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Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Power Transformers

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.

Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

CONTENTS

INFORMATION

PAGES

Purpose and Usage Within Saudi Aramco

1

Applicable Standards

1

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards

1

Saudi Aramco Material System Specifications

4

Saudi Aramco Design Practices

9

Industry Standards

12

CONSTRUCTION

15

Core

15

Core Material

16

Core Assembly

20

Types of Transformer Core Construction

22

Grounding of Core

28

Coil or Winding Assembly

28

Core-Type Coils

29

Shell-Type Coils

29

Coil Stress

29

Core and Coil Assembly Clamping Construction

32

Coil Material

38

INSULATION SYSTEM

40

Coordination of Insulation

40

Types of Insulating Materials

43

Coil Assembly Insulation

44

Functions of Solid Insulation

45

Classification of Solid Insulation

46

Solid Insulation and Moisture

47

Insulating System and Temperature

49

Insulating Mineral Oil

49

Specification for Transformer Oil

50

Importance of Insulating Oil

51

Insulation Coordination of Transformer Oil

51

"Synthetic" Insulating Fluids

52

PCB (Askarels)

53

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

POWER TRANSFORMER ENCLOSURES

55

Enclosure Types for Power Transformers

55

Sealed Tank

55

Conservator or Expansion Tank

57

Inert Gas Preservation System

59

Gas Liquid Seal System

60

Control Cabinets

61

Fill and Drain Valves

62

COOLING SYSTEMS

64

Cooling Circuits

64

Temperature Gradient

65

Methods Used for Cooling

66

Cooling Classes

72

Self-Cooled

73

Self-Cooled and Forced-Air Cooled (OA/FA)

73

Forced-Oil Circulation Cooling (Pumps)

74

Forced-Oil-Cooled Process

74

TRANSFORMER ACCESSORIES

78

Pressure Relief Devices

78

Mechanical Relief

78

Diaphragm Relief

80

Fault Gas Detector Relays

83

Sudden Pressure Relays

84

Gas in Oil Detector Relay (Buchholz)

86

Indicators

86

Liquid Temperature (Top-Oil) Gauge

86

Hot-Spot Temperature Indicator

89

Liquid-Level Indicator (Dial-type)

99

Pressure/Vacuum Indicator

102

Pressure-Vacuum Bleeder and Regulator

107

Bushings

108

Ratings for Bushings

108

Types of Bushings

108

Bushing Features

112

Bushing Current Transformers (BCT)

117

No-load Tap Changers (NLTC)

120

Operation

120

Major Components

121

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

POWER TRANSFORMER LOAD TAP CHANGER (LTC)

129

Purpose of LTC Voltage Regulating

129

Tap Changer Compartment Construction

132

Load Tap Changer Mechanism

134

Transfer Switches

138

Selector Switches

138

Reversing Switch

139

Motor Mechanism

140

LTC Operation

140

Electronic Control System

142

Load Tap Changer (LTC) Operating Methods

145

Automatic Operation

145

Remote Operation

148

Manual Operation

148

Parallel Operation of Two ALTC's

149

Parallel Operation of Electrical Control Scheme

151

POWER TRANSFORMER NAMEPLATE DATA

154

Transformer Nameplate with NLTC

154

Transformer Nameplate with LTC

157

RECEIPT OR ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION

160

Transformer Acceptance from Manufacturer/Vendor

160

Manufacture Test Results

160

Transformer Specifications and Nameplate Data Verification

160

Transformer Receipt Inspection

161

General Precautions

161

Exterior Tank Inspection (Oil-Filled)

161

Accessories Inspection

162

TRANSFORMER RECEIPT TESTING

167

TRANSFORMER INSTALLATION INSPECTION

168

Transformer Location Verification

168

Transformer Installation Inspection and Testing (Form P-025)

169

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

TRANSFORMER INSTALLATION TESTING

172

Turns-Ratio Tests

175

TTR Testing Indications

179

Expected Test Results

180

Interpretation of Data

180

Review of Sample Data

181

Winding-to-Winding Polarity Test

185

Polarity

185

Three-Phase Polarity and Phase Sequence

185

Voltmeter Flicks-Method Polarity Test

185

Winding Resistance Test

190

Three Phase Transformer (Wye With a Neutral Bushing)

194

Three Phase Transformer (Wye Without a Neutral Bushing)

194

Three Phase Transformer (Delta Connected)

194

Winding Resistance (Second Method)

194

Winding Insulation Testing (Megger Test)

195

Winding Insulation-Resistance Test

196

Core-Ground Inspection and Test

203

Transformer Tank Ground Test

204

Tap Setting Verification

206

Applied Voltage (Hi-Pot) Test

206

Insulation Power-Factor Test

207

Definition of Power Factor of Insulation per ANSI C57

209

Winding Insulation Test

215

Temperature Correction

215

Instruments and Testing Procedure

220

Power Factor Values

220

Insulating Oil Testing

221

Testing Categories

221

Oil Specifications

222

Types of Transformer Oil Test

223

Visual Examination

232

Fluid Sampling Method

234

Comparing Oil-Test Data

236

Gas Analysis of Operating Transformers

237

Major Causes of Gases in Oil-Filled Transformers

237

Analysis of Transformer Combustible Gases

238

Methods for Analyzing Combustible Gas

239

Solubility of Gases in Transformer Oil

241

PCB Analysis Test

251

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

TRANSFORMER SYSTEM PRE-OPERATIONAL CHECKOUT

253

Performance Testing

 

253

Installation Checklist

254

Electrical External Connections

256

Transformer Accessory Component Checkout

256

Pressure-Vacuum Gauge Test

257

Pressure Relief Test

259

Oil-Level Inspection and Test

260

Top-Oil Temperature Inspection and Test

262

Cooling-Fan Inspection and Test

262

Power Cable Termination Checkout

263

TRANSFORMER OPERATIONAL TESTING

 

264

Operational Test

 

264

Complete System Functional Test

264

Types of Transformer Operational Testing

265

Exciting Current Check

265

No-Load Voltage Output (Secondary) Check

265

Voltage Phasing (or Rotation)

266

Synchronizing for Parallel Operation

266

Transformer Noise Level

266

TRANSFORMER OPERATIONAL OBSERVATION PERIOD CHECKS AND INSPECTIONS

269

Transformer and System Temperature Checks

 

269

Transformer Operational Inspection

269

Transformer Operational Problem Inductors

270

Oil Leaks

270

Pressure (Over/Under)

270

Overheating

271

Load

Voltage,

Current,

and

Temperature

Relationship

Checks

271

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE AND FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS

272

In-Service Inspections for Power Transformers

 

272

Current and Voltage Readings

274

Temperature Readings

275

Liquid-Level Indicators

275

Pressure/Vacuum Gauges

275

Gauges and Alarms

276

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

Visual Inspection

276

Analyzing Failure Modes

277

Transformer Failure

277

Out-of-Service Inspections for Power Transformers

280

Insulation Testing

282

Gauges and Alarms

282

Tap Changer

283

Analyzing Oil Test Data in the Transformer Maintenance Records

283

Dielectric Test

284

Oil Power Factor

284

Interfacial Tension Test

285

Visual (Color) Examination

285

Neutralization Number (Acidity)

285

Water Content Test

286

Gas-in-Oil Analysis

286

Range of Combustible Gases (ppm)

286

Combustible Gas Test

287

Dissolved Combustible Gas Testing

288

Dissolved Combustible Gas Analysis

288

Analyzing Electrical Test Data in the Transformer Maintenance Records

290

Insulation Resistance

290

Insulation Power-Factor on Power Transformers

291

Transformer Turns-Ratio

291

ANSI C57 TRANSFORMER FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS METHOD

292

Determination and Investigation of a Failure Occurrence

292

Following a Suspected Failure

292

Investigation Flow Chart

292

Failure Mode Data Collection

293

General Approach

293

On-Site Investigation

293

Electrical Tests

298

Sampling and Tests of Gas and Insulating Fluid

299

Focused Tests

300

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

WORK AID 1: PRE-OPERATIONAL FIELD INSTALLATION CHECKLIST POWER TRANSFORMERS (OIL-IMMERSED)

309

WORK AID 2: FIELD TESTING

310

WORK AID 3: TABLE OF FIELD INSPECTION

311

WORK AID 10: TRANSFORMER TEST METHOD DATA

312

Work Aid 10A:

Turns Ratio Test (TTR)

312

Work Aid 10B:

Polarity Test (3 Methods)

314

Work Aid 10C:

Winding Resistance

316

Work Aid 10D:

Winding Insulation Resistance (Four Types of Tests)

317

Work Aid 10E:

Core Ground Test

322

Work Aid 10F:

Transformer Tank Ground Test

323

Work Aid 10G:

Insulation Power-Factor Test

324

Work Aid 10J:

Oil Test Results Comparison

328

ADDENDUM

329

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.

