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Summary in Preparation for Test in Topology

Jacob Shapiro
August 12, 2013
Abstract
A summary (largely of Munkres topology book, and hopefully more
examples and exercises) in preparation for a test with Prof. Damien
Calaque at ETH in the summer of 2013.
Contents
0.1 Open Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
0.2 Misc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
I Topological Spaces 4
1 Chapter 2 Topological Spaces and Continuous Functions 4
1.1 12 Topological Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 13 Basis for a Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 14 The Order Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4 17 Closed Sets and Limit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 18 Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.6 16 The Subspace Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.7 19 The Product Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.8 15 The Product Topology on X Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.9 22 The Quotient Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.10 20, 21 The Metric Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2 Chapter 3 Connectedness and Compactness 41
2.1 23 Connected Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.2 24 Connected Subspaces of the Real Line (and path connectedness) 43
2.3 25 Components and Local Connectedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.4 26 Compact Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.5 27 Compact Subspaces of the Real Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.6 28 Limit Point Compactness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.7 29 Local Compactness (note: not in material for testutility for
measure theory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
1
3 Chapter 4 Countability and Separation Axioms (not part of the
curriculum for the testfor competeness reasons) 57
3.1 31 The Separation Axioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.2 35 Imbeddings of Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4 Chapter 7 Complete Metric Spaces and Function Spaces 58
4.1 43 Complete Metric Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.2 44 Theorem 44.1The Peano Space-Filling Curve . . . . . . . . 61
4.3 45 Compactness in Metric Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.4 46 Pointwise and Compact Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
II Algebraic Topology 63
5 Chapter 9 The Fundamental Group 64
5.1 51 Homotopy of Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.2 52 The Fundamental Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.3 53 Covering Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.4 54 The Fundamental Group of the Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.5 55 Retractions and Fixed Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.6 58 Deformation Retracts and Homotopy Type . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.7 59 The Fundamental Group of S
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.8 60 Fundamental Groups of Some Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6 Chapter 11The Seifert-van Kampen Theorem 79
6.1 67 Direct Sums of Abelian Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.2 68 Free Products of Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.3 69 Free Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.4 70 The Seifert-van Kampen Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.5 71 The Fundamental Group of a Wedge of Circles . . . . . . . . 81
7 Chapter 13Classication of Surfaces 82
7.1 79 Equivalence of Covering Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.2 80 The Universal Covering Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.3 81 Covering Transformations (Deck Transformations) . . . . . . 83
0.1 Open Questions
1. HWS04 Open and closed maps, question 2.
2. HWS05 ultrametrics question 3.
3. Lemma 23.1 proof.
4. Example 7 in chapter 23.
5. HWS06 application to analysis (why is A Open()?)
2
6. HWS09E01, the end of the argument.
7. HWS10E01 walk through again.
8. HWS11E05 walk through again.
0.2 Misc
1. Matrix multiplication on Mat
n
(R) is continuous.
2. Matrix inversion on GL(n, R) is continuous.
3. A topological space which is also a group, with composition and inverse
functions being continuous, is called a topological group.
4. Torus
(a) T
1
:= R
2
/ where
_
x
y
_

_
x
0
y
0
_
==
_
p
q
_
Z
2
:
_
x
0
y
0
_
=
_
x
y
_
+
2
_
p
q
_
.
(b) Let r, R R : R > 2r. Dene p
_
R
3
_
[0, 2)[0, 2)
by p
_

,
_
:=
_
_
[R +r cos (,)] cos ()
[R +r cos (,)] sin ()
r sin (,)
_
_
.
Dene T
2
:= p ([0, 2) [0, 2)).
(c) Observe that T
1
T
2
S
1
S
1
. This is the torus. It is connected
and compact. It is not homeomorphic to [0, 2) [0, 2).
(d) T
1
is a topologiacl group, where m
__
x
y
__

,
__
x
0
y
0
__

:=
__
x
0
y
0
__

.
i
__
x
y
__

:=
__
x
y
__

, and e
T1
:=
__
0
0
__

.
5. If f C
_
S
1
, R
_
then a S
1
: f (a) = f (a).
6. Dinis theore: theorem 7.14 in Rudins PMA.
7. The least upper bound property:
Any non-empty set of that has an upper bound necessarily has a least
upper bound.
8. (HWS09E01) If X is an ordered set (equipped with the order topology) in
which every closed interval is compact, then X has the least upper bound
property.
3
Part I
Topological Spaces
1 Chapter 2 Topological Spaces and Continuous
Functions
1.1 12 Topological Spaces
1.1.1 Denition of a Topology
A topology on a set X, is a set, T P (X), such that:
1. ?, X T
2. If A is some set (nite, countable, or uncountable) and if U

T \ A,
then
_
2A
U

_
T .
3. If n N and U
i
T \ i {1, 2, . . . , n} then (

n
i=1
U
i
) T .
If U T then U is called an open set. Thus T is also denoted as Open(X).
If (X\U) T then U is called closed set. All the closed sets are denoted by
Closed (X).
The discrete topology is dened as P (X).
The indiscrete / trivial topology is dened as {X, ?}.
The conite topology is dened as T
f
:= {?} {A X | |X \ A| < }.
Apply de Morgans laws for the arbitrary union.
The cocountable topology is dened as T
c
:= {?}{A X | |X \ A| = |N|}.
1.1.2 Example 1 for a Topology
X := {a, b, c}, Open(X) := {X, ?, {a, b} , {b} , {b, c}}.
But S
1
:= {X, ?, {a} , {b}} (no union)
and S
2
:= {X, ?, {a, b} , {b, c}} (no intersection)
are not topologies on X!
1.1.3 Example for a Topology
All subsets of X which are supersets of a given set, plus the empty set.
4
1.1.4 Counter Example for a Topology
All subsets of X which intersect a given set, plus the empty set. Then de-
pending on the nature of the given set, this may or may not be a topology
on X.
X = R, S 2
R
and O := {(, b) : b S {}}. Then this is a
topology only if for any collection of open sets, the supremum of b of each
of those sets is in S.
1.1.5 Coarser vs. Finer
If T
0
T then T
0
is ner than T , or equivalently, T is coarser than T
0
. If one
set is ner or coarser than another, the two are comparable.
For any set, T
discrete
T
cocountable
T
cofinite
T
trivial
.
1.1.5.1 Counterexample If X := {a, b, c}, the topology {X, ?, {a, b} , {b, c} , {b}}
is not comparable to the topology {X, ?, {a, b}, {a}}, because one doesnt con-
tain the other and vice versa.
1.1.5.2 Counterexample The lower-limit topology is not comparable with
the K-topology.
1.2 13 Basis for a Topology
1.2.1 Denition of a Basis for a Topology
If X is a set, a basis for a topology on X is a set B P (X), whose elements
are called basis elements, such that:
1. \ x X B B : x B.
2. IfB
1
, B
2
B and x (B
1
B
2
) then B
3
B such that x B
3

(B
1
B
2
).
1.2.2 The Topology Generated by a Basis
If B is a basis for a topology, the topology that it generates is dened as T
B
=
{U P (X) : \ x
0
U B
0
B : x
0
B
0
U}.
Thus each basis element is itself an open set.
The closed sets in a topology generated by B are Closed (X) = {C P (X) : \x
0
/ C B
0
B : x
0
B
0
_
B
0
C = ?}.
Furthermore, it can be shown (lemma 13.1) that T
B
=
_
2A
B

: B

B \ A
_
.
But this representation is not unique (we can nd many dierent ways to write
unions of basis elements for a given open set).
1.2.2.1 Example The set of all circles in R
2
is a basis for the standard
topology on R
2
.
The set of all rectangles in R
2
is a basis for the standard topology R
2
.
5
1.2.2.2 Example If X is any set,

x2X
{{x}} is a basis for the discrete
topology.
1.2.3 Example
{(a, b) : a, b Q} is a countable basis for the standard topology on R.
1.2.4 Example
{[a, b) : a, b Q} is a basis for a topology generating a topology dierent than
the lower limit topology on R.
1.2.5 Example
If X = R and B := {(, b) : b R} {(a, ) : a R} then B is not a basis
for a topology because (a, )(, a + 2) does not contain any basis element.
1.2.6 Example
If S ,= ? is some set, dene X := {{b
n
} : b
n
S\n N}. If . is some nite
sequence, then let B
!
be the set of all sequences that begin with .. Then
B := {B
!
: . is a nite sequence} is a basis for a topology on X.
1.2.7 Lemma 13.2 Going from Topology to Basis
Let X be a set and let T be a topology on it.
Let C be a subset of T such that \U T , \x U C C : x C U.
Then C is a basis for T .
1.2.8 Lemma 13.3Comparing Bases
Let B and B
0
be bases for topologies T and T
0
respectively. Then T
0
is ner
than T if and only if \ x X, \ (B B : x B) B
0
B
0
: x B
0
B.
1.2.9 Some topologies on R
1. The Standard Topology is given by the basis {(a, b) | a, b R . a < b}.
2. The Lower Limit Topology is given by the basis {[a, b) | a, b R . a < b}.
R
l
denotes the induced topological space.
3. The K-Topology is given by the basis {(a, b) | a, b R . a < b}{(a, b) \K| a, b R . a < b}
where K :=
_
1
n
| n N
_
. R
K
denotes the induced topological space.
1.2.9.1 Lemma 13.4 Open(R
l
) ) Open(R) and Open(R
K
) ) Open(R)
but Open(R
l
) \Open(R
K
) ,= ? and Open(R
K
) \Open(R
l
) ,= ?.
6
1.2.10 Denition of a Subbasis for a Topology
A subbasis for a topology is a set S P (X) such that
_
S2S
S
_
= X.
The basis generated by S is given by B
S
= {

n
i=1
S
i
: S
i
S, n N}.
Note: The topology generated by B
S
is the coarsest topology to contain S.
Note: The topology generated by some subbasis may not have as a basis that
given subbasis.
1.3 14 The Order Topology
Let X be a set with a total order <. That is, if a, b, c X then:
1. Antisymmetry: ((a < b) . (b < a)) =a = b.
2. Transitivity: ((a < b) . (b < c)) =a < c.
3. Totality: ((a < b) . (b < a)) (this implies reexivity).
1.3.1 Denition of the Order Topology
Let X be a set such that |X| > 1.
The order topology is given by the basis
{(a, b) | a, b X . a < b}{[a
0
, b) | b X, a
0
< x\x X}{(a, b
0
] | a X, x < b
0
\x X}
Note that if X has no smallest (largest) element then there are no elements in
the second (third) set, which is still perfectly ne.
1.3.2 Example 1
The standard topology on R is the same as the order topology on R with the
relation _ on numbers.
1.3.3 Example 2The Dictionary Order on R
2
(lexicographical or-
der)
The dictionary order on R
2
, 2, is dened as:
_
x
y
_
2
_
x
0
y
0
_
== (x < x
0
) . ((x = x
0
) . (y < y
0
))
Under 2, R
2
has no smallest or largest element, so the order topology on R
2
is given by the basis
_
a
b
_
,
_
c
d
_
|
_
a
b
_
2
_
c
d
_
.
_
a
b
_
,
_
c
d
_
R
2
_
.
1.3.4 Example 3The Discrete Topology on N
N has a smallest element under the order _, namely, the number 1. Thus the
order topology on N with _ is the discrete topology. {1} = [1, 2), which is a
basis element, so {1} is open. If n N\ {1} then {n} = (n 1, n + 1) which is
also a basis element.
7
1.3.5 Example 4The Dictionary Order on {1, 2} N
The order topology in the dictionary order of this set is not discrete:
_
2
1
__
is not open. Proof: Assume otherwise, thus B
2,1
B :
_
2
1
_
B
2,1

