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BOTANY PROJECT WORK

MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR UNEFULNESS

NAME :

REG. No. :

STD :
ZOOLOGY PROJECT WORK

BLOOD GROUPS AND BLOOD SMEAR

NAME :

REG. No. :

STD :
MEDICINAL PLANTS
AND
THEIR UNEFULNESS
BLOOD GROUPS
BLOOD SMEAR
CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is the Bonafide work of the student in the

department of Botany by Name _________________________________

Class ________________ Register Number ______________ for the Project

Report the Academic year 2006-2007.

Subject Teacher Principal


Date Date

External Examiner
Date
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my gratitude to all respectable teachers for

their encouragement.

I extent my thanks to all my friends and classmates who held me in

this endeavour.
CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is the Bonafide work of the student in the

department of Zoology by Name ________________________________

Class ________________ Register Number ______________ for the Project

Report the Academic year 2006-2007.

Subject Teacher Principal


Date Date

External Examiner
Date
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my gratitude to all respectable teachers for

their encouragement.

I extent my thanks to all my friends and classmates who held me in

this endeavour.
CONTENT
BLOOD GROUPS

Introduction

ABO blood groups in human beings

The presence of Antigens and Antibodies

Compatibility of donor blood to that of the recipient blood.

Genes determine the Human blood groups.

Relationship between cellular antigens antibodies and Genotypes.

Disputed parentage and blood groups

Rh Factor

Rh antibody.
CONTENT
BLOOD SMEAR

Introduction

Plasma

Formed Elements of Blood.

Red Blood corpuscles (or) RBC

White Blood corpuscles or WBC

Granulocytes

Agranulocytes

Blood plateles or Thrombocytes

Functions of Blood.
BLOOD SMEAR

Blood is the fluid tissue. It is reddish in colour when flowing in the blood

vessels. Adult human contains about 5 litres of blood. The blood is formed of

two components namely a fluid components called Plasma and a Cellular

component called formed elements.

PLASMA

Plasma is the liquid portion of blood out of a 5 litres of blood 3.5 litres

are Plasma. It contains 90% water and the remaining 10% is formed of organic

and inorganic substances.

There are about 200-300 gm of Plasma proteins present in the total

volume of blood. They are of four different varieties, namely:

1. Serum Albumin

2. Serum Globulin

3. Fibrinogen and

4. Prothrombin
FORMED ELEMENTS OF BLOOD:

There are three types of cellular elements namely:

1. Red blood corpuscles (or) RBC

2. White blood Corpuscles (or) WBC

3. Platelets

RED BLOOD CORPUSCLES (OR) RBC:

 The red blood corpuscles are otherwise called erythrocytes.

 A human erythrocyte is a non nucleated cell having the form of a

biconcave disc.

 A single erythrocyte contains 30gm of haemoglobin.

 The number of erythrocytes per C4 mm differs in different animals.

 The normal average cell count of erythrocyte in adult male is about 5

million and in female 4.5 million per cubic millimeter blood.

 Each RBC is composed of an envelope and a spongy elastic substance

called stroma.

 Inside the meshes of the stroma is present the Iron pigment haemoglobin.

 Haemoglobin is conjugated protein composed of a protein part globin and

a non-protein pigment haem.

 Haem is an iron containing porphyrin.


HAEMOGLOBIN MOLECULE

Hame Hame

Globin

Hame Hame

 On combining with oxygen, haemoglobin, is converted to

oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2). Oxyhaemoglobin after giving out its Oxygen is

called reduced haemoglobin (Hb).

 The erythrocytes develop from the bone marrow of vertebrates and so the

bone marrow is described as the cradle of RBC.

 The life span of circulating human blood is around 120 days and

therefore 0.83% of erythrocyte cell mass is renewed every day in man.

 RBC’s are disintegrated in the spleen so the spleen is said to be the grave

yard for red cells.

WHITE BLOOD CORPUSCLES (or) (WBC)

The white blood corpuscles are otherwise called Leucocytes. The

Leucocytes differ from the erythrocytes in the following aspects.

1. They have no haemoglobin.

2. They are bigger in size.

3. They are nucleated and amoeboid.


4. They are much less in number and their life span is longer.

5. There are several varieties and they have different functions.

The average total number ofWBC is 6000 – 8000 per cubic mm of blood and

average ration of WBC to RBC works out to 1:600.

There are several varieties of Leucocytes. Leucocytes are of two main

types:

1. Granulocytes and

2. A Granulocytes.

WBC

Granulocytes Agranulocytes

1. Neutrophils 2. Eosinophils, 3. Basophils

1. Lymphocytes 2. Monocytes

GRANULOCYTES:

Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow and of three types, namely

neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.

