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Romans 5:1-21 NRSV Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord

Jesus Christ, 2through whom we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand; and we boast in our hope of sharing the glory of God. 3And not only that, but we also boast in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, 4and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, 5and hope does not disappoint us, because Gods love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us. 6 For while we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 7Indeed, rarely will anyone die for a righteous personthough perhaps for a good person someone might actually dare to die. 8But God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us. 9Much more surely then, now that we have been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath of God. 10For if while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more surely, having been reconciled, will we be saved by his life. 11But more than that, we even boast in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation. 12 Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death came through sin, and so death spread to all because all have sinned 13sin was indeed in the world before the law, but sin is not reckoned when there is no law. 14Yet death exercised dominion from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sins were not like the transgression of Adam, who is a type of the one who was to come. 15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died through the one mans trespass, much more surely have the grace of God and the free gift in the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abounded for the many. 16And the free gift is not like the effect of the one mans sin. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brings justification. 17If, because of the one mans trespass, death exercised dominion through that one, much more surely will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness exercise dominion in life through the one man, Jesus Christ. 18 Therefore just as one mans trespass led to condemnation for all, so one mans act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all. 19For just as by the one mans disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one mans obedience the many will be made righteous. 20But law came in, with the result that the trespass multiplied; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, 21so that, just as sin exercised dominion in death, so grace might also exercise dominion through justification leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. The way this chapter was designed is evidently to show the results or benefits of the doctrine of justification by faith. 1 This chapter has most often been thought of as one
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Albert Barnes, The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans, n.p., BNNT, Version 7.0. 2004

of the most difficult portions of the New Testament, especially Romans 5:12-21. 2 The entire book of Romans is not a book generally taught in Sunday school, it is usually left for a more in depth study. Pauls letter to the Romans has been both on of the most important of the major books in the New Testament and the least controversial as well.3 Scholars have had very little argument over the dates that Paul wrote his letter to the Romans. 4 Its most important since it is the first well-developed theological account given to us by a Christian theologian.5 It has had immeasurable influence on the framing of Christian theology.6 Since Romans has both been so influential and uncontroversial discussion of the letter focus on its substantive theological substance without too much diversion from difficult initial unknowns.7

Historical Context In order for us to fully understand what Paul is saying here in Romans chapter five, we must first know what the historical context of the passage. Paul tells us in chapter fifteen of Romans that he is on his way to Jerusalem, which then relates back to Acts chapter twenty when we find him there in Jerusalem. 8 His present location is thought by most to be in Corinth according to chapter sixteen of Romans.9 With these things in mind scholars would most likely date Pauls Letter to the Romans between the

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Barnes, The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans, n.p. Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid. "The Letter to The Romans," n.p., DPL, Version 7.0, 2007 4 Hawthorn, Martin, and Reid, The Letter to The Romans, n.p. 5 Hawthorn, Martin, and Reid, The Letter to The Romans, n.p. 6 Hawthorn, Martin, and Reid, The Letter to The Romans, n.p. 7 Hawthorn, Martin, and Reid, The Letter to The Romans, n.p. 8 F. F. Bruce, D. Guthrie, and A. R. Millard. "Epistle to the Romans." NBD, 1:1034-1038. 9 Bruce, Guthrie, and Millard. Epistle to the Romans, 1:1035

years of AD 57 and AD 59.10 Paul also gives us clues as to his location when he writes the letter in chapter sixteen when he refers to Gaius as his host. 11 In First Corinthians chapter one Paul mentions Gaius which leads scholars to believe that Gaius lived in Corinth, and would therefore be the place where Paul was when he wrote this letter to the Romans. 12 Phoebe, also a resident of Corinth, is also mentioned in chapter sixteen which gives more support to the idea that Paul was in Corinth at the time of his writing the letter to the Romans.13 Scholars have questioned who exactly this epistle was written to, but most likely it was written to address a specific situation in Rome. 14 The reasoning some scholars give for writing this letter to the Romans was to encourage mutual tolerance and an end to antagonism between those who advocated continuation of certain Torah observances among Christians and those who advocated Law-free gospel.15