_
2
1
__
, where B is the set of basis elements in the order topology, that is, B =
_
i
n
_
,
_
i
m
_
| i {1, 2} . n < m
_

_
1
n
_
,
_
2
m
__

[
_
1
1
_
,
_
i
m
_
) | (i = 1 . m > 1) . i = 2
_
.
So it is clear that the only basis element that contains
_
2
1
_
contains also
elements of the form
_
1
n
_
which is a contradiction to B
2,1

_
2
1
__
. Note
that any other one-point set is open, in particular,
_
1
1
__
is open because
_
1
1
__
= [
_
1
1
_
,
_
1
2
_
) is a basis element.
1.3.6 Rays
(HWS02E01)
If X is an totally ordered set, and a is any element in X:
The following sets are open in the order topology, and are called open rays:
(a, ) , (, a).
Proof: If X has a largest element, called b
0
then (a, ) = (a, b
0
] which is a
basis element.
If X has no largest element, then (a, ) =

x2X, x>a
(a, x), and (a, x) is a
basis element. Similarly for (, a).
The following sets are closed in the order topology, and are called closed
rays: [a, ), (, a].
As it turns out, C := {(a, ) | a X} {(, a) | a X} is a subbasis for
a topology on X.
Claim: C generates the order topology.
Proof: The basis for the topology generated by C is given by B
C
= {

n
i=1
C
i
: C
i
C, n N}.
Thus using Lemma 13.3 we can compare B
C
with the basis that generates the
order topology:
B
C
generates a topology ner than the order topology.
Take any x X and any basis element B in the order topology containing
x.
Case 1: B is of the form (a, b).
Then (a, b) = (a, ) (, b) is a basis element in B
C
.
Case 2: B is of the form [a
0
, b), then B is itself an open ray, namely, (, b).
Case 3: B is of the form (a, b
0
]. Similar to case 2.
The order topology is ner than the topology generated by B
C
.
8
Take any x X and any basis element B B
C
containing x. Since B is
composed of nite intersections of open sets (we proved the C
i
sthe open rays,
are open in the order topology), it is itself open in the order topology. Thus
by the denition of a basis for a topology B
0
in the basis generating the order
topology such that x B
0
B.
QED
1.4 17 Closed Sets and Limit Points
1.4.1 Denition of Closed Sets
A set A P (X) is said to be closed if X\A Open(X).
1.4.2 ExampleClosed Intervals in R
[a, b] Closed (R) because R\ [a, b] = (, a) (b, ) Open(R).
1.4.3 ExampleClosed Rays in R
[a, ) Closed (R) because R\[a, ) = (, a) Open(R).
1.4.4 ExampleNeither closed nor open intervals in R
[a, b) / Open(R) . [a, b) / Closed (R).
1.4.5 ExampleClosed in R
2
_
x
y
_
| x _ 0 . y _ 0
_
= [0, )[0, ) is closed in R
2
, because R
2
\ ([0, ) [0, )) =
(R (, 0)) ((, 0) R) is open.
1.4.6 ExampleThe Co-Finite Topology
In the co-nite topology on a set X, Closed (X) = {X}{A P (X) | |A| < }.
1.4.7 ExampleThe Discrete Topology
In the discrete topology on a set X, Open(X) = P (X). But \A P (X),
(X\A) P (X). Thus (X\A) Open(X). Thus A Closed (X). So
Closed (X) = P (X).
1.4.8 ExampleClopen sets in the Subspace Topology
Consider Y := [0, 1] (2, 3) endowed with the subspace topology from R
(open sets are intersections of open sets in the ambient space with the space).
Thus [0, 1] Open(Y ) because (0.0001, 1.0001) Open(R) and [0, 1] =
(0.0001, 1.0001) Y . (2, 3) Open(Y ) as well because (2, 3) Open(R) and
(2, 3) = (2, 3) Y .
9
But [0, 1] = Y \ (2, 3), so [0, 1] Closed (Y ).
Similarly, (2, 3) = Y \ [0, 1], so (2, 3) Closed (Y ).
1.4.9 Theorem 17.1Parallel Universe of Structures of Closed Sets
(HWS01E06)
Let X be a topological space. Then the following conditions hold:
1. ?, X Closed (X).
2. If Ais some set (nite, countable, or uncountable) and if F

Closed (X) \
A, then
_
2A
F

_
Closed (X).
3. If n N and F
i
Closed (X) \ i {1, 2, . . . , n} then (

n
i=1
F
i
)
Closed (X).
Proof using de Morgans laws.
Note: Kuratowskis Axioms (HWS02E02)
1.4.10 Theorem 17.2Criterion for Closed Sets in Subspace Topol-
ogy
Let Y be a subspace of X. Then a set A Closed (Y ) i F Closed (X) such
that A = F Y .
1.4.11 Theorem 17.3(another) Criterion for Closed Sets in Sub-
space Topology
Let Y be a subspace of X. If A Closed (Y ) and Y Closed (X) then
A Closed (X).
1.4.12 Interior and Closure
The interior of a set A X is dened as
int (A) :=
_
V A, V 2Open(X)
V
The closure of a set A X is dened as
closure (A) :=

CA, C2Closed(X)
C
Some properties of interior and closure:
closure (A) Closed (X)
int (A) Open(X)
int (A) A closure (A)
A Open(X) =A = int (A)
A Closed (X) =A = closure (A)
10
1.4.13 Boundary
(HWS02E02)
The boundary of A is dened as 0A := closure
X
(A) closure
X
(X\A).
Another possibility: 0A = closure
X
(A) \int
X
(A)..
Note:
A Open(X) ==A = closure
X
(A) \0A.
A Open(X) Closed (X) ==0A = ?.
X\ (int
X
(A)) = closure
X
(X\A)
00A ,= 0A. For example, with A = Q ==0A = R ==00A = 0R = ?.
closure
X
(int
X
(closure
X
(int
X
(A)))) = closure
X
(int
X
(A)).
int
X
(closure
X
(int
X
(closure
X
(A)))) = int
X
(closure
X
(A)).
0 (closure
X
(A)) ,= 0A. For example, A = Q, 0A = R, 0 (closure
X
(A)) =
0R = ?.
1.4.14 Theorem 17.4Closure in Subspace or Ambient Space
Let Y be a subspace of X. Let A P (Y ). Then:
closure
Y
(A) = closure
X
(A) Y
1.4.15 [I] Theorem 17.5Another Characterization of Closure
Let X be a topological space and A P (X).
1. closure (A) = {x X | U
x
A ,= ?\ U
x
Open(X) s.t. x U
x
}.
2. If a basis for a topology on X, B, generates Open(X), then closure (A) =
{x X | B
x
A ,= ?\ B
x
B s.t. x B
x
}.
Proof of 1. by contradiction in both directions of containment.
1.4.16 Neighborhoods
If X is a topological space and x X, a neighborhood of x, U, is a subset of
X such that V Open(X) : x V, V U. This is equivalent to saying that
x int (V ).
Some authors (Munkres for instance) dene a neighborhood already to be
open, others only require it to contain an open set containing x.
From this point onwards in this text we shall follow Munkres convention for
neighborhoods.
In this terminology, x closure (A) i every neighborhood of x intersects
A.
11
1.4.17 ExampleClosure of Subsets in R
closure
R
((0, 1]) = [0, 1] because every neighborhood of 0 intersects (0, 1],
and every point outside of [0, 1] has a neighborhood that does not intersect
(0, 1].
If B =
_
1
n
| n N
_
then closure
R
(B) = B {0}.
If C = {0} (1, 2) then closure
R
(C) = [1, 2] {0}.
closure
R
(Q) = R
closure
R
(N) = N
closure
R
({x R| x > 0}) = {x R| x _ 0}
If Y := (0, 1] R then A :=
_
0,
1
2
_
P (Y ). closure
R
(A) =

