For S355 steel, f y = 345N/mm 2 Section Classification  = (345/f y ) 0.5 = 0.83 Classification of flange c f / t f = 5.01 ≤ 9 = 9*0.83 = 7.47  Flange is Class 1. Classification of web Section is Class 1 c w / t w = 44.1 ≤ 72 = 72*0.83 = 59.8  Web is Class 1. 20

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Shear Resistance

Shear Area

h w t w = (h – 2t f )t w = 1.0*(536.7 – 2*17.4)*10.8 = 5421 mm 2 .

A v = A – 2bt f + (t w + 2r)t f = 12900 – 2*210.0*17.4 + (10.8 + 2*12.7)*17.4 = 6222 mm 2 .

Plastic Shear Resistance

Since V Ed = 217.5 kN < V pl,Rd , shear resistance is adequate.

Shear Buckling h w /t w = (536.7 – 2*17.4)/10.8 = 46.5 < 72/= (72*0.83)/1.0 = 59.8.

Shear buckling check is not necessary.

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Moment Resistance

Since M Ed = 816 kNm < M c,Rd , moment resistance is adequate.

Check for High Shear 0.5V pl,Rd = 0.5*1239 = 620 kN.

Shear force at location of maximum bending moment (i.e., at mid-length) = 217.5 – (6.75 + 15)*5 = 109 kN < 0.5V pl,Rd Section is in low shear; no reduction is necessary for moment resistance.

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 8/14/2012 Serviceability Limit State Check for Deflection The deflection of the beam under unfactored imposed load is Since the beam carries plaster finish,  the maximum deflection of the beam is within limit. 23 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures R Liew & S D Pang Using Design Table UB 533×210×101 in S355 under pure bending Page D-66: Section is class 1 Moment Resistance about major axis M cy,Rd = 901kNm (hand calculation 900 kNm) Page D-103 Design shear resistance V c,Rd = 1240kN (hand calculation 1239 kN) Note that the moment capacity given in the table is for low shear. The moment needs to be reduced for high shear case. 24

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Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures

R Liew & S D Pang

Page D-66

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Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures

Design shear resistance

R Liew & S D Pang

Page D-103

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Homework

Consider a simply supported beam 914 x 419 x 388 UB, S275 steel subjected to a factored shear force of 2500kN and moment of 4000kNm. Check the shear and bending resistance of the beam if it is fully restrained against lateral-torsional buckling.

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