The increase of granulocytes in the blood is called granulocytosis.

Dimunution of granulocytes is called granulocytopenia and complete

disappearance of granulocytes is known as agranulocytosis. They are of the

following type;

1. Neutrophils (or) Scavenger cells:


These are about 79% of the total Leucocyte count. They show amoeboid

movement. When they come across the bacteria, they are engulfed by a process

termed phagocytosis. The absolute number of neutrophil is 3000-6000 per cu

mm.

2. EOSINOPHILS:

These are about 1-4% of the total Leucocyte count. The nucleus is two or

three lobed. They increase during allergic conditions. The eosinophils are

amoeboid but not phagocytic.

The important functions of eosinophils are to bring about destruction and

detoxification of toxin of protein origin.

3. BASOPHILS:

Basophils are about 0.4% of the total Leucocytes count. The nucleus is

lobed and the cytoplasm contains granules of various sizes. Basophil has some

possible role in local anticoagulation and formation of ground substance.

4. AGRANULOCYTES:

Agranulocytes are produced in the Lymphnodes and spleen, and are of

two types; Lymphocytes and monocytes.

5. LYMPHOCYTES:

These are about 25-30% of the total Leucocyte count and their absolute

number is 1500 to 2700 per cu mm. They have a large nucleus compared to the

size of cytoplasm.
6. MONOCYTES:

They are large leucocytes forming about 5-10% of the total leucocyte

count. The nuclic are horse-shoe shaped. They are mofile and have the power of

engulfing bacteria.

BLOOD PLATELES (OR) THROMBOCYTES

Thromobocytes belong to another type of formed elements in the blood.

They have no nucleus. The number of platelets in human blood vacies from

250,000-450,000 per cu mm. The average life span of platelets is about 5-9

days.

They are produced in the megakarya lytes on the bone marrow and are

destroyed in the spleen and other reticuloendo thelial cells.

FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD

Blood carries oxygen from the lung to the tissues and CI2 from the

tissues back to the lungs.

It transports the hormones from the endo crine glands to the target organs.

With the help of the plasma proteins, it maintains a constant PH.

It helps in maintaining the water balance of the body.

It maintains the body temperature by transporting the heat from the

interior of the body to the surface.

It prevents its own loss by means of the clotting mechanism.

It transports water products to the kidneys, and to the sweat glands for

excretion.
BLOOD GROUPS

Human blood contains certain specific substances called antigens and anti

bodies. These Chemicals differ from one person to other. Based on this human

blood is divided in to many groups. The important blood groups discovered are

ABO groups, Rh groups and MN groups.

A B O BLOOD GROUPS IN HUMAN BEINGS

The ABO blood group system in human beings was established by

K.LANDSTEINER in 1900. It is based on the presences or absence of certain

antigens.

There can be two antigens A or B in the blood, resulting in four blood

groups. Namely A,B,AB,O. These are called ABO blood groups or Landsteiner

blood groups.

The inheritance of a person having A group will have the antigen A and a

person having B group will have the antigen B with these antigens A and B

there are certain naturally occurring antibodies in the serum of the blood. The

antibodies in a particular individual will be found only for those antigens which

are absent in blood of this individual.


THE PRESENCE OF ANTIGENS AND ANTI BODIES OCCUR AS

FOLLOWS:

BLOOD GROUPS ANTIGEN ANTIBODY IN THE


SERUM
A A anti B
B B anti A
AB A and B None
O None anti A and B

Antibodies in the blood of group ‘A’ will agglutinize red blood corpuscles

of the blood group B. Similarly the antibody in blood group B will agglutinize

red blood corpuscles of the blood group A. Since no antibody is found in group

‘AB’ blood it will not agglutinize any other group. Group ‘O’ will have

antibodies for group A and B. Hence group ‘O’ will agglitinize group A and B.

COMPATIBILITY OF DONOR BLOOD TO THAT OF THE RECIPIENT

WILL OCCUR AS FOLLOWS:

Blood group of the donor Blood group of the recipient


A A and AB
B B and AB
AB AB
O O,A,B,AB

From the table provided it is obvious that group AB is universal recipient.

Group ‘O’ is universal donor.

GENES DETERMINE THE HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS


The ABO blood groups genes determine the synthesis of polysaccharides

on the surface of red blood corpuscles which are known as antigens (or

agglutinogen

Two district Polysaccharites, ‘A’ and ‘B’ are made, and these are

determined by the alleles IA and IB respectively. I stands for Isohaemoaglutinin.

A third allele Io which is a recessive does not determine synthesis of either A or

B polysaccharides.