0,
1
2

. Thus
by theorem 17.4, closure
Y
(A) =

0,
1
2

Y = (0,
1
2
].
1.4.18 Limit Points Denition
If X is a topological space and and A P (X) and if x X, we say that x
is a limit point, or a cluster point, or a point of accumulation of A if every
neighborhood of x intersects A in some point other than x itself (that is, if
\U Open(X) s.t. x U, A (U\ {x}) ,= ?). Said dierently, x is a limit
point of A if x closure
X
(A\ {x}).
1.4.19 ExampleLimit Points of Subsets in R
The set of limit points of (0, 1] in R is [0, 1].
B =
_
1
n
| n N
_
has 0 as its single limit point.
C = {0} (1, 2) has [1, 2] as the set of its limit points.
Q has R as the set of its limit points.
N has no limit points in R.
{x R| x > 0} has {x R| x _ 0} as the set of its limit points.
1.4.20 Theorem 17.6Closure and the Set of Limit Points of a Set
Let X be a topological space and let A 2
X
.
Dene A
0
:= {x X | x closure
X
(A\ {x})} (which is the set of all limit
points of A in X).
Claim: closure
X
(A) = A A
0
Proof by inclusion of both sides.
12
1.4.21 Corollary 17.7A Closed (X) =A
0
A
Proof: A Closed (X) =A = closure
X
(A), but by Theorem 17.6, closure
X
(A) =
A A
0
.
So we get A Closed (X) =A = A A
0
=A
0
A.
1.4.22 Hausdor Spaces
1.4.23 Denition of Convergence in Topological Spaces
Let X be a topological space. Let f : N X be a map. We can think of f (n)
as a sequence.
The sequence of points f (N) X converges to the point a X i \ U
Open(X) such that a U, m
a
U
N such that f ({n N| n _ m
a
U
}) U.
If we consider N with the co-nite topology, then that translates to:
What is the topology on N so that f a i f is continuous at ?
(23:53) (+zeno) You actually need the one-point compactication of N, call
it N~ which is N with the point oo adjoined, and a set U in N~ is open i either
oo is not in it, or else oo is in it and N\U is nite. (23:53) (+zeno) THen the
sequence f(1), f(2), ... of points of X converges the point x = f(oo) i f : N~ ->
X is continuous at oo.
(HWS03E05) (b) If a sequence does not converge in a given topology, it
will also not converge in a ner topology.
1.4.23.1 Example with the Cocountable Topology (HWS02E06) (c)
A sequence {x
n
} converges to x in (R, T
cocountable
) == m N such that
\n _ m, x
n
= x.
1.4.24 One-point sets are closed in R or R
2
{x
0
} is closed in either one of R or R
2
becaues (according to 1.4.15) every
point dierent from x has a neighborhood that does not intersect {x
0
}, so
closure ({x
0
}) = {x
0
}, and so {x
0
} would be closed in either R or R
2
.
In R or R
2
, a sequence cannot convergence to more than point.
1.4.25 ExampleOne-point sets are not always closed, and conver-
gence is strange
Take X := {a, b, c} with the topology Open(X) := {X, ?, {a, b} , {b} , {b, c}}.
Claim: {b} / Closed (X) Proof: X\ {b} = {a, c} / Open(X).
Claim: The sequence {x
i
} where x
i
:= b \i N convergences to the point b
and to the points a and to c. Proof: The open sets that contain a are exactly
X and {a, b}. Since x
i
= b is in both of these \i N, x
i
a. Same goes for c.
13
1.4.26 Denition of Hausdor Spaces
A topological space X is called Hausdor i \x
1
, x
2
X such that x
1
,= x
2
,
U
i
Open(X) : x
i
U
i
\i {1, 2} and U
1
U
2
= ?.
1.4.27 Theorem 17.8|A| < =A Closed (X) for Hausdor X
Proof:
Case 1: A = {x
0
}. Take any y X\ {x
0
}. Since X is Hausdor, we know
that there exist two disjoint neighborhoods of x
0
and y respectively. But that
means that every point y ,= {x
0
} has a neighborhood that does not intersect
{x
0
}, so that closure
X
({x
0
}) = {x
0
}.
Case 2: A = {x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
} for some n N. Since A is the nite
union of closed sets (by case 1), by 1.4.9 (parallel universe for closed sets)
A Closed (X).
1.4.28 Examplenon-Hausdor Space with point-sets being closed
Claim: R with the co-nite topology is not a Hausdor space.
Proof: Take any x, y R such that x ,= y. Any neighborhood of x is of the
form R\ {x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
n
} where n N and the same for any neighborhood
of y. The intersection of any two such neighborhoods will thus certainly not be
disjoint.
Claim: Every nite set in R with the co-nite topology is closed.
Proof: The complement of every such set, by denition, is open.
1.4.29 T
1
axiom
Every nite set is closed.
1.4.30 [I] Theorem 17.9Characterization of limit points in T
1
spaces
Let X be a T
1
space, let A 2
X
, and let x X.
Claim: x A
0
=\U Open(X) s.t. x U, |U A| = .
Proof: = This way works always (we dont have to assume T
1
).
If every neighborhood of x intersects A in innitely many points, then it
must intersect A\ {x}. Thus x A
0
.
= Assume that x A
0
, and assume that the theorem does not hold, that is,
U
0
Open(X) such that x U
0
and |U
0
A| < . Thus |U
0
(A\ {x})| <
Since |U
0
(A\ {x})| < and we are in a T
1
space, (U
0
(A\ {x}))
Closed (X). So (X\ (U
0
(A\ {x}))) Open(X).
Observe that x (X\ (U
0
(A\ {x}))).
Thus (X\ (U
0
(A\ {x}))) U
0
is a neighborhood of x. But observe that
((X\ (U
0
(A\ {x}))) U
0
) (A\ {x}) = ?, which contradicts our assumption
that x A
0
.
14
1.4.31 Theorem 17.10Sequences in a Hausdor Space Converge
to at Most One Point
Proof: Let X be a Hausdor space, with a point x X, and let f : N X be
a map.
Furthermore assume that lim
n!1
f (n) = x. Take any point y X\ {x}.
Since X is Hausdor, N
x
, N
y
two neighborhoods of x and y such that
N
x
N
y
= ?.
But lim
n!1
f (n) = x. So in particular, m
x
Ux
N such that f
__
n N| n _ m
x
Ux
__

U
x
.
Thus necessarily f
__
n N| n _ m
x
Ux
__
U
y
= ?which excludes lim
n!1
(n) =
y.
1.4.32 Theorem 17.11Characterization of Hausdor Spaces
Claim:
1. If X is a set with a total order <, then the order topology on X is Haus-
dor.
2. If X and Y are Hausdor, then X Y with the product topology is
Hausdor.
3. If X is a Hausdor space and A 2
X
, then A with the subspace topology
is Hausdor.
Proof:
1.
Take any x X and any y X\ {x}. WLOG x < y.
Case 1: @z X such that x < z < y.
In this case, if there is a smallest element in X, a
0
, take a neighborhood of
x to be N
x
:= [a
0
, y). If there is no smallest element in X, take any element
smaller than x, call it a and dene N
x
:= (a, y).
If there is a largest element in X, b
0
, take a neighborhood of y to be N
y
:=
(x, b
0
]. Otherwise, take any element larger than y, call it b, and dene N
y
:=
(x, b). Then N
x
N
y
= ? are two disjoint neighborhoods of x and y.
Case 2: If such a z X exists, dene the right end point of N
x
to be z
instead and the left end point of N
y
to be z.
2.
Let r
1
X Y and let r
2
(X Y ) \ {r
1
}.
Write r
i
=
_
x
i
y
i
_
\i {1, 2}. Since r
1
,= r
2
, we must have either x
1
,= x
2
or y
1
,= y
2
(or both). WLOG assume that x
1
,= x
2
. Since X is Hausdor,
N
x1
, N
x2
disjoint neighborhoods of x
1
, x
2
respectively in X. Take any neigh-
borhoods of y
1
, y
2
(since we may have y
1
= y
2
, we will not assume that these
15
neighborhoods are disjoint): N
y1
, N
y2
. Then N
x1
N
y1
is a neighborhood of r
1
which is disjoint to N
x2
N
y2
, a neighborhood of r
2
.
3.
Take any a
1
A and a
2
A\ {a
1
}. Since X is Hausdor, N
1
, N
2
two
disjoint neighborhoods of a
1
, a
2
respectively in X. By the denition of the
subspace topology, N
1
A and N
2
A are two disjoint neighborhoods of a
1
and
a
2
in A respectively. Thus A is Hausdor.
1.5 18 Continuous Functions
1.5.1 Denition of a Continous Function
Let X and Y be two topological spaces. A function f : X Y is called
continuous (relative to Open(X) and Open(Y )) if \ V Open(Y ) , f
1
(V )
Open(X).
1.5.2 Characterization of Continuity by Basis of a Topology
If Open(Y ) is generated by a basis B, then f : X Y is continuous i \B
B, f
1
(B) Open(X).
Proof: The = direction is trivial.
Next, assume that \B B, f
1
(B) Open(X). Now take any V
Open(Y ). By Lemma_TODO V =

2A
B

for some set A. But then


f
1
(V ) = f
1
_
2A
B

_
=

2A
f
1
(B

) Open(X). So that f is con-


tinuous.
1.5.3 Characterization of Continuity by Subbasis of a Topology
If Open(Y ) is generated by a subbasis S, then f : X Y is continuous i
\S S, f
1
(S) Open(X).
Proof: The = direction is trivial.
Next, assume that \S S, f
1
(S) Open(X). Now take any V
Open(Y ). By Lemma_TODO V =

2A

n
i=1
S

i
for some set A. But then
f
1
(V ) = f
1
_
2A

n
i=1
S

i
_
=

2A

n
i=1
f
1
(S

i
) Open(X). So that f
is continuous.
1.5.4 Equivalence to Continuity of real functions of a real variable
with the - c dention
TODO
1.5.5 {x} Open(X)
(HWS02E04)
If {x} Open(X) then f Y
X
is continuous at x.
16
1.5.6 Example
(HWS02E05)
f (x) :=
_
x x Q
0 x / Q
is continuous only at 0.
1.5.7 ExampleDiscontinuous Identities in the Lower Limit Topol-
ogy
The function f : R R
l
given by f (x) := x\x R is not continuous: by
1.5.2, take a basis element from the basis that generates R
l
, {[a, b)}}, [a, b),
and examine its inverse image: f
1
([a, b)) = [a, b) / Open(R).
On the other hand, the inverse map, g : R
l
R given by g (x) := x\x R
is continuous for the reason that (a, b) =

a
0
>a
[a
0
, b) Open(R
l
).
1.5.8 Denition of Continuity at a Single Point
Let X, Y be topological spaces and let f : X Y be a map. Let x
0
X. f is
(dened to be) continuous at x
0
i \ neighborhood V of f (x
0
), a neighborhood
U of x
0
such that f (U) V .
1.5.9 Theorem 18.1Characterization of Continuity
Let X, Y be topological spaces and let f : X Y be a map. Then th efollowing
are equivalent:
1. f is continuous (according to 1.5.1).
2. \A 2
X
, f (closure
X
(A)) closure
Y
(f (A)).
3. \B Closed (Y ) , f
1
(B) Closed (X).
4. f is continuous at x, \x X (according to 1.5.8).
Proof:
1. =2.
(compare with Rudins PMA Exercise 4.2)
Take some x closure
X
(A).
Take a neighborhood V of f (x). By 1.5.1 f
1
(V ) Open(X) and observe
that x f
1
(V ). Thus f
1
(V ) is a neighborhood of x. But x closure
X
(A),
so by 1.4.16, x
0
Xsuch that x
0
f
1
(V ) A. Thus f (x
0
) V f (A) =
V f (A) ,= ?. So we conclude that every neighborhood of f (x) intersects
f (A). So that again by 1.4.16 f (x) closure
Y
(f (A)).
2. ==3.
Take some B Closed (Y ).
Claim: closure
X
_
f
1
(B)
_
f
1
(B)
Proof: Take some x closure
X
_
f
1
(B)
_
. By the previous part, f (x)
closure
Y
_
f
_
f
1
(B)
__
.
17
But it is a fact of set theory that f
_
f
1
(B)
_
B (in fact if f is surjective
there will be an equality).
In addition, by 1.4.12, it is clear that any closed set that contains a set is
going to contain its closure, so if f
_
f
1
(B)
_
B =closure
Y
_
f
_
f
1
(B)
__

closure
Y
(B) = B.
So we conclude that f (x) B =x f
1
(B).
Thus f
1
(B) Closed (X).
3. =1.
Take some V Open(Y ). Thus Y \V Closed (Y ). Thus f
1
(Y \V )
Closed (X). But f
1
(Y \V ) = f
1
(Y ) \f
1
(V ) = X\f
1
(V ). Thus f
1
(V )
Open(X). Thus 1.5.1.
1. =4.
Every neighborhood of f (x), V has f
1
(V ) as a neighborhood of x, such
that f
_
f
1
(V )
_
V .
4. =1.
Take V Open(Y ). If f
1
(V ) = ? we are done as ? Open(X). Other-
wise, x f
1
(V ). Then f (x) V and so V is a neighborhood of f (x). By
4., U
x
, a neighbhorhood of x such that f (U
x
) V . Observe that this leads to
U
x
f
1
(V ). Thus f
1
(V ) =