SAES-P-121 Table of Contents

2

Figure 2.

Sample Information from SAES-P-121

3

Figure 3.

14-SAMSS-531 Table of Contents

5

Figure 3.

14-SAMSS-531 Table of Contents (cont’d)

6

Figure 4.

Sample Information from 14-SAMSS-531

8

Figure 5.

SADP-P-121 Table of Contents

10

Figure 6.

Hysteresis Effects on Magnetic Domains within the Core

17

Figure 7.

Eddy Currents in a Solid Core

19

Figure 8.

Eddy Currents in Insulated Core

19

Figure 9.

Typical Core Construction and Lamination Configuration

21

Figure 10.

Core-Type Construction and Shell-Type Construction

23

Figure 11.

Shell-Type Unit ("Pancake" Coils)

24

Figure 12.

Conventional 3-Phase Core for the Rectangular-Pancake- Interleaved-Coil Sructure (Shell Type)

25

Figure 13.

Cruciform-Type Core

26

Figure 14.

Wound Core

27

Figure 15.

Vertical (Axial) Forces

30

Figure 16.

Horizontal Repulsion (Axial) Force

31

Figure 17.

A Vertical Cross-Section of Major Transformer Components

33

Figure 18.

Hydraulic Dashpot,

34

Figure 19.

Typical Old Type Construction of Shell-Type Transformer

35

Figure 20.

Typical Oil Type Construction of Core-Type Transformer

36

Figure 21.

Typical Bolted Clamping Structure

37

Figure 22.

Typical Simplified Boltless Clamping Structure

37

Figure 23.

Continuously Transposed Multi-Strip Conductor

39

Figure 24.

Insulation Structure for a Core-Form Type Transformer

41

Figure 25.

Oil-Filled Cellulose System

42

Figure 26.

Impulse Strength of Paper Insulation

48

Figure 27.

60 Hz Dielectric Strength of Paper Insulation

48

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

Figure 28.

Sealed Tank Oil Preservation Method

56

Figure 29.

Expansion Tank Oil Preservation Method

57

Figure 30.

Constant Oil Pressure System

58

Figure 31.

Inert-Gas Preservation Method

59

Figure 32.

Gas-Liquid Seal System

60

Figure 33.

Typical Combination Drain Filter Sampling Valve

63

Figure 34.

Transformer Cooling Circuit

65

Figure 35.

Cooling of Core and Coils by Natural Oil Circulation or Thermosiphon Flow

67

Figure 36.

Oil-Immersed, Self-Cooled

68

Figure 37.

Liquid Filled Transformer with Radiators

69

Figure 38.

Oil-Immersed, Self-Cooled Forced-Air Cooled

70

Figure 39.

Liquid Filled Transformer with Radiators and Fans

71

Figure 40.

Liquid Filled Transformer with Top Mounted Cooling Fans

75

Figure 41.

Oil-immersed, Self-Cooled Forced-Air Cooled and 2-Stage Forced- Oil-Cooled Transformer

76

Figure 42.

Oil Circulating Pump

77

Figure 43.

Mechanical Relief Device

79

Figure 44.

Diaphragm Relief Device (Sealed Position)

80

Figure 45.

Typical Pressure Relief Device

81

Figure 46.

Diaphragm Relief with Alarm Device (Venting Position)

83

Figure 47.

Typical Sudden Pressure Relay

85

Figure 48.

Dial Type Liquid Temperature Indicator

88

Figure 49.

Components for Winding Temperature Indicator

90

Figure 50.

Typical Mounting Arrangement of Winding Temperature Indicator and Accessories

91

Figure 51.

Temperature Gradient between Top-Oil, Heated-Sensor,

93

Figure 52.

“Hot-Spot” Indicating Circuit

94

Figure 53.

Connection Diagram for Current Transformer and Heating Coil (Used with Winding Temperature Indicator)

95

Figure 54.

Thermal (or Winding Temperature) Relay

96

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

Figure 55.

Hot-Spot Temperature Indicator

 

98

Figure 56.

Dial-Type Magnetic Liquid-Level Indicator

 

100

Figure 57.

Typical Transformer Nameplate

 

101

Figure 58.

Pressure-Vacuum Gauge

 

104

Figure 58A.

Typical Pressure/Vacuum Indicator

 

105

Figure 58B.

Pressure/Vacuum Gauge and Bleeder Valve Installation

 

106

Figure 59.

Pressure-Vacuum Bleeder

 

107

Figure 60.

Bushing with Draw-Through Cable Leads

 

109

Figure 61.

Bushing with Hollow-Core Conductor

 

111

Figure 62.

Oil-Filled Bushing

 

113

Figure 63.

Core of Condenser Type Bushing without Porcelain Cover and Skirts

114

Figure 64.

Typical

Oil-Filled

and

Condenser

Type

Bushing

for

66

kV

Transformer

 

115

Figure 65.

Condenser Bushing - Oil Impregnated

 

116

Figure 66.

Bushing Current Transformer Mounting

119

Figure 67.

Bushing-Type Current Transformer

119

Figure 68.

Wedge-Type Tap Changing Mechanism

 

121

Figure 69.

Operating Mechanisms

 

122

Figure 70.

Operating Handle for No-Load Tap Changer Set to Position #5

 

123

Figure 71.

Transformer Nameplate with No-load Tap Changer Voltages

 

125

Figure 72.

Typical Automatic Load Tap Changer Installation

 

131

Figure 73.

Position Indicator for Load Tap Changer

 

133

Figure 74.

Load Tap Changer Mounted on a Transformer

135

Figure 75.

UTT-B Load Tap Changer (Internal View)

136

Figure 76.

Phase Assembly

 

137

Figure 77.

UTT-B Load Tap Changer (External View)

 

138

Figure 78.

Typical UTT-B Load Tap Changer Schematic Connection Diagram with Sequence Chart

139

Figure 79.

Control System Block Diagram

 

142

Figure 80.

Regulator Control Functions

144

Figure 81A.

Typical Transformer Tap Changer Control Circuit

 

146

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

Figure 81B.

Typical Transformer Tap Changer Control Circuit

147

Figure 82.

Installation Using Parallel Transformers

150

Figure 83.

Typical Paralleling Control Scheme

152

Figure 84.

Typical Transformer Nameplate

156

Figure 85A.

Typical Transformer Nameplate

158

Figure 85B.

Typical Transformer Nameplate

159

Figure 86.

Transformer Turn-Ratio (TTR) Test Set

176

Figure 87.

Schematic Diagram for Transformer Turns-Ratio (TTR) Test Set

177

Figure 88.

TTR Polyphase Transformer Connections

178

Figure 89.

TTR Set Indications when Balanced

179

Figure 90.

Sample TTR Readings (Set One)

182

Figure 91.

Sample TTR Readings (Set Two)

184

Figure 92.

LV/HV Winding Markings/ Polarity Voltage Reading Method Polarity Test

186

Figure 93.

Voltmeter Flick-Method Polarity Test

188

Figure 94.

Angular Displacements

189

Figure 95.

Bridge Network Connections

191

Figure 96.

Wheatstone Bridge

192

Figure 97.

Digital Low-Resistance Ohmmeter

193

Figure 98.

Connections for Measuring Transformer Winding Resistance

195

Figure 99.

Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Insulation-Resistance of a Typical Single-Phase (Two-Winding) Transformer

200

Figure 100.

Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Insulation-Resistance of a Typical Three-Phase Delta-Wye Transformer

201

Figure 101.

Digital Low-Resistance Ohmmeter

205

Figure 102.

Dielectric Loss of Each Capacitor Divided by Capacitive Volt- Amperes is Equal to Power Factor

208

Figure 103.

Typical Insulation Power Factor Test Data

210

Figure 104.

Typical Two-Winding Transformer Simplified Diagram

211

Figure 105.

Typical Power Factor Test Data and Calculated Test Results

213

Figure 106.

Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Capacitance and Insulation Power Factor from the High-Voltage Winding to the Low-Voltage Winding and Ground for a Two-Winding, Single-Phase Transformer

216

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

Figure 107.

Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Capacitance and Insulation Power Factor from the High-Voltage Winding to the Low-Voltage Winding and Ground for a Three-Phase Delta-Wye Transformer

217

Figure 108.

Insulating Fluid Dielectric Test Set

225

Figure 109.

Effects of Water in Insulating Oil

226

Figure 110.

Field Test Kit for Insulating Fluid Acidity

228

Figure 111.