A homozygous recessive Io Io individual produces red blood cells lacking

both poly sacharides. Such an individual has type ‘O’ blood.

An IA IA homozygous or an IAIo heterozygous individual has type ‘A’

blood since these two individuals can synthesis polysaccharide ‘A’. Like wise

an IBIB or an IBIO individual has type ‘B’ blood since they produce

polysaccharide ‘B’.

The IAIB heterozygous individual possess both ‘A’ and ‘B’

polysaccharides and hence has type ‘AB’ blood. This is called co-dominance.

The IA IB heterozygous individual possess both ‘A’ and ‘B’

polysaccharides and hence has type ‘AB’ blood. This is called co-dominance.

The ocurence in a population of more than two alleles at a locus such as

IOIO, IBIB is called multiple allele.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CELLULAR ANTIGENS ANTIBODIES AND

GENOTYPES OF THE FOUR PHENOTYPES ABO BLOOD GROUP IS

GIVEN BELOW.
Pheno type RBC Serum anti Gene type can give can receive
antigen bodies blood to from
groups groups
A groups A anti-B IAIA (or) A,AB O,A

IAIO
B group B anti-B IB,IB B,AB O,B

(or)IBIO
AB group AB - IAIB AB O,A,B,AB
O group - anti-A IOIO O,A,B,AB O

and

anti - B

DISPUTED PARENTAGE AND BLOOD GROUPS:

The identification of blood group may help to decide in cases concerned

with parentage issues. By knowing the blood groups of parents. It is possible to

determine the possible blood groups in the children. The impossibility of a

particular blood group in the progeny can also be pointed out.

PARENTS BLOOD GROUP IN IMPOSSIBLE BLOOD


PROGENY GROUPS
OxO O A,B,A,B
OxO O,A B,AB
OxB O,B A,AB
OxAB A,B O,AB
AxA A,O B, AB
AxB A,B,AB,O None
AxAB A,B,AB O
BxAB A,B,AB O
ABxAB A,B,AB O

Rh FACTOR:
Landsteiner and Wiener (1940) discovered the existence of a special type

of antigen in the RBC of Rhesus monkey. Since this factor was first discovered

in Rhesus Monkey, it was named thesus factor (or) Rh factor.

The Rh factor is also present in the RBC of some human beings and it is

absent from others. Based on the presence or absence of Rh factor, the human

beings are classified in to two groups. They are Rh positive (Rh+) and Rh

negative (Rh-). The Rh+ person has Rh antigen in the RBC; the Rh- person has

no Rh antigen.

OCCURRENCE:

In the European country 85% of the human beings are Rh+ and the

remaining 15% are Rh-; In India 93% are Rh+ and 7% are Rh-. In China 99.5

are Rh+ and only 0.5% are Rh-.

Rh ANTIBODY:

The Rh antigen has no natural antibody. However, Rh antibody can be

produced artificially. An Rh- person develops Rh antibody when he receives

blood from an Rh+ person. Even a small amount Rh+ blood can evoke the

production of Rh antibody in the Rh- person. The antibody once formed remains

throughout the life.

The presence of Rh+ child in the uterus of the Rh- mother can cause

agglutination in the blood of the fetus. Even though such an unfortunate


incident may not happen in the first pregnancy, it could occur in successive

pregnancies. The death of the fetus in such cases is due to haemolytic anemia.

This disease is called erythroblastosis fetalis.

CONTENT

MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR USEFULNESS

Introduction

Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology

The systems of Medicine

Medicinal plant: NEEM

Morphology

Traditional Uses

Ayurveda

Unani

Homeopathy

Modern use
Medicinal plant: GINGER

Morphology

Traditional

Medicinal Plant: TURMERIC

Morphology

Traditional Use

MEDICINAL PLANTS

INTRODUCTION:

Nature has bestowed on us a very rich botanical wealth. The herbal

wealth of India and knowledge of their Medicinal properties have a long

tradition, as referred to in Rig Veda and other ancient Literature.

Medicinal plants have been the source of many of mankind’s most basic

medicinal therapies, and form the foundation of the modern pharmaceutical

industry.

PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHARMACOLOGY

The branch of science that deals with the study of medicinal or drug

plants, their history, botanical and anatomical, identification, presentation,

extraction and preparation of the drugs from the plants is called pharmacognosy.
The study of the action of the drugs is known as pharmacology.

THE SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE:

The system of medicine, viz Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy

(Ayush) system predominantly use plant based raw materials in most of their

preparations and formulations. Modern medicines also contain atleast 25%

drugs derived from plants. Many drugs are synthetic analogues built on protype

compounds isolated from plants.

The world health organization (WHO) estimated that 80% of the

population of developing countries rely on traditional medicine mostly plant

drugs for their primary health care needs.