Literary Context When looking at the literary context of Pauls Letter to the Romans, we see it divided into three main sections; chapters 14, 511, and 1215. The premise of chapters 14 is justification by faith. 16 This section can also be said to be Paul trying to encourage his audience to have a view that everything is founded on Gods justice and grace. 17 In 511 Paul clarifies for us the relationship between theology and conduct.18 This segment is a positive exhibition of Gods justice and grace at work in the life of faith. 19 And in
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Bruce, Guthrie, and Millard. Epistle to the Romans, 1:1036 "Book of Romans." DTIB. 1:697-703 12 "Book of Romans." DTIB. 1:697 13 Bruce, Guthrie, and Millard. Epistle to the Romans, 1:1035 14 Theodore Pulcini. In right relationship with God: present experience and future fulfillment: an exegesis of Romans 5:1-11, SVTQ 36 (1-2) (1992):61-85. 15 Pulcini. In right relationship with God, 62. 16 Robert H. Mounce. Romans. (31 vols.; TNAC; Nashville. 1995.) p.41 17 "Book of Romans." DTIB. 1:697 18 Mounce. Romans. 27:41 19 "Book of Romans." DTIB. 1:697

chapters 12-15 Paul deals with the practical implications of the new life in Christ. 20 Fitzmyer says that Paul know moves in chapter five from the question of salvation and justification to the consequence of faith in Christ Jesus.21

General Overview Robert H. Mounce breaks chapter 5 of Romans down into three different sections. He believes that it breaks down with verses 1-8 peace and hope, 9-11 reconciliation, and 12-21 the gift of righteousness.22 However, most scholars break it down with only two sections. The first section being verses 1-11 which gives us a summary of justification, and 12-21 which gives us a summary of condemnation.23 In the first section Paul gives us five results of divine justification.24 In the second section he contrasts the works of Adam and Christ.25 Marty Reid breaks it down in an his opinion as section one being the basis of peace and hope (vv. 1-11), and section two is a comparison between Adam and Christ (vv. 12-21).26 Willmington along with others break this chapter down this way:27 1. Justification 5:1-11 a. Believer has peace with God (v.1) b. Believer has access to God (v.2) c. Believer has assurance from God (vv. 3-4)
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Mounce. Romans. 27:41 Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Romans. (1 vol. Anchor Bible 33. New York: Doubleday, 1993.) 1:393. 22 Mounce. Romans. 27:132-146 23 Willmington, Harold L. The Outline Bible. Carol Stream, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1999. 630-631. 24 Willmington, Outline Bible, 630 25 Willmington, Outline Bible, 631 26 Reid, Marty L. "A rhetorical analysis of Romans 1:1-5:21 with attention given to the rhetorical function of 5:1-21." PRS. 19.3 (Fall 1992): 255-272. 27 Willmington, Outline Bible, 630-631

d. Believer is inhabited by God (v. 5) e. Believer is preserved by God (vv. 6-11) 2. Abounding Grace for All 5:12-21 a. Work of Adam b. Work of Jesus Christ

In Depth Overview 1. Justification 5:1-11 a. Believer has peace with God (v.1) The peace Paul speaks of here is a peace of complete reunion with God. 28 Those who are accepted by God are no longer threatened by His wrath. 29 The term peace should not be understood here as a peace of mind or the absence of war, but more in the sense of a fullness of a right relationship. 30 The essential thing for humans who enjoy a right relationship with God is the experience of salvation and the hope of glory given by God.31 b. Believer has access to God (v.2) Jesus has given us access to God and a grace that we were not formerly able to reach, which brings about confidence and joy for the future. We are enemies to God by basic nature, but Jesus paid the price for us and now we are offered access to God freely.32 We are no longer alienated from God; through Jesus our relations with God

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Dayton, Wilber T. Romans and Galations, (1 vol. The Wesleyan Bible Commentary 5. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1986.) 36 29 Dayton, Romans and Galations, 36 30 Pulcini. In right relationship with God, 67. 31 Fitzmyer. Romans. 1:395. 32 Mounce. Romans. 27:41.

have been altered.33 However, we dont owe only this access to God to Christ, but we also owe him our entrance into the grace also in verse two.34 c. Believer has assurance from God (vv. 3-4) Since we are saved by Christ we rejoice even when we are suffering because it helps us to produce endurance. Anyone that keeps on struggling through trouble and suffering will prove to be tested in the end, and will attain hope in the end with help from God.35 The confidence that we have in God and His ability and willingness to bring us through our sufferings is what leads us to a brighter hope for what is ahead.36 d. Believer is inhabited by God (v. 5) Gods love is poured into us through the Holy Spirit which He has given to us. Gods Holy Spirit is working to help us understand the reality of what we have by being surrounded by Gods love.37 One way to see this is that it is the expression of Gods giving us himself without any kind of limit, it is impossible for us as humans to imagine these dimensions of Gods divine love.38

e. Believer is preserved by God (vv. 6-11) Our salvation as believers is guaranteed through Christs sacrifice on the cross. Paul doesnt say only that we have been reconciled, rather he says that whe have received