Electric Strength of Transformer Oil vs. Water Content

231

Figure 112.

Insulating Fluid Sample Kit

235

Figure 113.

Comparing Oil-Test Results

236

Figure 114.

Comparative Rates of Evolution of Gases from Oil as a Function of Decomposition Energy

242

Figure 115.

Gas Sample Kit

248

Figure 116.

Typical Sampling Kit for Gas-in-Fluid Analysis

250

Figure 117.

Sampling Kit for PCB Analysis

252

Figure 118.

Pressure-Vacuum Gauge Calibration and Press-Relief Device Test

258

Figure 119.

Typical Transformer Nameplate

261

Figure 120.

Transformer In-Service Inspection Report for Dry-Type and Liquid- Filled Transformers

273

Figure 121.

Oil-Filled and Pad-

Figure 122.

Typical Out-of-Service Inspection Report for Mounted Transformers

Suggested Investigation Flowchart that Forms the Basic for this Guide

281

294

Figure 126.

Form P-025 (7/94) Sheet 1 of 8

338

Figure 127.

Form P-025 (7/94) Sheet 2 of 8

339

Figure 128.

Form P-025 (7/94) Sheet 3 of 8

340

Figure 129.

Form P-025 (7/94) Sheet 4 of 8

341

Figure 130.

Form P-025 (7/94) Sheet 5 of 8

342

Figure 132.

Form P-025 (7/94) Sheet 6 of 8

343

Figure 135.

Form P-025 (7/94) Sheet 7 of 8

344

Figure 136.

Form P-025 (7/94) Sheet 8 of 8

345

Figure C1.

Ungrounded Specimen Test on Transformer Bushings

362

Figure C2.

Typical Field Test Data for a Large Transformer Bushing, Undergrounded Specimen Test (UST)

363

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

Figure C3.

Hot-Collar Test Method for Testing of Bushing Insulators

 

364

Figure C4.

Typical Field Test Data–Bushing Hot-Collar Tests

 

365

Figure C5.

Liquid Insulation Cell Connected for Ungrounded Specimen Testing

367

Figure C6.

Measurement of I e in a Single-Phase Transformer

 

369

Figure C7.

Measurement of I e in a Wye-Connected Transformer Winding

 

370

Figure C8.

Measurement of I e in a Delta-Connected Transformer Winding

371

Figure C9.

Variation

of

Power

Factor

with

the

Moisture

Content

of

Oil-

Impregnated Pressboard

 

372

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

PURPOSE AND USAGE WITHIN SAUDI ARAMCO

Power transformer are used in Saudi Aramco as the main power supply from distribution systems all the way up to transmission systems. The power rating of these devices can range from 750 kVA up to 1,000 MVA. All Saudi Aramco Plant facilities use power transformers with voltage levels from 230 kV primary and transformed down through several steps to the secondary distribution system at 480 V. The construction and application of these devices have rigid standards (ANSI) because of their importance, the amount of power they handle, and cost.

Applicable Standards

The engineer must consult these types of standards for specifications concerning Power transformers:

• Saudi Aramco Standards, Specifications, Practices and Form

– Saudi Aramco Engineering standards (SAES)

– Saudi Aramco Material System Specifications (SAMSS)

– Saudi Aramco Design Practices (SADP)

– Electrical Pre-Commissioning Form (Form P-025)

• Industry Standards

– National Electrical Code (NEC)

– National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards

For specifications on the power transformer, the engineer consults these Saudi Aramco standards:

SAES-P-121 - “Transformers, Reactors, Voltage Regulators,” contains the minimum requirements for the design and installation of transformers, reactors, voltage regulating transformers, and instrument transformers. Do not deviate from the requirements of this standard. Any deviations that reduce the requirements must have written approval from the Saudi Aramco Chief Engineer, Dhahran. User/specifier requirements that exceed the minimum requirements need no waiver approval. The Saudi Aramco Chief Engineer also must resolve any conflicts between this standard and other SAESs, SAMSSs, codes, forms, and SADPs.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

The major topics discussed in this standard are as follows:

• Material Requirements

• kVA Rating of Power and Voltage Regulating Transformers

• Installation

This standard has six chapters. Figure 1 shows the table of contents.

CHAPTER

SUBJECT

PAGE

1

SCOPE

2

2

CONFLICTS AND DEVIATIONS

2

3

APPLICABLE CODES AND STANDARDS

2

4

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

3

5

kVA RATINGS OF POWER AND VOLTAGE REGULATING TRANSFORMERS

5

6

INSTALLATION

7

Figure 1. SAES-P-121 Table of Contents

Figure 2 shows a sample of the type of information contained in SAES-P-121.

*NOTE: 5.4 - This is intended for the lone transformer carrying both loads not to exceed manufacture temperature limit for transformer insulation damage.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

5

kVA

RATING

OF

POWER

AND

VOLTAGE

REGULATING

TRANSFORMERS

 

5.1

Transformers shall be supplied with ANSI Standard preferred kVA Ratings at normal service condition, unless otherwise specified on SAMSS Data

Schedule-1

 

5.2

The minimum OA self-cooled kVA rating of each OA/FA transformers shall be equal to the maximum operating load, plus projected future load

5.3

For transformers that are self-cooled only, a 10 percent load growth factor shall be added to the calculated load )maximum operating load plus projected future load).

5.4

The forced-cooled FA site rating of each transformer serving a double- ended substation shall be capable of feeding the entire load of both buses with the bus-tie breaker closed.

5.5

Forced-air cooling fans and controls shall be provided on all transformers rated 2500 kVA or larger. On transformers smaller than 2500 kVA, forced- air cooling shall not be provided.

5.6

Two stages of forced cooling shall be allowed for transformers with OA ratings of 90 MVA or larger. The forced cooling may be forced air (FA) and/or forced-oil-air (FOA).

Figure 2. Sample Information from SAES-P-121

SAES-P-119 - This standard prescribes the minimum mandatory requirements for the design and installation of on-shore power substations. This standard provides the definition for a substation and the type and size of transformer required. It provides the orientation of the transformer within the substation yard. This also states when to use lightning arrester on transformers.

Table of Contents

1 Table of Contents

2 Conflicts and Deviations

3 Applicable Codes and Standards

4 General

5 Substation Buildings

6 Substation Yards

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

SAES-P-114 - This standard prescribes the minimum mandatory requirements for the design and installation of protective relaying for power systems and equipment. Chapter 7 deals with transformer protective devices and schemes for power and distribution transformers. The major interests are the sections dealing with pad-mounted distribution and pole-mounted distribution transformers, as well as the inherent devices built as part of the transformer such as:

• Pressure-rise relay (device 63T, 63GT)

• Overtemperature devices (device 49T)

• Low oil level indicator

• Lockout relays (device 86T1, 86T2, 87T3)

Chapter 7 Table of Contents

7.1 General

7.2 Transformer protection schemes

7.3 Protection device application requirements

7.4 Fuse protection of transformers

Saudi Aramco Material System Specifications

The 14-SAMSS-Series specifications contain the minimum technical requirements for power transformers used in Saudi Aramco electrical systems. Engineers should use these documents when specifying new power transformers. As with the SAES’s, any deviations that reduce the requirements must have written approval from the Saudi Aramco Consulting Services Division (CSD), Dhahran. User/specifier requirements that exceed the minimum requirements need no waiver approval.

SAMSS’s do not directly state all of the specifications for new power transformers. Saudi Aramco’s practice is to adopt the ANSI standard specifications for transformers, and then modify the ANSI specifications to meet the specific requirements of Saudi Aramco installations. The modifications consist of exceptions, deletions, and additions to the ANSI standards.

The ANSI standard that is the base document for the transformer specifications is referenced in chapter D of each applicable SAMSS. The modifications to the base document are listed through use of numbers that refer to the sections of the ANSI standard to be changed. The type of modification is listed in parenthesis next to the ANSI standard section number.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

14-SAMSS-531 (Power Transformers) - Figure 3 shows the table of contents. Chapter D in the table of contents shows that the base documents for this standard are ANSI C57.12.10- 1977 and ANSI C57.12.30-1977. 14-SAMSS-531 is more difficult to interpret than most Saudi Aramco standards because ANSI C57.12.30-1977 no longer exists in the latest revision of ANSI C57. A previous revision of the ANSI standards combined ANSI C57.12.10 and ANSI C57.12.30 into a single standard. The new standard is ANSI C57.12.10-1988.