Medicinal plants being natural having no side effects offer a range of

safe, cost effective, preventive and curative therapies which could be useful in

achieving the goal of “Health for all” in a cost effective manner.

Demand for medicinal plants is increasing in both developing and

developed countries but 90% material is harvested from wild sources without

applying scientific management.

MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR USEFULNESS:

1. NEEM

Botanical Name : Azadirachta Indica

Family : Meliaceae

Synonym : Melia azadirachta

English Name : Indian lilac, Margosa Tree


Trade Names : Margosa, Neem

MORPHOLOGY

 The tree is large, ever green and dense, growing 10-15 meters tall.

 Bark dark grey.

 Leaves alternate petiolate, imparipinnate.

 Flowers in axillary branches, small, white, aromatic, complete and

actinomorphic.

 Fruit are green drupaceous berries with single seed and yellow when ripe.

TRADITIONAL USE:

Different parts of this plant are used in the following manner:

 Young branch used as tooth-brush.

 Gum as stimulant.

 Leaf used as antidote to small pox, dried leaves used as insecticide.

 Powdered flowers are used as an anthelmintic.

AYURVEDA:

 Bark is used as bitter tonic, astringent, antiperiodic and used for liver

pain.

 Leaves used for excessive urination associated with itching, blood sugar,

vomiting, acidity, jaundice, intestinal worms.


 Flower is used for stomach ache.

 Fruits are purgative and anthelmintic.

 Seeds oil is used to eradicate ringworm, wounds in gums, rheumatism

and skin disease.

UNANI

 Uses similar to Ayurveda system of medicine.

HOMEOPATHY

 For control of mind.

 Headache and other ailment of eyes, ears, nose, throat, mouth, stomach,

abdomen, genito, urinary organs, chest, nech, fever etc.,

MODERN USE

Antibacterial, antihyperghycacmic and antihelmintic, antiviral,

antineoplastic, antifungal and used to treat wite leprosy, eczema, ringworm,

scabies, dandruft, diabetes, rheumation and skin diseases.


GINGER

Botonical Name : Zingiber officinale

Family : Zingiberaceae

Trade Name : Ginger

MORPHOLOGY:

 Ginger is a slender perennial herb 30-100 cm tall with robust branched

rhizome.

 Rhizome is the underground stem, tuberous, horizontally growing with is

aromatic and of commercial value.


 The Rhizomes is thick and laterally compressed often palmately branched.

 Pale yellow within, covered with scale leaves and with fine fibrous roots.

 Leaf shoots annuals, erect formed of long leaf sheaths, simple, retolate.

TRADITIONAL USE:

 It has carminative and simulative properties hence used as medicine.

 Dried ginger paste is used as pain killer and applied on the forehead for

severe headache and externally for sore throat etc.,

 The aroma of ginger is pleasant and spicy hence used in the manufacture of

many food producs.

 Used in bakery products, confectinary, pickles sauces etc.,

 The medical value of ginger lies in its stimulant and carninative properties.

 It is a valuable drug administered in dyspe psia, rheumatism, piles, neuralgia,

pulmonary disorders and digestive problems.

 The fresh juice of ginger with honey is an excellent medicine and relief for

cough and asthma.

 Ginger juice is a good medicine for stomach disorders, mild diarrhoea and

vomiting.

 It is also used for veterinary purposes.


TURMERIC

Botanical name : Curcuma domestica

Family : Zingiberaceae

Trade Name : Turmeric

MORPHOLOGY:

 It is a perennial herb with large avoid root stock.

 sessile thick tuber, bright yellow inside.

 petiole, long leaves green, peduncle long hidden by sheathing petiole, spikes,

bracts pale green.


TRADITIONAL USE

 Rhizome is used for whooping and other coughs.

 In Srilanka Rhizome paste is used in skeletal fracture.

 Turmeric is an indispensable culinary ingredient.

 It imports a musky flavour and yellow colour to curries.

 It is used as colouring matter in pharmacy, confectionery and food industries.

 It is also used as dye in certain cotton textile, medicine and in cosmetics.

 Further it is also regarded by the Hindus as sacred for use in ceremonial and

religious functions.

 Rhizome used in mental cure.

 Inflammation of eye.

 Height blindness, indigestion, bronchitis.

 Cough and cold, wounds, leprosy, body pain, head ache improves body

complexion effective against bacterial infection, skin diseases, intestinal

worms, liver complaints, stammemering, filarial, asthma, measles, boils,

conjunctivitis, allergic reactions, oil from rhizome is antifungal, anti

flammatory and antibacterial.


NEEM
TURMERIC
GINGER