x2f
1
(V )
U
x
Open(X).
1.5.10 The Initial Topology
(HWS03E03)
Let Y, I be sets and let (X
i
, T
i
) be a topological space, and f
i
: Y X
i
be
a map \i I.
Dene the initial topology on Y with respect to f
i
as the topology generated
by the subbasis

i2I
f
1
i
(T
i
).
The initial topology is the coarsest topology such that f
i
: (Y, T )
(X
i
, T
i
) is continuous \i I.
If (Z, V) is a topological space and f : Z Y is a map, then f is
continuous == f
i
f is continuous \i I.
If A X, then the initial topology on A with respect to the inclusion map
is the subspace topology on A.
If (X
i
, T
i
)
i2I
is a family of topological spaces and f
i
are the projections
f
i
:

j2I
X
j
X
i
, then the initial topology on

j2I
X
j
with respect to
the projections f
i
is the product topology.
1.5.11 The Final Topology
(HWS03E04)
Let Y, I be sets and let (X
i
, T
i
) be a topological space, and f
i
: X
i
Y be
a map \i I.
Dene the nal topology on Y with respect to f
i
as T :=
_
O Y : \i I, f
1
i
(O) T
i
_
.
18
The nal topology is the nest topology on Y such that f
i
is continuous
\i I.
If (Z, V) is a topological space and f : Y Z is a map, then f is
continuous == f f
i
is continuous \i I.
If X is a set T
i
are a bunch of topologies on it, and id
i
: (X, T
i
) X, the
nal topology on X with respect to id
i
is

i2I
T
i
.
1.5.12 The Co-Product Topology (Disjoint Union Topology)
(HWS03E04) (c) and (d)
The disjoint union of two topological spaces X
1
and X
2
is dened as
_
x
1
_
: x X
1
_

_
x
2
_
: x X
2
_
. If f
1
: X
1
X
1

X
2
and f
2
: X
2
X
1

X
2
are the two in-
clusion maps, then the nal topology with respect to f
1
and f
2
is {U
1

U
2
X
1

X
2
: U
1
Open(X
1
) . U
2
Open(X
2
)}.
Similarly, for any collection of topological spaces, the nal topology with
respect to the inclusion maps is
_
i2I
U
i

i2I
X
i
: U
i
Open(X
i
) \i I
_
.
This is dened as the coproduct topology.
Example: Take {0, 1} with the discrete topology.

n2N
{0, 1} with the
coproduct topology is discrete.
1.5.13 Counter Example
(HWS03E03) (d)
Take {0, 1} with the discrete topology. Observe that {0, 1}
N
with the prod-
uct topology is not discrete!
1.5.14 Homeomorphism
Let X, Y be topological spaces and let f : X Y be a bijection. If both f and
f
1
: Y X are continuous, then f is called a homeomorphism.
Equivalently, a bijection f : X Y is a homeomorphism if the following is
true: U Open(X) =f (U) Open(Y ).
1.5.15 Example
(HWS02E05)
(a, b) is homeomorphic to (0, 1)
[a, b] is homeomorphic to [0, 1] if a, b are nite.
1.5.16 Example
(HWS03E02)
The cantor set is homeomorphic to {0, 1}
N
.
19
1.5.17 Example
()
The map id
X
: (X, T ) (X, T
0
) is continuous i T is ner than T
0
, and
id
X
is a homeomorphism i T = T
0
.
1.5.18 Topological Imbedding (=Embedding)
Let X, Y be topological spaces and let f : X Y be an injection. If the
bijection g : X f (X) dened by g (x) := f (x) \x X happens to be a
homeomorphism, f is called a topological imbedding of X in Y .
1.5.19 CounterexampleBijective continuous non-homeomorphism
One example is g dened in 1.5.7.
Another example is the following (Compare with Example 4.21 in Rudins
PMA):
Let S
1
:=
_
x
y
_
R
2
| x
2
+y
2
= 1
_
be a topological space endowed with
the subspace topology from R
2
.
Let [0, 1) be a topological space endowed with the order topology.
Dene f : [0, 1) S
1
by f (t) :=
_
cos (2t)
sin (2t)
_
\t [0, 1).
Observe that f is bijective, and continuous.
However, f
1
is not continuous:
Take the set [0,
1
4
) Open([0, 1)).
Claim: f
_
[0,
1
4
)
_
/ Open
_
S
1
_
Proof: Every basis element containing the
point f (0) =
_
1
0
_
is not contained inside of f
_
[0,
1
4
)
_
.
In addition, if we dene a new function g : [0, 1) R
2
by g (t) := f (t) \t
[0, 1) then g is a counterexample for a continuous injective map that is not a
topological imbedding.
1.5.20 Theorem 18.2Rules for Constructing Continuous Functions
Let X, Y, and Z be topological spaces.
ConstantFunction If y
0
Y and f : X Y is dened such that f (X) = {y
0
}
then f is continuous.
Proof: Take any V Open(Y ).
Case 1: y
0
V , then f
1
(V ) = X Open(X).
Case 2: y
0
/ V , then f
1
(V ) = ? Open(X).
Inclusion If A is a subspace of X, then the inclusion function j : A X
dened by j (a) := a \ a A is continuous.
Proof: Take any V Open(X). Then j
1
(V ) = A V . By denition of the
subspace topology, this set is Open(A).
20
Composition If f : X Y and g : Y Z are two continuous functions then
the map g f : X Z is continous. (HWS02E04)
Proof: Observe that f
1
_
g
1
(V )
_
= (g f)
1
(V ).
DomainRestriction If f : X Y is continous and if A is a subspace of X
then the restricted function f|
A
: A Y is continous.
Proof: (HWS03E01) f|
A
= f j, where j is the inclusion map. Apply the above.
DomainRestrictionOrRangeExpansion Let f : X Y be continuous. If
f (X) Z Y then the function g : X Z obtained by restricting the
range of f is continuous. If Z Y then the function h : X Z obtained
by expanding the range of f, is continous.
Proof: Take some B Open(Z). Thus U Open(Y ) such that B = Z U.
Since Z f (X), observe that g
1
(B) = f
1
(U) Open(X).
Next, observe that h = j f where j : Y Z is the inclusion map.
LocalFormulationOfContinuity f : X Y is continous if {U

Open(X)}
such that X =

and f|
U
is continuous \.
Proof: Take some V Open(Y ).
By assumption, {U

Open(X)} such that X =

and f|
U
is con-
tinuous \.
Observe that f
1
(V ) =

_
f
1
(V ) U

_
=

_
f|
U
_
1
(V )

But since f|
U
are continuous,
_
f|
U
_
1
(V ) Open(U

). Thus V


Open(X) such that
_
f|
U
_
1
(V ) = U

. Thus
_
f|
U
_
1
(V ) Open(X).
So that

_
f|
U
_
1
(V )

Open(X).
1.5.21 Theorem 18.3The Pasting Lemma
(HWS03E01 (b) the gluing lemma)
Let X = AB where A, B Closed (X). Let f : A Y and g : B Y be
continous. If f (x) = g (x) \x A B then the function h : X Y dened by
h(x) :=
_
f (x) x A
g (x) x B
is continuous.
Proof:
Take any V Open(Y ). Observe that h
1
(V ) = f
1
(V ) g
1
(V )
Open(X).
Note: This theorem wouldve worked with open sets as well, in which case
it wouldve been a special case of the local formulation of continuity in 1.5.20.
Note: We needed f (x) = g (x) \x A B for h to be well-dened.
21
1.5.22 CounterexampleDiscontinxuous Because the Domains are
not both closed or both open
The map l : R R, both endowed with the standard topology, dened by
l (x) :=
_
x 2 x (, 0)
x + 2 x [0, )
is not continuous. (1, 3) Open(R) but l
1
((1, 3)) =
[0, 1) / Open(R).
1.5.23 Theorem 18.4Products of Continuous Functions
Let f
x
: A X, f
y
: A Y be maps and let there be a map f : A X Y
dened by f (a) :=
_
f
x
(a)
f
y
(a)
_
\a A.
Then f is continuous = both f
x
and f
y
are continuous.
The maps f
x
, f
y
are called coordinate functions of f.
Proof:
=
Let
x
: X Y X and
y
: X Y Y be the projection maps:

x
_
x
y
_
= x and
y
_
x
y
_
= y \
_
x
y
_
X Y .
Claim:
x
: X Y X is continuous
Proof: Take U Open(X). Then
1
x
(U) = U Y . Since Y Open(Y ),
by the denition of the product topology, U Y Open(X Y ).
Simiarly,
y
is continuous.
Observe that f
x
=
x
f and f
y
=
y
f.
=
Following 1.5.2, take a basis element of X Y : U
x
U
y
such that U
x

Open(X) and U
y
Open(Y ). Observe that f
1
(U
x
U
y
) = f
1
x
(U
x
)
f
1
y
(U
y
) Open(A).
Note: @ useful criterion for when f : AB X is continuous.
1.6 16 The Subspace Topology
1.6.1 Denition
Let X be a topological space and let Y 2
X
. The subspace topology on
Y is dened as follows: Open(Y ) := {Y U | U Open(X)}. With such a
topology, Y is now called a subspace of X.
1.6.2 Characterization with Closed Sets
Let X be a topological space and let Y 2
X
have the subspace topology.
Claim: If K Closed (Y ) then K = F Y where F Closed (X).
Proof: Let K Closed (Y ).
=Y \K Open(Y )
=Y \K = Y U where U Open(X).
=K = Y \ (Y U) = Y (Y \U).
22

1.6.3 Lemma 16.1Subspace Topology by Basis


If B is a basis that generates Open(X) then B
Y
:= {B Y | B B} is a basis
that generates the subspace topology on Y .
Proof:
Following 1.2.7: Take any U Open(X). Then UY is an arbitrary element
in Open(Y ). Take any y U Y . Since U Open(X), there exists B
y
B
such that y B
y
U. But that means y B
y
Y U Y .
1.6.4 Lemma 16.2Open Subspaces are Cool
Let Y be a subspace of X. If U Open(Y ) and Y Open(X) then U
Open(X).
Proof:
U Open(Y ), so U
x
Open(X) such that U = U
x
Y . So U is the nite
intersection of two open sets. nu said.
1.6.5 Lemma 16.3The Subspace topology on a Product is the
product topology of two subspaces
If A is a subspace of X and B is a subspace of Y , then the product topology
on A B where A and B are both endowed with the subpsace topology is the
same as the subspace topology on AB as a subspace in X Y .
Proof:
Claim: The basis that generates the subspace topology on AB is the same
as the basis that generates the product topology on AB X Y .
Proof: The general basis element for X Y is U V where U Open(X)
and V Open(Y ). Thus (U V ) (AB) is the general basis element of the
subspace topology of AB X Y .
Observe that (U V ) (AB) = (U A) (V B).
Observe that U A is the general open set in the subspace topology of
A X and V B is the general open set in the subpsace topology of B Y ,
(U A)(V B) is the general basis element in the product topology on AB.
Thus since the two basis are the same they generate the same topology.
1.6.6 The Order Topology and the Subspace Topology Do Not Al-
ways Agree!
1.6.6.1 Example of Agreement Take R with the standard topology and
Y := [0, 1] with the subspace topology. Thus a general basis element in the
subpsace topology is of the form: (a, b) Y :=
_