CHAPTER

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

A

SCOPE

3

B

REFERENCES

3

C

FIELD EXPERIENCE

3

D

MODIFICATIONS TO ANSI C57.12.10-1977 (INDICATED BY (10) & C57.12.30-1977 (INDICATED BY (30)

4

SECTION A C57.12.10-1977 & C57.12.30-1977

4

PART I. BASIC ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS

4

4

Ratings

4

5

Insulation Level

5

6

Impedance Voltage

5

8

Routine Test

6

9

Construction

6

PART II. OTHER REQUIREMENTS THAT MAY BE SPECIFIED FOR SOME APPLICATIONS

9

10

Other Ratings

9

11

Other Tests

9

12

Other Construction

9

Figure 3. 14-SAMSS-531 Table of Contents

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Transformers

CHAPTER

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

 

SECTION B C57.12.10-1977 & C57.12.30-1977

13

PART I. BASIC ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS

13

14

Ratings

13

15

Insulation Level

13

16

Impedance Voltage

14

18

Routine Tests

14

19

Construction

14

PART II. OTHER REQUIREMENTS THAT MAY BE SPECIFIED FOR SOME APPLICATIONS

15

20

Other Ratings

15

21

Other Tests

15

22

Other Construction

15

E

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

16

ATTACHMENTS

Data Schedule-1 (Data to be supplied by Buyer)

Data Schedule-2 (Data to be supplied by each Bidder)

Figure 3. 14-SAMSS-531 Table of Contents (cont’d)

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The section numbers and required modifications contained in 14-SAMSS-531 refer to specific sections of ANSI C57.12.10-1977 and ANSI C57.12.30-1977 that must be changed to meet the needs of Saudi Aramco installations. A direct correlation of the required modifications no longer exists between the section numbers in the revised version of ANSI C57.12.10-1988 and the section numbers in 14-SAMSS-531. However, the engineer must still incorporate the modifications contained in 14-SAMSS-531 when developing specifications for new power transformer installations.

The engineer should use the most recent revision of the applicable ANSI standard (ANSI C57.12.10-1988) as the base document for developing new power transformer specifications. The specifications in the base document should then be modified as required by 14-SAMSS- 531. The engineer will have to carefully read and study ANSI C57.12.10-1988 and 14- SAMSS-531 to determine the specific sections of ANSI C57.12.10-1988 to which the modifications in 14-SAMSS-531 apply. Conflicts or questions concerning the requirements contained in ANSI C57.12.10-1988 and 14-SAMSS-531 should be resolved in the same fashion as any other conflict between a Saudi Aramco and an Industry Standard. Deviations that reduce the requirements of 14-SAMSS-531 must have written approval from the Saudi Aramco Consulting Services Division (CSD), Dhahran. ANSI C57.12.10-1988 requirements that exceed the minimum requirements of 14-SAMSS-531 need no waiver approval.

Figure 4 shows a sample of the type of information found in 14-SAMSS-531.

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9.1 (10) (Addition)

The minimum BIL Levels of winding bushings

shall be as shown in the following table, unless specified otherwise in Data Schedule-1:

Nominal Voltage (kV)

Bushing BIL Level (kV)

2.4

60

4.16

75

13.8

110

34.5

200

69

350

115

650

9.1.2

(10)

(Exception) Outdoor bushing shall have minimum creepage

9.1.2

(30)

of 40 mm per kV Line-to-Line of nominal system voltage.

9.1.3

(10)

(Exception) Type and location of bushings shall be as specified on

9.1.3

(30)

Data Schedule-1

9.1.4

(10)

(Exception) Type and location of bushing for wye-connected low

9.1.4

(30)

voltage windings shall be as specified on the Data Schedule-1

9.2

(10)

(Exception) All accessories listed in Figure 2 shall be furnished for

9.2

(30)

all transformers

9.2.1

(20)

(Addition) The type of tap changer for de-energized or for load tap

9.2.1

(30)

changing operation shall be as specified on Data Schedule-1

9.2.2 (Addition) A magnetic liquid level gauge shall be provided with all transformers. The alarm contacts shall be rated and wired in accordance with Section 12.3.6 of the ANSI Standard.

9.2.3 (Addition) A magnetic liquid level gauge shall be provided with all transformers. The two electrically separate sets of contacts shall be rated and wired in accordance with Section 12.3.6 of this ANSI Standard.

9.2.4 (Addition) A pressure-vacuum gauge shall be provided on all transformers equipped with a sealed tank oil preservation system. The two electrically separate sets of contacts shall be rated and wired in accordance with Section 12.3.6.1 of this ANSI Standard.

9.2.5 (Addition) Valves shall be provided on each transformer equipped with detachable radiators to enable these radiators to be removed without affecting the liquid in the tank. The tank drain valves shall be padlocked.

9.4.5 (30)

(10)

(10)

(10)

(10)

Figure 4. Sample Information from 14-SAMSS-531

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14-SAMSS-534 (Overhead-Type Distribution Transformers) - The base document for 14- SAMSS-534 is ANSI C57.12.20-1981. The most recent version of this ANSI standard is ANSI C57.12.20-1988. The engineer should use ANSI C57.12.20-1988 as the base document for developing new overhead-type distribution transformer specifications. The specifications in the base document should then be modified as required by 14-SAMSS-534.

14-SAMSS-534 is also less difficult to interpret than 14-SAMSS-531 because a direct

correlation still exists between the section numbers in the revised version of ANSI C57.12.20- 1988 and the section numbers of the modifications required by 14-SAMSS-534. Conflicts or questions concerning the requirements contained in ANSI C57.12.20-1988 and 14-SAMSS-

534 should be resolved in the same fashion as any other conflict between a Saudi Aramco and

an Industry Standard. Deviations that reduce the requirements of 14-SAMSS-534 must have written approval from the Saudi Aramco Consulting Services Division (CSD), Dhahran.

ANSI C57.12.20-1988 requirements that exceed the minimum requirements of 14-SAMSS-

534 need no waiver approval.

14-SAMSS-534 has the same type of information as 14-SAMSS-531. The information simply applies to a different type of transformer.

Saudi Aramco Design Practices

SADP’s give the background information needed to explain, amplify, and apply the mandatory requirements of the SAES’s and SAMSS’s. The information in the SADP’s is not mandatory and not necessarily up-to-date. Written approval is not needed to deviate from the SADP’s. In case of conflict between an SADP and an SAES/SAMSS, the SAES/SAMSS govern. Capital letters are used in some statements of the text in the SADP’s. These statements are mandatory because they come from the SAES’s, SAMSS’s, and SAMD’s. Reference the SADP’s when tutorial or background information is needed on the selection, specification, or troubleshooting of transformers. These are the SADP’S the engineer refers to concerning power transformers

• SADP-P-121

• SADP-P-431

• SADP-P-434

SADP-P-121 (Transformers) - This design practice has two parts. Part one has a single page. The statements on the page give the rationale for the technical requirements in SAES-P-

121 that are not obvious. The basis of the rationale is many years of Aramco's experience.

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Part two contains twelve chapters of information. Figure 5 shows the Table of Contents. This part of the SADP has tutorial information. Use this information to clarify the technical requirements given in the SAES’s and SAMSS’s. The sections that follow give the scope of each chapter.

CHAPTER

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

1

TRANSFORMER-INTRODUCTION

13

2

POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

31

3

TRANSFORMER THERMAL RATING

41

4

TRANSFORMERS IMPEDANCES AND VOLTAGES

53

5

TRANSFORMER INSULATION

71

6

TRANSFORMER ENCLOSURE

80

7

TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS AND TERMINATIONS

84

8

TRANSFORMER AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT

95

9

TRANSFORMER PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

102

10

TRANSFORMER TESTING AND DELIVERY

109

11

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

115

12

SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS

129

Figure 5. SADP-P-121 Table of Contents

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These are the subjects of the listed chapters:

1. Selection, application, and general specifications of transformers for use in Saudi Aramco installations

2. Requirements and general guidelines for these types of transformers used by Saudi Aramco:

Power

Distribution

Auxiliary Power

Non-Flammable Insulating Liquid Filled

Conventional Dry-Type

Cast-Resin Type

3. Thermal aspects of transformers, including temperature rise, service conditions, and methods of cooling

4. Selection of transformer impedance values and tap ranges

5. Selection of transformer withstand levels, voltage surge suppression, insulating liquids, and oil preservation techniques

6. Selection of enclosures for transformers

7. General requirements and conventions of terminal connections for all types of transformers, except instrument transformers, also covers the operation of transformers in parallel and disconnecting facilities

8. Selection of transformer accessories, including tap changers, and monitoring and protection equipment

9. Requirements for tolerances, losses, and noise levels, and how to capitalize losses

10. General requirements and policies adopted with regard to factory testing and inspections

11. Requirements

transformers

of

current

transformers

and

inductively

coupled

voltage

12. Reactors and special types of power transformers

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SADP-P-431 - gives the rationale for the technical requirements of 14-SAMSS-531 that are not obvious.