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Fitzmyer. Romans. 1:396. Dayton, Romans and Galations, 36. 35 Fitzmyer. Romans. 1:396. 36 Mounce. Romans. 27:135. 37 Mounce. Romans. 27:135. 38 Fitzmyer. Romans. 1:398.

the reconciliation.39 To make it even clearer one can refer to 2 Corinthians 5:18 where the statement is made that God has reconciled us to himself.40 2. Abounding Grace for All 5:12-21 a. Work of Adam b. Work of Jesus Christ In this section Paul goes all the way back to the beginning of time. 41 He re-writes the story of creation and includes Christ at the center of it all. 42 Gods relation to us in the passage is grace and live not trespass and death.43 The main reason why many believe that this may be the most difficult passage in the New Testament is most likely because they have read views into it that where never intended to be given by Paul.44 Sin entered the world when Adam sinned and spread death to everyone. Adams sin brought death and condemnation upon everyone.

However, Christ came into the world to bring forgiveness. All people are now about to be made acceptable and righteous to God and have eternal life.

Synthesis This chapter in the Letter to the Romans contains one of the major themes in this Epistle. The grace of God is a theme that Paul is working towards through the first part
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Gaebelein, Frank E. and J.D. Douglas. Romans Galatians. (1 vol. TEBC 10. Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library), 1976. 1:60 40 Gaebelein and Douglas. Romans Galatians1:60 41 Drummond, Alistair. "Romans 5:12-21." Interpretation. 57.1 (Ja 2003): 67-69. 42 Drummond, Romans 5:12-21, 67. 43 Drummond, Romans 5:12-21, 67. 44 Dayton, Romans and Galations, 38.

of the Epistle and is all brought to out in chapter five. Paul tells us that God took the initiative to save us and reconcile us, and he did this while we were His enemy. 45 As is told to us in chapter six, Sin no longer has dominion because we are now under grace.46

Application We must have faith in God and in Christ Jesus they have done everything to make it possible for us to be saved. Verse one tells us that we are justified by faith, if we have faith we can be saved. It is through Jesus that we have been granted access to the grace that God has given us.

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Bruce, Guthrie, and Millard. Epistle to the Romans, 1:1038. Bruce, Guthrie, and Millard. Epistle to the Romans, 1:1038.

Bibliography Barnes, Albert. "The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans." Barnes' Notes on the New Testament. WORDsearch Corp Version 7.0 2004. Print ed.: Albert Barnes, ed. Barnes' Notes on the New Testament. 1 vols. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel Classics, 1962. "Book of Romans." Pages 697-703 in vol. of Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible. Edited by Kevin J. Vanhoozer. 1 vols. Grand Rapids, Mich.: BakerAcademic, 2005. Bruce, F. F., D. Guthrie, and A. R. Millard. "Epistle to the Romans." Pages 1034-1038 in vol. 1 of New Bible Dictionary Second Edition. 1 vols. Downers Grove, Ill.: InverVarsity Press, 1994. Dayton, Wilber T. Romans and Galations, 1 vol. The Wesleyan Bible Commentary 5. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1986. Drummond, Alistair. "Romans 5:12-21." Interpretation. 57.1 (Ja 2003): 67-69. Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Romans. 1 vol. Anchor Bible 33. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Gaebelein, Frank E. and J.D. Douglas. Romans Galatians. 1 vol. The Expositors Bible Commentary 10. Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library, 1976. Hawthorne, Gerald F., Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid. "The Letter to The Romans." Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. WORDsearch Corp Version 7.0 2007. Print ed.: Gerald F. Hawthorne, ed. Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. 1 vols. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1993.

Mounce, Robert H. Romans. 31 vols. The New American Commentary. Nashville. 1995. Pulcini, Theodore. In right relationship with God: present experience and future fulfillment: an exegesis of Romans 5:1-11, St Vladimir's Theological Quarterly. 36 (1-2) (1992):61-85. Reid, Marty L. "A rhetorical analysis of Romans 1:1-5:21 with attention given to the rhetorical function of 5:1-21." Perspectives in Religious Studies. 19.3 (Fall 1992): 255-272. Willmington, Harold L. The Outline Bible. Carol Stream, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1999.