_
(a, b) a, b Y
[ 0, b ) b Y, a / Y
( a, 1 ] a Y, b / Y
Y or ? a / Y, b / Y
.
23
But this basis generates the order topology, so we have agreement.
1.6.6.2 Example of Disagreement Take R with the standard topology
and Y := [ 0, 1 ) {2}. In the subpsace topology on Y , {2} is open, because
{2} = Y (1.999, 2.0001). However in the order topology on Y , {2} is not open:
any basis element of the order topology which would contain 2 is of the form
(a, 2] Y where a Y , which necessarily cannot be contained in {2}, because
it necessarily contains points below it.
1.6.6.3 Example of Disagreement in the Plane Let I = [0, 1]. The
dictionary order on I I gives rise to a topology dierent than the subspace
topology on I I from R R with the order topology of the dictionary order.
For example, the set
_
1
2
_
(
1
2
, 1] is open in I I in the subspace topology
(it is, for example, the intersection of
_
1
2
_

_
1
2
, 1.111
_
Open
_
R
2
_
and I
2
,
which is open in the subspace topology), but not in the order topology, as
_
1/2
1
_
is not the largest element in I I with the dictionary order topology, and so
the set cannot be open.
The set I I in the dictionary order topology is called the ordered square
and is denoted by I
2
0
.
1.6.7 Dention of Convex Sets
Let X be an ordered set. Y 2
X
is called convex in X if for each a, b Y such
that a < b, {x X | a < x < b} Y .
Note that intervals and rays in X are convex in X.
1.6.8 Lemma 16.4Convex Subspaces have the same order topology
Let X be an ordered set in the order topology. Let Y 2
X
such that Y convex
in X. Then the order topology on Y is the same as the topology Y inherits as
a subspace of X.
Proof:
Claim: The order Topology on Y contains the subspace topology on Y
Proof: Take any open element in X, it will look like this:

2A
(a

, )

2B
(, a

) where a

X\ A and a

X\a B.
Thus any open element in the subspace topology on Y will look like this:

2A
(a

, )

2B
(, a

Y =

2A
((a

, ) Y )

2B
((, a

) Y ).
But (a

, ) Y and (, a

) Y are both open in the order topology on


Y , because they are either open rays in Y (in case a

or a

are in Y ) or they
are the empty set of they are the whole of Y , in either one of these cases, they
would be open sets.
Claim: The subspace topology on Y contains the order topology on Y
Proof: Take a general open set in the order topology on Y :

2A
{x Y | x > a

2B
{x Y | x > a

} where a

Y \ A and a

Y \a B.
24
We can write this as an open set in the subspace topology on Y :

2A
{x X | x > a

}
Y

2B
{x X | x > a

} Y .
1.7 19 The Product Topology
Let

2A
X

be the Cartesian product (where A may be nite, countable, or


uncountable) of the topological spaces X

.
1.7.1 Denition of the Box Topology
The box topology is generated by the basis B
box
:=
_
2A
U

| U

Open(X

)
_
.
1.7.2 Denition of the Product Topology
In analogy with 1.8.5, the collection
S :=
_
2A
_

(U

) | U

Open(X

)
_
is a subbasis for the product topology on

2A
X

.
From this it follows that the basis for the product topology is such that there
are only nitely many open sets in the product which are not the entire space,
and the rest of the product has to be the entire space.
Thus a typical basis element has the form:
_

1
1
(U
1
)
_

1
2
(U
2
)
_

_

1
n
(U
n
)
_
=

2A
U

where U

= X

whenever / {
i
| i {1, . . . , n}}.
1.7.3 Denition of tuple notation
Let J be an index set (nite, countable, or uncountable), and let X be any set.
Let x : J X a map, thus (x

)
2J
is the set of points in X indexed by J. All
J-tuples of elements of X are denoted by X
J
.
1.7.4 Theorem 19.1Comparison of the box and product topologies
Observe: for nite sets the box and product topology are identical. Secondly,
the box topology is ner than the product topology in general.
1.7.5 Theorem 19.2Basis generating product spaces
Let

2A
X

be the Cartesian product (where A may be nite, countable, or


uncountable) of the topological spaces X

, each of which is generated by the


basis B

.
The basis
_
2A
B

| B

_
generates the box topology.
The basis
_
2A
B

| B

for nitely many A, otherwise B

= X

_
generates the product topology.
25
Proof:
TODO
1.7.6 Theorem 19.3Subspace product topology
Let

2A
X

be the Cartesian product (where A may be nite, countable, or


uncountable) of the topological spaces X

, each of which has a subspace A

.
Thus

2A
A

is a subspace of

2A
X

if both products are given the box


topology, or if both products are given the product topology.
Proof:
TODO
1.7.7 Theorem 19.4Hausdor Products

2A
X

is Hausdor in both the box and product topologies.


Proof:
TODO
1.7.8 Theorem 19.5Product of Closures
Let A

for all A. Then in both the product and box topologies,

2A
closure
X
(A

) = closure
Q
2A
X
_

2A
A

_
Proof:
TODO
1.7.9 Theorem 19.6Continuous functions in the product topology
Let f : A

2J
X

be given by the equation f (a) := (f

(a))
a2J
where
f

: A X

for each J. Let



2J
X

have the product topology. Then


the function f is continuous = each function f

is continuous.
Proof:
=
Take some a J.

is continuous because if U

Open(X

), then
1

(U

) is a subbasis
element in the product topology and thus is open.
f
b
=

f.
Since both these functions are continuous, their composition is also contin-
uous.
=
Take any subbasis element from the subbasis of the product topology:

(U

) where a J and U

Open(X

).
Observe that because f
b
=

f, f
1

(U

= f
1

(U

) Open(A)
as f

is continuous.
So by 1.5.3 f is continuous.
26
1.7.10 ExampleDiscontinuous in Product Topology
R
N
=

n2N
R
Dene f : R R
N
by the equation f (t) :=
_
_
t
t
. . .
_
_
.
Thus f
n
(t) := t.
Each f
n
: R R is continuous.
By the above theorem, R
N
with the product topology is continuous then.
Claim: f is discontinuous if R
N
is given the box topology.
Proof: Take the basis element B := (1, 1)
_

1
2
,
1
2
_

1
3
,
1
3
_
. . .
in the box topology basis. Assume f
1
(B) Open(R). Thus c > 0 such
that (c, c) f
1
(B). Thus f ((c, c)) B. Apply
n
to both sides of the
inclusion to get:
f
n
((c, c)) = (c, c)
_

1
n
,
1
n
_
for any n N
Which is clearly a contradiction.
Thus f
1
(B) / Open(R), so that f is discontinuous.
1.8 15 The Product Topology on X Y
1.8.1 Denition of the Product Topology on X Y
Let X and Y be topological spaces. The product topology on XY is the topol-
ogy generated by the basis B
product
:= {U V | U Open(X) . V Open(Y )}.
Claim: B
product
is a basis for a topology.
Proof: Following 1.2.1:
Take any
_
x
y
_
X Y . Since X Y B
product
(as X and Y are open in
their respective topologies), X Y would be the basis element containing
_
x
y
_
.
This satises the rst condition for a basis.
Next, take any two basis elements from B
product
: U
1
V
1
, and U
2
V
2
.
Observe that (U
1
V
1
) (U
2
V
2
) = (U
1
U
2
) (V
1
V
2
) is a basis element
as the intersection of two open sets is again open. Thus this element fulls the
requirement for the second condition.
1.8.2 Theorem 15.1Going to the basis of the product topology
from the constituent basis
If B is the basis for the topology of X and C is the basis for the topology of Y
then the collection D := {B C | B B . C C} is a basis for the topology
of X Y .
Proof:
D Open(X Y ) because any basis element in the constituent spaces is
open. Thus take any open set in XY ,

2A
U

(that is, U

Open(X)
and V

Open(Y )). Next take any point


_
x
y
_

2A
U

(that is x U

27
and y V

for some a A). Since B is the basis for Open(X) B B such


that x B U

. Similarly, C C such that y C V

. Thus B C such
that
_
x
y
_
B C U

2A
U

. But B C D, so according
to 1.2.7 we are done.
1.8.3 Example 1The basis for Open
_
R
2
_
Thanks to 1.8.2, we can ascertain that Open
_
R
2
_
is generated by sets of open
rectangles, rather than products of arbitrary open sets.
1.8.4 Projections
Let
1
: X Y X be dened by
1
_
x
y
_
:= x\
_
x
y
_
X Y .
Let
2
: X Y X be dened by
2
_
x
y
_
:= y \
_
x
y
_
X Y .
The maps
1
and
2
are called projections of XY onto its rst and second
factors, respectively.
These maps are surjective.
1.8.5 Theorem 15.2Subbasis for the Product Topology
The collection
S :=
2
_
i=1
_

1
i
(U) | U Open(X
i
)
_
is a subbasis for the product topology on X
1
X
2
.
Proof:
Let T denote the product topology on X Y . Let T
0
denote the topology
generated by S.
T
0
T
Note that every element of S belongs to T , and so every arbitrary unions of
nite intersections of elements of S (which represent arbitrary members of T
0
).
T
0
T
On the other hand, every basis element U V for the topology T is a nite
intersection of elements of S: UV =
1
1
(U)
1
2
(V ). Therefore, UV T
0
.
But an arbitrary element of T is an arbitrary union of basis elements, whichT
0
is closed under, being a topology. Thus T T
0
.
1.9 22 The Quotient Topology
1.9.1 Denition of a Quotient Map
Let X and Y be topological spaces. Let p : X Y be a surjective map. A
quotient map is a map p such that U Open(Y ) =p
1
(U) Open(X).
Note: This condition is stronger than continuity.
28
Equivalently we could dene that U Closed (Y ) =p
1
(U) Closed (X),
because f
1
(Y \B) = X\f
1
(B).
1.9.2 Denition of a Saturated Subset
A subset C 2
X
is saturated (with respect to the surjective map p : X Y )
i C p
1
({y}) \y Y such that C p
1
({y}) ,= ?.
1.9.3 Another Characterization of Saturated Set
Claim: C is saturated = C = p
1
(B) for some B 2
Y
.
Proof:
=
Let C = p
1
(B) for some B 2
Y
.
Take some y Y such that C p
1
({y}) ,= ? = p
1
(B) p
1
({y}) ,= ?.
Thus y B.
Take some x p
1
({y}). Thus p (x) = y. Thus p (x) B. Thus x
p
1
(B) = C. So C is saturated.
=
Now assume that C is saturated.
Dene B :=
_
y Y | p
1
({y}) C ,= ?
_
.
Claim: C = p
1
(B).