SADP-P-434 - gives the rationale for the technical requirements of 14-SAMSS-534 that are not obvious.

Industry Standards

Saudi Aramco Standards often reference Industry Standards. This practice eliminates the need to rewrite all the applicable Industry Standards into Saudi Aramco Standards. Instead, the Saudi Aramco Standards give exceptions, additions, or deletions to the industry standards. The following Industry Standards contain information that pertains to selection, specification, and troubleshooting of transformers:

• National Electrical Code (NEC)

• National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)

• International Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards

• National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards

National Electrical Code - The purpose of the NEC is the practical safeguarding of persons and property from the hazards of using electricity. The NEC only contains provisions needed for safety and does not guarantee an efficient, convenient, expandable installation.

The specific section of the NEC that contains information pertinent to the selection and specification of transformers is Article 450. The title of Article 450 is “Transformers and Transformer Vaults”. This article applies to all transformers except the following:

• Current transformers

• Power transformers that constitute a component part of other apparatus and comply with the requirements for such apparatus as motor control centers or potential transformers (PT's)

• Transformers

an electrostatic-coating apparatus

are

that

integral

part

of

an

X-ray,

high-frequency,

or

• Transformers for use with Class 2 or Class 3 circuits that comply with Article 725-3(b) (such as communications small transformers)

Transformers for sign and outline lighting that comply with Article 600

• Transformers for electric-discharge lighting that comply with Article 410

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Electrical Power Transformers

• Transformers for use with power-limited fire protective signaling circuits that comply with Part C of Article 760

• Liquid-filled or dry-type transformers for use in research, development, or testing, where effective arrangements are provided to safeguard unqualified persons from contacting high-voltage terminals or energized conductors

Article 450 is divided into three major sections: part A, part B, and part C. Part A contains the general provisions for all covered transformers. Part B contains specific provisions applicable to different types of transformers. Part C contains the provisions for transformer vaults.

National Electrical Safety Code - The purpose of the rules in the NESC is the practical safeguarding of persons during the installation, operation, or maintenance of electric supply and communication lines, and associated equipment. The rules contain the basic provisions needed for the safety of employees and the public under the specified conditions.

Part 1, Section 15 has specific information on transformers. General Safety rules related to troubleshooting and maintaining industrial/utility type electrical equipment are found throughout the text.

ANSI/IEEE Standards and Guidelines - The Industry Standards used most often in selection, specification, and troubleshooting of power transformers are ANSI/IEEE Standards.

IEEE standards give information on how to produce, test, measure, and buy equipment. This information is the consensus opinion of a group of subject matter experts. The requirements and procedures given in the standards are useful when selecting, specifying, and troubleshooting power transformers.

ANSI does not write standards. ANSI adopts standards written by other organizations. ANSI standards give a uniform method of manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, and using a given piece of equipment. This information is useful when selecting, specifying, or troubleshooting transformers.

ANSI has adopted most of the IEEE standards that relate to transformers. All the applicable standards are available in a single book titled “C57,” which is the name of this collective group of standards. C57 contains information on distribution, power, and regulating transformers. These standards should be used when Saudi Aramco Standards reference them.

C57.12.00 is “General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers.” This standard gives the basis for the establishment of performance, limited electrical and mechanical interchangeability, and safety requirements. C57.12.00 also gives assistance in selecting the right equipment.

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C57.12.10 is “230 kV and Below 833/958 through 8333/10,417 kVA, Single- Phase, and 750/862 through 60,000/80,000/100,000 kVA, Three-Phase Without Load Tap Changing; and 3750/4687 through 60,000/80,000/100,000 kVA with Load Tap Changing-Safety Requirements.” This standard covers certain electrical, dimensional, and mechanical characteristics. C57.12.10 considers certain safety features of 60-HZ, two-winding, liquid-immersed transformers of the ratings covered.

C57.12.90 is “Standard Test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers and Guide for Short-Circuit Testing of Distribution and Power Transformers.” This standard describes the methods for performing tests specified in C57.12.00. C57.12.90 also describes other standards applicable to liquid-immersed distribution, power, and regulating transformers. C57.12.90 is intended for use as a basis for performance, safety, and proper testing of transformers.

C57.13 is “Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers.” This standard is intended for use as a basis for performance, interchangeability, and safety of the equipment covered. C57.13 also helps in selecting the right instrument transformers.

C57.92 is “Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil Immersed Power Transformers Up to and Including 100 MVA with 55°C or 65°C Average Winding Rise.” This standard covers the general recommendations for loading mineral-oil immersed power transformers.

The ANSI/IEEE standard the engineer uses to find information on the power transformers is C57.12.10, “230 kV and Below 833/958 through 8333/10,417 kVA, Single-Phase, and 750/862 through 60,000/80,000/100,000 kVA, Three-Phase without Load Tap-Changing; and 3750/4687 through 60,000/80,000/100,000 kVA with Load Tap Changing-Safety Requirements.” This standard is intended for use as a basis for determining performance, interchangeability, and safety of the equipment covered. C57.12.10 also helps in selecting the right equipment.

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Electrical Power Transformers

CONSTRUCTION

The construction of a power transformer deals with these components or assemblies of components:

• Core

• Coil or Winding Assembly

• Insulation System

• Enclosure Types (Tank)

– Control Cabinet

Fill and Drain Valves

• Cooling System

• Accessories

– Faults Gas Detector Relays

– Indicators

Pressure Relief Devices

– Bushings

– No-load Tap Changers

– Load Tap Changers

– Bushing Current Transformers

Core

The construction of a power transformer starts with the core. In its simplest form, the transformer consists of two coils which are mutually coupled. When the coupling is provided through a ferromagnetic ring (circular or otherwise), the transformer is called an iron-core transformer. When there is no ferromagnetic material but only air, the device is described as an air-core transformer. The air-core type transformers are usually very small type transformers used for small electrical and electronic circuits. This module will only pay attention exclusively to iron-core type transformers.

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Core Material

The core is made of steel alloy because its molecular structure allows the material to carry and hold a magnetic flow 10,000 times greater than air. Steel alloy is a much better conductor of magnetic flux than air.

The material used for the transformer core is selected to afford its molecules the greatest ease in reversing their position as the AC magnetic field reverses its direction. As they reverse themselves, the friction developed between these magnetic molecular particles creates heat. This action causes a core or iron loss known as hysteresis (Figure 6). This hysteresis loss is minimized by using a special grade of heat-treated and cold-rolled grain-oriented silicon steel alloy sheet. The two important parameters that affect the core are the core design and the core material. Both the design and material are chosen to reduce the reluctance of the flux path. This reduces the amount of excitation current required to induce flux into the core and the amount of power lost due to circulating currents, eddy currents and hysteresis.

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Electrical

Power Transformers

N

A B
A
B
N S N N S N S N S N S S
N
S
N
N
S
N S
N
S
N
S S
S N S N S N S S N S N
S
N
S
N
S
N
S
S
N
S
N

N

Random molecular structure of core before energized

+ Polarized molecular structure of core during first positive part of sine wave

C D
C
D
N N S S S S N S N N S
N
N
S
S
S
S
N
S
N
N S

N

Residual magnetizism of core during zero crossing of sine wave

S N S N S N S N S
S
N S
N
S
N
S
N S

N

N

S

- Polarized molecular structure of core during first negative part of sine wave

Figure 6. Hysteresis Effects on Magnetic Domains within the Core

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Electrical Power Transformers

Eddy currents are core or iron losses that are due to a current flow in the core from the primary induced voltage. The current flow results in a power loss because it represents a portion of the primary flux that is not transferred to the secondary windings. This current flow in the core is like small circular paths through the material. These swirling currents get their name from their resemblance to eddies in a pond of water (Figure 7). Eddy currents are minimized in transformer design by constructing the core from a number of insulated, laminated sections. This reduces the magnitude of eddy currents since current cannot flow across the insulation between laminations where the eddy currents are confined to smaller areas. This limits the total eddy current losses of the transformer (Figure 8).

The metallic composition of the transformer core is made of special high grade silicon sheet steel. A typical sheet of steel is 0.3 mm (0.014 inch) thick. These sheets of steel are laminated into sections that are several inches wide. The core laminations are provided to help reduce eddy currents or currents induced into the iron parts of the unit. Each of the laminations are coated with an insulating material. This coating helps to prevent magnetic losses and reduces heating losses.

The core is the major part of the magnetic circuit along with a clamping structure. It is part of the transformer magnetic field that oscillates.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Transformers Figure 7. Eddy Currents in a Solid Core Figure 8. Eddy

Figure 7. Eddy Currents in a Solid Core

Power Transformers Figure 7. Eddy Currents in a Solid Core Figure 8. Eddy Currents in Insulated
Power Transformers Figure 7. Eddy Currents in a Solid Core Figure 8. Eddy Currents in Insulated

Figure 8. Eddy Currents in Insulated Core

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Core Assembly

The core assembly is constructed by stacking individual laminations in accordance with the pattern and configuration selected by the designer. Some of the basic types of core construction and lamination configurations are shown in Figure 9. In all types the layers of laminations are placed so that the air gaps between lamination ends of one layer are overlapped by the laminations in the next layer. For any interleaved joint it is important to minimize the gap (and thus reduce possible eddy currents) between abutting plates.

Example: If the gap in a joint were only 1/1000 of an inch, the magnetizing current to push the flux across each gap would be equivalent to 10,000 times or 10 inches of steel for each gap. The gap would materially increase the exciting current. This is why the test for the no- load excitation current is valuable.

Example: If a unit is moved from one location to another, shipped over land by rail or truck, or is rewound, the no-load excitation current will verify a good transformer or damaged in shipment.

For small distribution transformers the cores are built from strip wound loops (Figure 10). The wound core is spirally constructed from a continuous strip of cold rolled steel and is cut at every other turn to permit assembly. This type core is primarily used for smaller core construction.

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Electrical Power Transformers

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Transformers Figure 9. Typical Core Construction and Lamination Configuration

Figure 9. Typical Core Construction and Lamination Configuration

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Electrical Power Transformers

Types of Transformer Core Construction

That transformer core design has four different classes:

• Core type

• Shell type

• Cruciform type

• Wound type

Core Type – The core type is one of two types of transformer core constructions. This refers to the arrangements of the steel core with reference to the windings. In the core-type transformer, the magnetic circuit takes the form of a single ring encircled by two or more groups of primary and secondary windings distributed around the periphery of the ring (Figure 10). Core type means (in the USA) coils are cylindrical and concentric (the outer winding over the inner). This type of design has an inherently simpler insulation structure and are easier to build. Core form designs are typically used for most medium and small power transformers.

Shell Type – The shell type is the second major type of transformer core construction. This also refers to the arrangement of the steel core with reference to the windings. The shell-type transformer core has the primary and secondary windings take the form of a common ring which is encircled by two or more rings of magnetic material distributed around its periphery (Figure 11). The shell type denotes large pancake coils which are stacked or interleaved to make primary and secondary groups (Figure 12). Primary-secondary-primary (PSP) grouping is common but primary-secondary-primary-secondary-primary (PSPSP) is also often used. In actual practice the cylindrical-concentric coil structure is sometimes used with an enclosing (shell-form) core in single-phase or with a five-legged core in three-phase to reduce overall height. Figure 12 show the conventional three-phase shell form core with the coils in section. Generally, shell-form provides greater mechanical strength, good voltage impulse distribution and better conductor cooling, but the shell-form construction is more complex and costly. Because of these, shell-form designs are usually used on large power transformers ³ (100 MVA) where high strength for through faults and good voltage distribution of voltage impulses are important.

Cruciform Type – The cruciform-type of transformer core is made like a larger plus sign (+). This type of core is often used for economy and is common on very small sizes of transformers. This type transformer has coils that are made cylindrical in shape, which enables the insulation to have a higher factor of safety since there are no sharp bends in the insulating material and a better opportunity for the radiation of heat. Both of these factors permit the use of less material for a given output (Figure 13).

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Wound Type – The wound-type transformer core construction is used from small distribution transformers. These cores are built from strip wound loops (Figure 14). The wound core is spirally constructed from a continuous strip of cold rolled steel and is cut at every other turn to permit assembly. Nevertheless, its practical use has been generally limited to smaller core construction. For smaller transformers where wound cores are used, the manufacturer does stress annealing after cutting the core. Using stacked cores, the steel laminations are frequently given an additional layer of this organic polymer coating.

The two major type of transformer core construction are the core type and the shell type. These two will be the only forms discussed further in this module on power transformers.

Insulating Tube Laminated Cores
Insulating
Tube
Laminated Cores

Core Type

L. V. Winding

H. V. Winding

Shell Type

Cores Core Type L. V. Winding H. V. Winding Shell Type L. V. Winding H. V.

L.

V. Winding

H.

V. Winding

Figure 10. Core-Type Construction and Shell-Type Construction

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Electrical Power Transformers

Insulation

Core Primary Coil Secondary Coil Spacers
Core
Primary Coil
Secondary Coil
Spacers

Ventilation Ducts

Figure 11. Shell-Type Unit ("Pancake" Coils)

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Electrical Power Transformers

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Electrical Power Transformers Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Primary Coil Secondary Coil Primary Coil Core

Primary Coil

Secondary Coil

Primary Coil

Core

Insulation

Figure 12. Conventional 3-Phase Core for the Rectangular-Pancake- Interleaved-Coil Sructure (Shell Type) (The groups of pancake coils may be round or rectangular.)

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical

Power Transformers

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Transformers Primary HV Winding Insulation Cruciform Core Secondary LV Winding

Primary HV

Winding

Insulation

Cruciform Core

Secondary LV

Winding

Figure 13. Cruciform-Type Core

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Electrical Power Transformers

Rolling Direction and Flux Path

Power Transformers Rolling Direction and Flux Path Core Area Figure 14. Wound Core Saudi Aramco DeskTop

Core Area

Figure 14. Wound Core

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Electrical Power Transformers

Grounding of Core

The laminated magnetic core of a liquid filled is insulated from ground, and then by design grounded at one point to maintain its potential at ground level. This prevents the flow of circulating currents which causes additional heating. Then, by design, the core is grounded at one point only for the following reasons:

• Place core at ground potential.

• Remove static charges.

• Prevent core voltage from electrically varing.

• Provide protection during a winding to core contact or short.

When more than one ground on the core occurs circulating currents will flow which adds heat to the transformer and increase the ambient noise level.

Lack of a ground will cause the core to float at elevated potential because of induced voltage. Most power transformers have a flexible bolted connection at top near the top cover of the tank.

The insulation between the laminations is only a few ohms resistance but is sufficiently high to prevent damaging eddy currents within the core and at the same time is sufficiently low to permit the entire core to be effectively grounded by a connection to only one of the laminations.

The core connection is usually located at the top of the transformer on same designs, this connection is not solid but instead is made through a heavy-duty resistor in the 250 to 1000 ohm range. A resistor in this range still accomplishes the effect grounding of the core, and at the same time limits circulating currents. This ground connected is usually conveniently mounted under a manhole at the top of the transformer.

Shell-form transformers may have more than one ground because it is not important that the laminations be grounded in only one spot, since the flux distribution in this type of unit differ from core-form transformers.

Coil or Winding Assembly

Transformer coils are designed to get the required number of turns into a minimum of space. Additionally, the cross-section of the conductor must be large enough to carry the current without overheating and sufficient space must be provided for the insulation and for cooling paths, if any. These coils may be made of copper or aluminum, the choice depends on the cost to achieve the low resistance and small space requirements.

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For small units, the coil size may be round, insulated with cotton, enamel, shellac, varnish, paper, or a combination of these. For larger units, the wire may be square or rectangular ribbon, usually insulated with oil impregnated paper. Where transformer operation at high temperatures is desired, special glass or asbestos insulation may be used. The insulation should be provided not only for normal operating voltages, but also for surges of high voltage resulting from lightning or switching.

Core-Type Coils

In core-type transformers, the low voltage coils are usually placed next to the core and the high voltage coils external and concentric with them. This reduces the insulation requirements of both coils. If the high voltage winding was placed next to the core, two layers of high voltage insulation would be required, one next to the core and the other between the two windings (Figure 10). Sometimes, where large and heavy connections are involved, this arrangement may be reversed.

The high voltage windings may be separated from the low voltage windings by insulating cylinders. The high voltage may be composed of several disc shaped coils, each disc insulated from others by insulating strips. If the windings were placed on separate legs of the core, a relatively large amount of the flux produced by the primary windings would fail to link the secondary winding, resulting in a large loss in effectiveness of the flux.

Shell-Type Coils

In shell-type transformer, "pancake construction" is often used (Figure 11). Here, the high voltage and low voltage coils are alternately place around the core, with the required insulation between them, each coil having the rough appearance of a pancake. Often, space is left between coils for cooling purposes. Such an arrangement of coils reduces the reactance between the coils and improves the operation of the transformer, particularly the large-size transformers, where heavy currents are experienced. The shell-type transformers also make arrangements for air cooling paths simpler and easier to provide.