Take any x C.
Then p (x) B, because p
1
({p (x)}) C {x} , = ?.
Thus x p
1
(B).

Take any x p
1
(B).
Thus p (x) B. Thus p
1
({p (x)}) C ,= ?.
But {x} p
1
({p (x)}) C. So x C.
1.9.4 Another Characterization of Saturated Set
Claim: C is saturated = C = p
1
(p (C)).
This follows from 1.9.3 together with the fact that for any set, p
1
(B) =
p
1
_
p
_
p
1
(B)
__
.
1.9.5 Quotient Maps of Saturated Sets
To say that p is a quotient map is equivalent to saying that p is surjective,
continuous and p maps saturated open sets of X to open sets of Y (or saturated
closed sets of X to closed sets of Y ).
Proof:
=
Assume that p is a quotient map. Thus p is continuous by denition.
29
Take any saturated set C Open(X). We need to show that p (C)
Open(Y ).
But C is saturated, so that C = p
1
(B) for some B Y . But since
C Open(X), p
1
(B) Open(X). But p is a quotient map, so B Open(Y ).
But p (C) = p
_
p
1
(B)
_
. Observe that p
_
p
1
(B)
_
= B since p is surjective.
Thus p (C) Open(Y ).
=
Assume that p is continuous and p maps saturated open sets of X to open
sets of Y .
Take any U Open(Y ). Since p is continuous, p
1
(U) Open(X).
Next, let U 2
Y
such that p
1
(U) Open(X).
But p
1
(U) is exactly an open saturated set.
Thus p
_
p
1
(U)
_
= U (because p is surjective) and so by our assumption
U Open(Y ).
1.9.6 Open Maps and Closed Maps
1.9.6.1 Closed maps and Open maps A map is open if \U Open(X) , f (U)
Open(Y ).
A map is closed if \U Closed (X) , f (U) Closed (Y ).
(HWS04)
The product of two closed maps is not necessarily closed: for example,
let x
0
R, f {x
0
}
R
then f id
R
: RR R{x
0
} is not closed.
1.9.6.2 Connection to Quotient Maps If p : X Y is a surjective
continuous map that is either open or closed then p is a quotient map.
However, there are quotient maps that are neither open nor closed:
(17:25) (+zeno) The identication map R -> R/Q (where all points
of Q are identied together) is a quotient map that sends the open
set (0,1) to a nonempty proper subset of R/Q, and also sends the
closed set {0} to a nonempty proper subset of R/Q. But R/Q has no
open nonempty proper subsets, as you can check.
(HWS04) (Munkres 22.3) Dene A :=
_
x
y
_
R
2
: x _ 0 . y = 0
_
.
Then dene q : A R by q :=
1
|
A
. Observe that q is a quotient
map that is neither open nor closed.
1.9.7 Example
Let X := [0, 1] [2, 3] R. Dene Y := [0, 2] R. Dene p : X Y as:
p (x) :=
_
x x [0, 1]
x 1 x [2, 3]
Observe that p is surjective, continuous (pasting lemma).
30
Claim: p is closed.
Proof 1:
p is continuous, so that it takes compact sets to compact sets.
But any closed subset of X is going to be compact, so that p (K) will
also be compact and so closed in Y .
Proof 2:
Take any U Closed (X).
Thus by 1.6.2 U = X K where K Closed (R).
=U = ([0, 1] [2, 3]) K = ([0, 1] K) ([2, 3] K).
Since ([0, 1] K) , ([2, 3] K) are two disjoint sets,
p (U) = p ([0, 1] K) p ([2, 3] K)
By denition, p ([0, 1] K) = [0, 1]K = Y ([0, 1] K) Closed (Y ).
and
p ([2, 3] K) = [1, 2] K 1 = Y ([1, 2] K 1) Closed (Y ).
So that the union of two closed sets in Y is again closed and thus
p (U) Closed (Y ).

Thus p is a quotient map. However, p is not open, because [0, 1] Open(X)


gets mapped to [0, 1] / Open(Y ).
1.9.7.1 Counterexample Let A := [0, 1)[2, 3] R. Dene Y := [0, 2]
R. Dene p : A Y as:
q (x) :=
_
x x [0, 1)
x 1 x [2, 3]
Observe that q is surjective, continuous (pasting lemma), but not a quotient
map: [2, 3] Open(A) is saturated (q
1
([1, 2]) = [2, 3]) and gets mapped to
[1, 2] / Open(Y ).
1.9.8 Example
Let
1
: R
2
R. Then
1
(projection onto the rst coordinate) is continuous
and surjective. Furthermore,
1
is an open map. Thus it is a quotient map.
But
1
is not a closed map.
Dene C :=
_
x
y
_
R
2
| xy = 1
_
Claim: C Closed
_
R
2
_
Take any
_
a
b
_
R
2
\C.
We could always pick an open rectangle around
_
a
b
_
which doesnt
intersect C. Thus R
2
\C Open
_
R
2
_
.
31
However,
1
(C) = R\ {0} Open(R).
1.9.8.1 Counterexample Let A := C
_
0
0
_
, then the map q : A R ob-
tained by restricting
1
is continuous and surjective, but it is not a quotient map:
_
0
0
__
Open(A) is saturated in A with respect to q (
_
0
0
__
=
1
1
({0})),
but its image is not open in R.
TODO: Example of non-quotient map.
1.9.9 Denition of Quotient Topology
If X is a topological space and A is a set and if p : X A is a surjective map,
then there exists exactly one topology T on A relative to which p is a quotient
map. It is called the quotient topology induced by p.
Claim: T =
_
U 2
A
| p
1
(U) Open(X)
_
Proof:
Dene R :=
_
U 2
A
| p
1
(U) Open(X)
_
.
Step 1: R is a topology.
Since p is surjective, p
1
(?) = ? and p
1
(A) = X and so
?, A R.
Let U

R\ J. Then
_
2J
U

_
Rbecause p
1
__
2J
U

__
=

2J
p
1
(U

) Open(X).
Let U
i
R\i {1, . . . , n} , n N. Then

i2{1, ..., n}
U
i

R
because p
1

i2{1, ..., n}
U
i

i2{1, ..., n}
p
1
(U
i
) Open(X).
Step 2: If A is endowed with the topology dened by R then p is a
quotient map.
p is continuous:
Take any U R. Thus p
1
(U) Open(X).
Take some U Open(X) such that U is saturated in X with
respect to p. That is, U = p
1
(B) for some B A. Then B R
because p
1
(B) = U Open(X).
Step 3: If p is a quotient map then Open(A) = R.

Take any U Open(A). Since p is continuous, p
1
(U)
Open(X). Thus U R.

Take any U R. Thus p
1
(U) Open(X). But since p is a
quotient map that means that U Open(A).

32
1.9.10 Example
Let p : R {a, b, c} be a surjective map dened by p (x) :=
_

_
a x > 0
b x < 0
c x = 0
.
The quotient topology on {a, b, c} is thus {?, {a, b, c} , {a} , {b} , {a, b}}.
1.9.11 Denition of Quotient Space
Let X be a topological space, and let X

be a partition of X into disjoint subsets


whose union is X. Let p : X X

be a surjective map that carries each point


of X to an element of X

containing it. In the quotient topology induced by p,


the space X

is called a quotient space of X. (Thus a quotient space is always


taken with respect to a certain partition of the a given topological space).
X

is also called an identication space, or a decomposition space.


Thus U 2
X

is a collection of chunks of X, and p


1
(U) is the union of
all the elements belonging to any one of those chunks, all together. So the
open sets in X

would be sets of classes whose union is an open set in X.


1.9.12 Example
Let X be the closed unit ball
_
x
y
_
R
2
| x
2
+y
2
_ 1
_
and let X

:=
_
S
1
_

_
x
y
__
2
R
2
| x
2
+y
2
< 1
_
.
X

w S
2
by the following map:
f : S
2
X

f
_
_
_
_
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
:=
_

_
S
1
_

_
x
y
z
_

_ =
_

_
0
0
2
_

_
_

_
_

_
2 arcsin
p
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
2

cos
_
arctan
_
y
x
__
2 arcsin
p
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
2

sin
_
arctan
_
y
x
__
_

_
_

_
otherwise
1.9.13 ExampleR/Q
(HWS04E01)
The quotient topology on R/Q is the trivial topology {?, R/Q}.
1.9.14 Theorem 22.1Restricted Maps of Quotient Maps
Let p : X Y be a quotient map, and let A 2
X
be a saturated set of X. Let
q : A p (A) to dened as the restriction of p to A.
33
1.9.14.1 a A Open(X) . A Closed (X) ==q is a quotient map.
1.9.14.2 b If p is either an open map or a closed map then q is a quotient
map. HOW??
1.9.15 Some Claims about Quotient Maps and Spaces
The composite map of two quotient maps is again a quotient map
The cartesian product of two quotient maps need not be a quotient map.
(see example 7)
If p and q are both open maps then p q is an open map, thus a quotient
map.
The quotient space of a Hausdor space need not be Hausdor. (HWS04E01
Zariski topology on C
2
)
S/R is Hausdor == \ [x]
R
, [y]
R
S/R : [x]
R
,= [y]
R
, A
x
, A
y