Coil Stress

The coils in transformers that are energized and loaded have mechanical and electrical stresses at all times. All coils which carry currents in the same direction attract one another and coils which carry currents in opposite directions repel one another. Hence, all the coils of the primary attract one another as do all the coils of the secondary. However, primary coils repel the secondary coils and vice-versa. Under normal operating conditions, these forces are relatively small. In case of short circuit or the carrying of very large currents, these forces may become great enough to damage the transformer if the coils are not adequately supported.

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The short circuit stresses that interact between windings result in both horizontal and vertical electromagnetic forces.

The vertical or axial forces causes the low voltage and high voltage windings to shift with respect to each other, a condition called telescoping (Figure 15). These forces make the windings take positions that will increase the magnetic flux of the system. If two windings are in series, the electromagnetic varies as the square of current. Example: A short circuit current 20 times normal will produce (20) 2 , or 400 times, the normal stress.

The vertical force between primary and secondary windings results because it is impossible to exactly balance the low- and high-voltage electrical-center lines. This vertical force is the hardest to design for.

lines. This vertical force is the hardest to design for. Figure 15. Vertical (Axial) Forces (Between

Figure 15. Vertical (Axial) Forces (Between High- and Low-Voltage Coils in Core-Form Transformers in Through Short Circuit)

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The horizontal force (radial or hoop) is the major force (Figure 16). The principal component of leakage flux is axial and its interaction with the circumferential winding currents produces radial forces acting in the outward direction on the outer winding and in the inward direction on the inner winding.

winding and in the inward direction on the inner winding. Figure 16. Horizontal Repulsion (Axial) Force

Figure 16. Horizontal Repulsion (Axial) Force (Between High- and Low-Voltage Coils in Core-Form Transformers in Through Short Circuit)

Coils and core must be mechanically capable of withstanding these short-circuit stresses. Where the coils are concentrically placed, the forces produced are radial which may tend to distort the shapes of the coils. If interleaved coils are not exactly balanced, axial forces develop, also tending to distort the coils. These are usually so interleaved that forces between coils are balanced, except at the ends. Hence, when assembled, coils must be carefully centered on the cores and rigidly blocked to prevent any movement, bending or distortion from normal positions under the stresses caused by heavy currents. The extra bracing and blocking also tend to reduce the noise emanating from the vibration of several elements, brought about by the effects of the alternating magnetic fields.

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Precaution is always taken so that a failure of the high voltage insulation to the low voltage side will not impose the high voltage on the winding of the low voltage coil. Additional insulation and barriers are often placed between the primary and secondary coils to lessen the chances of such occurrences.

Core and Coil Assembly Clamping Construction

The final step of core and coil assembly construction is the proper clamping. If laminations are not properly secured, vibration will be the result, contributing to increased hum of the transformer and unit failure may result.

The clamping structure is part of the core assembly (and magnetic circuit). Its purpose is to hold the core together and the coils in place with the pressure applied to each coil assembly. As with core construction, clamping of the windings minimizes these forces and in large units provides a means for taking up insulation shrinkage.

During manufacture of the transformer (the step just before putting the coil over the core leg) all windings of transformer are progressively tighten during the vapor phase (or other method) of drying, as well as when the completed core and coil assembly is finally mated together and clamping device installed and compressed. A locking device may be fitted into the adjusting screw to prevent any loosening.

The transformer insulation (cellulosic material) is heated in an oven at a temperature to dry the insulation and remove water. The heating causes the insulation to loose the water and become drier. The drier the insulation becomes the more the insulation shrinks. The shrinking allows the jack screw to tighten, compressing the coils closer and tighter together, and raising the insulation dielectric level because of the moisture loss. The predetermined design has estimated how much water will be lost and the amount of shrinkage that will occur. The more pressure the coil and core are compressed, the less chance of coil and core stress from abnormal conditions losing the clamping structure (Figure 17). Prior to final assembly (putting core and coil assembly in tank) RTE-ASEA manufacture relies on pre-compressing four times the coils and spaces in a hydraulic press to pressures exceeding maximum forces the unit will experience.

The Dyna-Comp adjustable clamping system illustrates one of the most recent types of spring loaded dashpots (Figure 18). This design assures a tight coil throughout the assembly, shipping and service life of the transformer. The coil springs on the dashpots, by providing a constant follow-up pressure, prevent any loosening of the windings.

The final step of core and coil assembly construction is the proper clamping. If laminations are not properly secured, vibration will be the result, contributing to increased hum of the transformer and unit failure may result.

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The older transformers had core legs and yokes clamped together by means of insulated steel bolts passing through holes punched in the laminations (Figure 19, shell-type and Figure 20, core-type transformers and Figure 22). This provided good clamping but had disadvantages. Newer transformers have the leg laminations held tightly together by strong tape applied on smaller cores, or by suitably spaced high-strength resin-glass beads applied to the periphery of larger cores. The yoke laminations are secured by fabricated steel clamps (Figure 21). These clamps are lined with resilient packing to obtain uniform pressures and minimize the transmission of sound and vibrations. When the clamping is complete, vertical tie bolts hold together the steel frames clamping the top and bottom yokes. Consequently, electrical and mechanical stresses are minimized and core bolt failure is eliminated.

stresses are minimized and core bolt failure is eliminated. Figure 17. A Vertical Cross-Section of Major

Figure 17. A Vertical Cross-Section of Major Transformer Components (focusing on jack screw clamping of insulated copper conductors)

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Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Transformers Figure 18. Hydraulic Dashpot, (Part of the new Dyna-Comp™

Figure 18. Hydraulic Dashpot, (Part of the new Dyna-Comp™ adjustable coil clamping system, assures a tight winding structure and prevents winding movement under short circuits)

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Lifting Loop Centering Pin
Lifting Loop
Centering Pin

Tie Plate

Adjustable

Pressure Plate

with Insulation

Cooling

Ducts

Insulating

Tubes

Insulated

Core Bolt

Non-Adjustable

Pressure Plate

with Insulation

End Frame

Insulated

Yoke Bolt

Insulating

Pressure

Collar

H.V. Winding

L.V. Winding

Insulating

Barrier

Locking Angle

Laminated

Core

Insulated

Yoke Bolt

Figure 19. Typical Old Type Construction of Shell-Type Transformer

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Insulated Yoke Bolt Core Insulated Core Bolt Centering Pin End Frame
Insulated
Yoke Bolt
Core
Insulated Core Bolt
Centering Pin
End Frame

Tie Plate

Lifting Loop

Laminated

Adjustable

Pressure Plate

with Insulation

Cooling Ducts

Insulation Barrier

Between Coils

Insulating

Pressure Collar

Static Plate

H.V. Winding

L.V. Winding

Insulating Tubes

Adjustable Pressure Plate with Insulation

Centering Channel

Figure 20. Typical Oil Type Construction of Core-Type Transformer

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Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Transformers Figure 21. Typical Bolted Clamping Structure (Used in Older

Figure 21. Typical Bolted Clamping Structure (Used in Older Transformers)

Bolted Clamping Structure (Used in Older Transformers) Figure 22. Typical Simplified Boltless Clamping Structure

Figure 22. Typical Simplified Boltless Clamping Structure (Used in Large Modern Transformers)

*Courtesy of Trafo-Union.

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Coil Material

The coil materials mainly used are copper and aluminum, with copper being the more preferred at Saudi Aramco. The design of the coil material must be chosen from the following characteristics of conductor material.

Copper coil advantages:

• Mechanical strength

• Electrical conductivity (smaller coils)

Aluminum coil advantages:

• Lower cost

• Efficient heat dissipation for sheet wound (small capacities)

• Reduction in weight

Wire is normally found only in the high voltage coils of distribution units where current requirements are fairly low. The wire size increases as the current values of transformer loading go up. Eddy currents can be reduced by the use of rectangular wire as it has less surface area than a wound wire of the same cross-sectional area.

The cross-sectional area of the turns is adjusted so as the current is increased, cross-sectional area is increased. This helps to keep resistance loss to a minimum. This also helps to reduce eddy current losses. There has to be uniform current distribution to obtain maximum efficiency. Transposition of the coils help make each wire in the turn enclose the same amount of flux leakage producing the same volts per turn or ampere-turns (Figure 23).

Sheets and foils are used mainly on distribution and small transformers where current levels are low. Aluminum sheet windings have more uniform electrical conductance, greater short- circuit withstand voltage and better heat conduction.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Transformers Figure 23. Continuously Transposed Multi-Strip Conductor (Courtesy

Figure 23. Continuously Transposed Multi-Strip Conductor (Courtesy of Feinberg, Modern Power Transformer Practice)

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INSULATION SYSTEM

An insulation system is an assembly of fabricated, processed and in-place combinations of component insulating materials with related structural parts as used in liquid-filled transformers, in this case power units as referenced in ANSI C57.12.00-1987.

Coordination of Insulation

Solid insulation is required in a transformer whenever a difference in potential exists between two points. The selection of insulation is generally made in proportion to the anticipated overvoltages and with a safety margin to compensate for decreases due to normal service aging. Various components are designed to work best together and achieve what is called "coordination of insulation" within the insulation system.

A conclusion that should have been reached by now is that insulation is one of the most important, if not the most important, component in a transformer. The internal insulation of the transformer are a number of critical areas that must be adequately insulated to assure that the transformer will operate properly and provide a long service life (Figures 24 and 25). These areas are:

• Turn-to-turn insulation

• High-voltage to low-voltage insulation

• Low-voltage to core insulation

• Phase-to-phase insulation

• Core-to-ground insulation

These insulation areas must have proper types and combinations of insulation selected and in place to have a transformer that will operate during normal and abnormal conditions and provide a long service life.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Transformers Figure 24. Insulation Structure for a Core-Form Type Transformer

Figure 24. Insulation Structure for a Core-Form Type Transformer

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High Density

Organic Winding

Electrical Power Transformers High Density Organic Winding Laminated Magnetic Steel Core Sticks (B) High Density High

Laminated Magnetic Steel Core

High Density Organic Winding Laminated Magnetic Steel Core Sticks (B) High Density High Density Kraft Paper
Sticks (B) High Density High Density Kraft Paper Tube (B) Cellulose Spacers (B) Low Voltage
Sticks (B)
High Density
High Density Kraft
Paper Tube (B)
Cellulose
Spacers (B)
Low Voltage
Winding
High Density
Kraft Paper
Tube Betwween
Copper
Primary
& Secondary
Windings (C)
Paper
Insulation (A)
High Density
Organic Winding
Sticks (C)
High Voltage
Windig
Heavy Cellulose
Phase-to-Phase
Paper
Insulation (D)
Insulation (A)
Rule of Thumb:
0.3 x KVA Rating = Weight of
cellulose paper in pounds
Phase
Phase
Phase
A
B
C
Phase
Example: 0.3 x 1500 KVA =
450 pounds cellulose
insulation
Insulation

Figure 25. Oil-Filled Cellulose System [Basic insulation system of a core type power transformer where, (A) is insulation on wire; (B) is insulation to ground; (C) is insulation between windings; and (D) is insulation between phases (phase-to-phase).]

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Types of Insulating Materials

Transformers use various types of insulating materials, which together, form an insulation system.

• Pressboard (1/8"-1/2" thick)

• Kraft paper (5-20 mils thick)

• Manila and hemp paper

• High-density particle-board

• Pressboard collars and end insulation

• Laminated (plywood-type particle-board)

• Enamels

• Inorganic and organic core

Lamination coatings

• Porcelain

• Epoxy power coatings

• Maple wood structural forms

• Vulcanized fiber

• Cotton

• Plastics and cements, adhesive tapes, glass-fiber bands, etc.

• Liquid dielectric fluid

The transformer insulation system materials isolate the windings from each other and from ground to "insulate" the current-carrying parts of the transformer from the magnetic-iron and structural-steel parts. The insulation is more than just a mechanical means for keeping the wires or turns apart.

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Coil Assembly Insulation

Winding Insulation – Insulation material provides barriers to voltage to prevent short circuits. It must always be placed between individual turns and layers of the windings. Kraft paper and pressboard paper are the two principal materials employed. Paper or synthetic enamel having sufficient dielectric strength is suitable for strip on wire. For low voltage coils, two insulation enamels on the wires are sufficient, but paper is still needed for larger insulation at higher voltages. In some cases, enamel and paper are both used.

Regardless of the type of winding, paper spacers or wood are also provided to form an oil duct to allow circulation for cooling and insulation. The ducts have to be constructed to permit circulation of the liquid or air up through the coils.

Insulation Between Windings Insulation between windings is also required or from coils to ground. Selected pressboard or synthetic resin-bonded cylinders and end insulation such as paper washers, collars, or spacing blocks are the major items.

Functions of Solid Insulation

The solid insulation in a oil-filled transformer "insulates" because it possesses two distinct properties:

1. Ability to withstand both electrical and mechanical stresses due to the voltage used

2. A poor conductor that allows only negligible to small current to flow through it

This means a functional insulation system for an oil-filled transformer must contain material that performs four major functions.

1. Ability to withstand normal service high voltage (impulse and transient surges - dielectric strength)

2. Ability to withstand mechanical and thermal stresses (short circuit)

3. Ability to prevent excessive heat accumulations (heat transfer)

4. Ability to maintain desired characteristics for an acceptable service life period given proper maintenance

Any weakness of insulation may result in the failure of a transformer. Insulation is deteriorated when it has lost a significant portion of its original dielectric, mechanical, or impulse strength. The continuation of the deterioration process leads to inevitable mechanical and/or electrical failure.

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Classification of Solid Insulation

The effect of temperature upon insulation materials is so significant that the thermal characteristics has become the basis for the classification of electrical solid insulation (Table

1).

This temperature should not be confused with the actual temperature at which the insulating materials may be used in particular environments (air, oil or gas) or with temperatures on which specified temperature rise in equipment standards is based. These temperature classifications refer only to the thermal evaluation of insulating materials themselves or simple combinations. An example is that some materials which are suitable for operation at one temperature in air may be suitable for a higher temperature when used in a system operated in an inert gas atmosphere or in oil. Also, some materials when operated in dielectric liquids, may have lower or higher thermal endurance than when operated in air.

Even though the thermal characteristics are recognized as the most important, other factors such as mechanical strength and moisture resistance are required in varying degrees for the successful use of insulating materials.

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TABLE 1 THERMAL CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION 1 (IEC) INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION

Maximum

Temperature

Permissible

Class

Designation 1

Typical Materials

Class 90

(Y) or (O)

90°C

Unimpregnated cellulose, cotton silk

Class 105

(Y) or (O)

105°C

Impregnated cellulose, cotton or silk; phenolic resin

Class 120

(B)

Class 130

Class 155

(F)

Class 185

(H)

Class 220

Class over

220 (C)

120°C

130°C

155°C

185°C

220°C

Above

220°C

Cellulose triacetate

Mica, glass fiber, asbestos with organic binder

As in Class 120 with suitable binder

As in Class C with silicone

binder

As in Class 185

Mica, porcelain, glass quartz and similar inorganic materials

1 The system based upon numerical values of maximum temperature rating is preferred to the letter symbols by IEEE. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is responsible for the preparation of world-wide electrical and electronic standards; yet is little known to the average American Engineer. IEC is composed of 43 National Committees which represent 80% of the world's population producing and consuming 95% of all electrical energy. IEC standardization programs are developed by 190 technical committees and sub- committees that now span virtually every sphere of human endeavor in electrotechnology.

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Solid Insulation and Moisture

Paper has excellent dielectric strength when it is dry. Typically the dielectric strength of paper is 1000 volts/mil (1 mil = 0.001 inch). The problem is that dry paper will absorb water very quickly and once the paper has absorbed water, its dielectric strength decreases rapidly. Figures 26 and 27 illustrate the deteriorating effect that water can have on paper type insulation. To prevent the paper from absorbing water, it is impregnated with mineral oil, as it was used in the case of oil-filled transformers, insulating liquid (transformer oil).

Small amounts of moisture, even microscopic amounts, accelerate deterioration of cellulose insulation. Studies have shown more rapid degradation in the strength of cellulose with increasing amount of moisture, even in the absence of oxidation.

Dehydration of the insulating system can reduce the rate of loss of mechanical strength, but the previous loss is never recovered. Therefore, keeping a transformer dry at all times is of utmost importance to maintaining the insulation.

During the manufacturing process a transformer unit may collect up to 10% moisture by dry weight of the insulation. This is why initial drying is required prior to assembly and shipping.

The paper insulation of a new transformer leaving the factory may contain between 0.3 to 1.0 percent water by dry weight. Therefore, a certain amount of water is always present and can be readily accommodated by the transformer. This means the purchases of the new equipment should not tolerate an upper limit of ³ 1.5 percent. The transformer will perform to all its design criteria and nameplate rating with a moisture content of 1.5 percent by weight. But this higher water content does affect the longevity of the transformer, which means the transformer life can be reduced by half or more depending on the operating conditions of the transformer.