Open(S) : A
x
A
y
= ?, A
x
and A
y
are saturated, and [x]
R
A
x
and [y]
R
A
y
.
If
R
: SS {0, 1}, S/R is Hausdor ==(
R
)
1
({1}) Closed (S S)
If (
R
)
1
({1}) Closed (S S) .q : S S/R is an open map ==
S/R is Hausdor.
If each elemen of a quotient space X

is a closed subset of X then X

will
satisfy the T
1
axiom.
1.9.16 Theorem 22.2Continuous maps out of Quotient Spaces
Let p : X Y be a quotient map.
Let Z be a space and let g : X Z be a map that is constant on each set
p
1
({y}) for all y Y .
Then:
1. g induces a map, f : Y Z such that f p = g.
2. f is continuous = g is continuous.
3. f is a quotient map = g is a quotient map.
Proof:
1. Since \y Y , g
_
p
1
({y})
_
is a single-point set in Z, dene f (y) to
be that point inside of g
_
p
1
({y})
_
.
2. TODO
3. TODO
34
1.9.17 Universal Property of the Quotient Topology
(HWS04)
Let S be a topological space, R be an equivalence relation on S and q : S
S/R be the quotient map.
\ topological space T and \f T
S
: f (x) = f (y) == x
R
y !,
C (S/R, T) : f = , q.
The map is ,([x]
R
) := f (x).
1.9.18 Connectedness
(HWS06E01) Any quotient of a connected topological space is connected.
1.9.19 Homeomorphisms
Every homeomorphism is also a quotient map, and the quotient topology is
unique.
1.10 20, 21 The Metric Topology
1.10.1 Denition of a Metric
A metric on a set X is a function
d : X X R
having the following properties:
1. d (x, y) _ 0\x, y X
2. d (x, y) = 0 =x = y\x, y X
3. d (x, y) = d (y, x) \x, y X
4. d (x, y) +d (y, z) _ d (x, z) \x, y, z X
1.10.2 Denition of the -ball centered at x
For any > 0 and any x X, dene:
B
d
(x, ) := {y | d (x, y) < }
1.10.3 Denition of the Metric Topology
If d is a metric on a set X, then the topology induced by the basis {B
d
(x, ) | x X . > 0}
is called the metric topology induced by d.
Proof that this is a basis for a topology:
The rst point of 1.2.1 is fullled because the -ball centered at any
x X, for any > 0 will be a basis element containing x.
35
For the second point, let B
d
(x
1
,
1
) , B
d
(x
2
,
2
) be two basis ele-
ments and take some x
3
B
d
(x
1
,
1
) B
d
(x
2
,
2
).
Dene
3
:= min ({
1
d (x
1
, x
3
) ,
2
d (x
2
, x
3
)}).
First, observe that
3
> 0 because d (x
i
, x
3
) <
i
\i {1, 2}, which
is true as x
3
B
d
(x
1
,
1
) B
d
(x
2
,
2
).
Claim: x
3
B
d
(x
3
,
3
) B(x
1
,
1
) B
d
(x
2
,
2
)
Proof: First by denition x
3
B
d
(x
3
,
3
).
Pick some i {1, 2}.
Next, take any x B
d
(x
3
,
3
). Thus d (x, x
3
) <
3
<
i

d (x
i
, x
3
).
So that d (x, x
3
) +d (x
i
, x
3
) <
i
.
Invoke the triangle inequality to get: d (x, x
i
) <
i
= x
B
d
(x
i
,
i
).
(HWS05E02) the topology induced by a metric is the coarsest such that
the distance is a continuous function.
1.10.4 Another characterization of Metric Topology
The metric topology is T :=
_
U 2
X
| \x U > 0 : B
d
(x, ) U
_
.
1.10.5 Examples
1.10.5.1 The Discrete Topology The metric d (x, y) :=
_
1 x ,= y
0 x = y
in-
duces the discrete topology.B
d
(x, 1) = {x}.
1.10.5.2 The Order Topology The metric d (x, y) := |x y| on R induces
the order topology.
1.10.6 Metrizable Spaces
If X is a topological space, X is said to be metrizable if a metric d on the set
X of which the metric topology is equal to the original topology on X.
A metric space is a metrizable space X together with a specic metric d that
induces the topology of X.
1.10.7 The Standard Bounded Metric
Let X be a metric space with the metric d. Dene

d : X X R by the
equation

d (x, y) := min ({d (x, y) , 1})


Then

d is a metric that induces the same topology as d.
Under this metric, every subset is bounded.
36
1.10.8 The Square Metric (The Product Metric with d
1
)
The metric (x, y) := max ({|x
i
y
i
| | i {1, . . . , n}}) on R
n
is the square
metric.
Basis elements are squares in R
2
for example.
It induces the same topology as the standard topology on R
n
.
1.10.9 Lemma 20.2Comparing topologies based on comparing met-
rics
Let d and d
0
be two metrics on the set X, and let T and T
0
be the two topologies
induced by d and d
0
respectively. Then T
0
is ner than T if and only if \x
X, - > 0 c > 0 such that B
d
0 (x, c) B
d
(x, -).
Proof: TODO (by Theorem 13.3 of comparing bases for a topology)
1.10.10 Theorem 20.3Metric topologies and Product Topologies
The topologies on R
n
induced by the Euclidean metric d and the square metric
are the same as the product topology on R
n
.
1.10.11 The Uniform Metric
Let J be some index set, and let x := (x

)
2J
and y := (y

)
2J
be two points
of R
J
.
Dene the metric (x, y) := sup ({min ({|x

| , 1}) | J}) on R
J
,
called the uniform metric.
The topology it induces is called the uniform topology.
(HWS03E05) The uniform topology on R
N
is generated by the basis B
u
:=
_
B
r
({x
n
}) : r > 0, {x
n
} R
N
_
where B
r
({x
n
}) :=
_
{y
n
} R
N
: sup ({|x
n
y
n
| : n N}) < r
_
.
Observe that T
box
T
uniform
T
product
.
1.10.12 Theorem 20.4Relation between the uniform, box and prod-
uct topologies
1. The uniform topology on R
J
is ner than the product topology and coarser
than the box topology.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2. These three topologies are all dierent if J is innite.
Proof: TODO
1.10.13 R
R
is not metrizable
(16:50) (+zeno) I think one way is: K uncountable, if R^K is metrizable then
so is {0,1}^K is also, where {0,1} is discrete, but then show this space does not
have a countable local base at each point (the way a metrizable space should).
37
(16:52) (+zeno) any subspace of a metric space is metrized by the induced
("same") metric
1.10.14 Theorem 20.5R
N
is metrizable
Let x := (x
n
)
n2N
and y := (y
n
)
n2N
be two points of R
N
.
Dene the metric D(x, y) := sup
_
min({|xnyn|, 1})
n
| n N
_
.
Claim: D is a metric that induces the product topology on R
N
.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
1.10.15 Metric Topology vs. Subspace Topology
If A is a subspace of a topological space X and d is a metric for X, then the
restriction of d to AA is a metric for the topology of A.
Proof: TODO
1.10.16 Metric Topology vs. Order Topology
Some order topologies are metrizable (N and R for instance) and others are not.
1.10.17 Metric Topology vs. The Hausdor Axiom
The Hausdor axiom is satised by every metric topology.
1.10.18 Metric on Finite Product of Metric Spaces
Let (S
i
, d
i
) be a metric space \i {1, . . . , n}. Let p _ 1.
Dene D
p
(x, y) := {

n
i=1
[d
i
(x
i
, y
i
)]
p
}
1
p
for all x, y

n
i=1
S
i
.
Then D
p
is a metric on

n
i=1
S
i
which induces the product topology on

n
i=1
S
i
.
1.10.19 Metric Topology on a Countable Product Topology
The countable product topology is metrizable.
1.10.20 Theorem 21.1-c continuity equivalent to continuous func-
tions
Let f : X Y be a map from two metrizable spaces X and Y with metrics d
X
and d
Y
.
Claim: f is continuous == [ \x X, \- > 0c > 0 such that d
X
(x, y) <
c ==d
Y
(f (x) , f (y)) < - ]
Proof: TODO
38
1.10.21 Countable Basis at a point
A space X is said to have a countable basis at the point x X if a countable
collection {U
n
}
n2N
of neighborhoods of x such that any neighborhood U of x
contains at least one of the sets U
n
. A space X that has a countable basis at
each of its points is said to satisfy the rst countability axiom.
(HWS05E01) Every metrizable space has a countable basis at every point.
1.10.22 Theorme 21.2The Sequence Lemma
Let X be a topological space, x X be some point, and let A 2
X
. If there is
a sequence of points of A converging to x, then x closure
X
(A). The converse
(x closure
X
(A) implies that a sequences of points of A convering to x)
holds if X has a countable basis at x.
Proof: TODO
1.10.23 Theorem 21.3Continuity and Sequences
Let f : X Y .
Claim: f is continuous == \ {x
n
} x in X, {f (x
n
)} f (x)
Proof: (HWS02E06) (b)
Claim: For every convergence sequence {x
n
} x in X, {f (x
n
)} f (x)
and X has a countable basis at x == f is continuous.
Proof: TODO
Counterexample: (HWS02E06) (c) Observe that P (R) is ner than T
cocountable
(R).
The identity map on id
X
: (R, T
cocountable
) (R, P (R)) is not continuous
by 1.5.17. Any sequence which converges in (R, T
cocountable
) converges in
(R, P (R)) and so {,(x
n
)} converges, yet , is not continuous!
1.10.24 Lemma 21.4Constructing Continous Functions
Addition, subtraction, multiplication operations are continuous functions from
R R R.
The quotient (division) operation is a continuous function fromRR\ {0}
R.
1.10.25 Theorem 21.5Sum/Multiplication of Continuous Functions
is Continuous
If Xis a topological space and f : X R and g : X R are two continuous
functions, then f +g, f g and f g are continuous functions. If g (x) ,= 0\x X
then f/g is continuous.
Proof: TODO
39
1.10.26 Uniform Convergence Denition
Let f
n
: X Y be a sequence of functions from the set X to the metric space Y .
Led d be the metric on Y . We say that the sequence {f
n
} converges uniformly
to the function f : X Y if:
\- > 0m
"
N such that d (f
n
(x) , f (x)) < - \n > m
"
, x X
1.10.27 Theorem 21.6Uniform Limit Theorem
Let f
n
: X Y be a sequence of continuous functions from the set X to the
metric space Y . If {f
n
} converges uniformly to f then f is continuous.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
1.10.28 Uniform Metric and Uniform Convergence
Let R
X
be the space of all functions f : X R, with the uniform metric .
Claim: The sequence of functions f
n
: X R converges uniformly to f
== {f
n
} f when these two are considered as elements of the metric space
_
R
X
,
_
.
Proof: TODO
1.10.29 ExampleR
N
with the box topology is not metrizable
Proof: (HWS05) If it were then it would have had a countable basis and then by
21.2 for any set, and any point in the sets closure, there would be a sequence
converging to that point in the set, but if we take the set of all points with
positive coordinates, zero is in the closure of the set, but no sequence converges
to it.
1.10.30 ExampleAn uncountable product of R with itself is not
metrizable
Proof: (HWS05) Similar to above, dened A =
_
x

R
J
: x

= 1 for all but nitely many J


_
.
Again, zero is in the closure, but no sequence converges to zero.
1.10.31 Ultrametrics
(HWS05)
A metric space (S, d) is said to be ultrametric == \x, y, z S, d (x, z) _
max ({d (x, y) , d (y, z)}).
Example: d (x, y) :=
_
1 x ,= y
0 x = y
is ultrametric.
In an ultrametric space, every triangle is an isosceles (\x, y, z S, d (x, y) =
d (y, z) . d (x, y) = d (x, z) . d (y, z) = d (x, z)).
In an ultrametric space, \x S, - > 0, B
d
(x, -) = B
d
(y, -) \y
B
d
(x, -).
40
2 Chapter 3 Connectedness and Compactness
2.1 23 Connected Spaces
2.1.1 Separation Denition
Let X be a topological space. A separation of X is two subsets, U, V
Open(X) \ {?} such that:
1. U V = ?
2. U V = X
2.1.2 Connected Space Denition
A space X is connected if @ a separation of X.
2.1.3 TheoremHomeomorphism Preserves Connectedness
Proof:
Let X be a connected topological space, let Y be any topological space, and
let f : X Y be a homeomorphism. TODO (in handwriting)
(HWS06E02)
2.1.4 TheoremConnected Spaces Characterized by Clopen Subsets
Claim: A space X is connected ==
_
U 2
X
| U Open(X) . U Closed (X)
_
=
{X, ?}
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.1.5 Lemma 23.1Separation (another denition)
If Y is a subspace of X, a separation of Y is two sets A, B 2
Y
\ {?} such that:
1. closure
X
(A) B = A closure
X
(B) = ?
2. A B = Y
Claim: @ a separation of Y == Y is connected.
Proof: TODO (in handwritingunsolved!)
2.1.6 Lemma 23.2
If {C, D} is a separation of X, and if Y is a connected subspace of X, then
Y C Y Y D.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
41
2.1.7 [I] Lemma 23.3Union of Not-Disjoint Connected Subspaces is
Connected
Let {U

}
2J
be a collection of connected subspaces of X such that

2J
U

,=
?.
Claim:

2J
U

is a connected subspace.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.1.8 [I] Theorem 23.4
Let A be a connected subspace of X. If A B closure
X
(A) then B is a
connected subspace of X.
(A some (or all) of its limit points is connected)
(Thus closure of connected space is connected!)
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.1.9 [I] Theorem 23.5The image of a connected space under a con-
tinuous map is connected
Let X be a connected space and let Y be any space. Let f : X Y be a
continuous map.
Claim: f (X) is a connected subspace of Y .
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.1.10 Theorem 23.6A nite cartesian product of connected spaces
is connected
Let n N and let {X
i
}
i2{1,..., n}
be a nite collection of connected spaces.
Claim:

i2{1,..., n}
X
i
is a connected space.
2.1.11 Example 6R
N
is not connected in the box topology
Separate R
N
to two open sets: all bounded sequences in R
N
and all unbounded
sequences in R
N
.
2.1.12 Example 7R
N
is connected in the product topology
What is R
!
??? TODO unsolved
(19:16) (+Polytope) Munkres says that R^omega is the set of all sequences
of real numbers, and R^oo is the subspace consisting of all sequences that are
eventually zero.
(19:22) (+Psycho_pr) Hrmmm (19:24) (+Psycho_pr) R^oo = U_{n\in N}
R^n (19:24) (+Psycho_pr) R^omega = \prod_{n\in N} R
42
2.1.13 Totally Disconnected Denition
A space is called totally disconnected if its only connected subspaces are one-
point sets.
Claim: If X has the discrete topology, then X is totally disconnected.
Claim: totally disconnected spaces with a topology dierent from the
discrete topology: Q (HWS06EC).
2.1.14 Example
(HWS06)
R and R
2
are not homeomorphic because if they were, then R\ {x
0
} and
R
2
\ {f (x
0
)} would be homeomorphic (where f is the homeomorphism). How-
ever, the former is not connected whereas the second is.
2.1.15 Product of Connected Spaces
(HWS06E03) The (countable, uncountable) product of connected spaces in the
product topology is connected.
2.1.16 R\ {0} is not connected
Thus it is not path-connected. R\ {0} = (, 0) (0, ) are its connected
components.
2.1.17 Q is not connected
Thus it is not path-connected. Q =

a2Q
{a} are its connected components.
2.2 24 Connected Subspaces of the Real Line (and path
connectedness)
2.2.1 Linear Continuum Denition
A simply ordered set (1.3) L having more than one element, such that:
1. L has the least upper bound property.
2. \x, y Lsuch that x < yz Lsuch thatx < z < y.
is called a linear continuum.
2.2.2 Theorem 24.1Linear Continuums in the Order Topology are
Connected
Let L be a linear continuum with the order topology.
1. Claim: L is connected.
2. Claim: (a, b) , [a, b] , [a, b), (a, b] are connected \a, b Lsuch that a < b.
43
3. Claim: (a, ) and (, a) are connected \a L.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
Thus R, as well as rays and intervals in R are connected.
2.2.3 [I] Theorem 24.3Intermediate Value Theorem
Let X be a connected space and Y be an ordered set with the order topology.
Let f : X Y be a continuous map. If a, b X such that a ,= b, and if
r (f (a) , f (b)) then c X such that f (c) = r.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.2.4 Example 1The Ordered Square is a Linear Continuum
(HWS06E03) The order square is not locally path-connected. It is however
connected.
2.2.5 Example 2The product of a well-ordered with [0, 1) is a linear
continuum
2.2.6 Denition of a Path
Let X be a topological space and let there be two points x, y X. A path in X
from x to y is a continuous map f : [a, b] X where a, b R and a < b, such
that f (a) = x and f (b) = y.
2.2.7 Denition of Path Connectedness
A space X is said to be path connected if \x, y X a path in X from x to y.
2.2.8 [I] Path Connectedness means Connectedness
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.2.9 The continuous image of a path connected space is path con-
nected
2.2.10 Example 3The unit ball in R
n
is connected
2.2.11 Example 4Punctured Euclidean Space
Punctured Euclidean space R
n
\ {0} is path connected \n N\ {1}.
2.2.12 Example 5The Unit Sphere S
n1
R
n
S
n1
:= {x | ||x|| = 1}
If n > 1, it is path connected: g : R
n
\ {0} S
n1
dened by g (x) :=
x
||x||
is continuous and surjective.
44
2.2.13 A connected space need not be path connected
2.2.13.1 Example 6 The ordered square is connected (because it is a linear
continuum).
Claim: It is not path connected.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.2.13.2 [I] Example 7The Topologists Sine Curve S :=
_
x
sin
_
1
x
_
_
R
2
| x (0, 1]
_
Because S is the image of a connected set (0, 1] under a continuous map, S
is connected. Therefore its closure closure
R
2 (S) is also connected by Theorem
23.4 is also connected.
The topologists Sine Curve is:
closure
R
2 (S) = S
_
0
x
_
R
2
| x [1, 1]
_
Claim: closure
R
2 (S) is not path connected. (HWS06E03)
Proof: TODO (in handwriting). Its two path-connected components are S
and
_
0
x
_
R
2
| x [1, 1]
_
2.2.14 ExampleOrthogonal Group
(HWS06E04) O
n
(R) is not connected, because there is a continuous function
from it to {0, 1} which is not constant, namely, the function c
1
det. SO(n) is
connected because SO(n) (SO(2))
b
n
2
c
and SO(2) S
1
. Its two connected
components are SO
n
(R) and O
n
(R) SO
n
(R).
2.2.15 ExampleSU (2)
(HWS06E05) SU (2) is isomorphic to S
3
which is connected.
2.2.16 A riddle
(HWS06)
There cannot be an f C (R, R) such that f (R\Q) f (Q) and f (Q)
f (R\Q). If there were, then |f (R\Q)| _ i
0
== |f (R)| _ i
0
. But R is
connected, so f (R) is connected. So f (R) is connected countable subset of R,
so it is a point, so f (x) = x
0
, which is a contradiction.
2.3 25 Components and Local Connectedness
2.3.1 Components
Let X be a topological space. Dene an equivalence relation on X be setting
x y == A 2
X
such that A is connected and x, y A. The equivalence
classes of X are called components or connected components of X.
Proof that is an equivalence Relation: TODO (in handwriting)
45
2.3.2 Theorem 25.1Description of Components
The components of X are connected disjoint subspaces of X whose union is X,
such that each nonempty connected subspace of X intersects only one of them.
Proof: TODO
Each component is a closed subset of X. (Since closures are connected
and each connected subspace intersects only one component.
If there are only nitely many components then each component is also
open.
2.3.3 Path Components
Let X be a topological space. Dene an equivalence relation on X be setting
x y == path in X from x to y. The equivalence classes of X are called
path components of X.
Proof that is an equivalence Relation: TODO (in handwriting)
2.3.4 Theorem 25.2
The path components of X are path-connected disjoint subspaces of X whose
union is X such that each nonempty path connected subspace of X intersects
only one of these components.
Proof: TOOD (in handwriting)
Path components need not be closed or open.
2.3.5 Example 1Components of Q
The components of Q are all of its single points. None of the components are
open.
2.3.6 Example 2The Topologists Sine Curve
The Topologists sine curve has one component (since it is connected) and two
path components. One path component is S and another is 0 [1, 1].
Claim: S Open(closure
R
2 (S)) but S / Closed (closure
R
2 (S))
Claim: 0[1, 1] / Open(closure
R
2 (S)) yet 0[1, 1] Closed (closure
R
2 (S)).
Claim: closure
R
2 (S) \
_
0
x
_
R
2
| x [1, 1] Q
_
has only one com-
ponent but uncountably many path components.
2.3.7 Local Connectedness at x
Let X be a space and let x X.
A space X is locally connected at x if \U Open(X) : x U, V
Open(X) : x V U such that V is connected.
46
2.3.8 Locally Connected Space
If X is locally connected at each of its points, it is locally connected.
2.3.9 Local Path Connectedness at x
Let X be a space and let x X.
A space X is locally path connected at x if \U Open(X) : x U,
V Open(X) : x V U such that V is path connected.
2.3.10 Locally Path Connected Space
If X is locally connected at each of its points, it is locally path connected.
2.3.11 Example 3
Each interval and each ray in R is locally connected (and as stated previ-
ously also connected).
[1, 0) (0, 1] is not connected but it is locally connected.
The topologists sine curve is connected but not locally connected.
Q is neither connected nor locally connected.
2.3.12 Theorem 25.3A Criterion for Local Connectedness
A space X is locally connected == \U Open(X), each component of U is
open in X.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.3.13 Theorem 25.4A criterion for Local path-connectedness
A space X is locally path connected ==\U Open(X), each path component
of U is open in X.
Proof: TODO
2.3.14 Theorem 25.5A relation between path components and comp-
nents
Let X be a topological space.
1. Each path component of X lies in a component of X.
Proof: Each path component is path connected and is thus connected and
so lies in exactly one component.
2. If X is locally path connected, then the components and the path compo-
nents of X are the same.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
47
2.4 26 Compact Spaces
Every metric space (for instance, Y) is Hausdor. Then, you can use the fact
that every continuous and bijective map f : X Y is a homeomorphism (that
is, f1 is continuous), if X is compact and Y Hausdor.
To prove that claim, you can do as follows: in order to see that a map
g : X Y is continuous, you can prove that, for every closed subset C X,
g
1
(C) Y is closed. In our case, g=f1, so it suces to show that, for every
closed subset C X,
_
f
1
_
1
(C) = f (C Y ) is closed. Right?
But, if C is a closed subset of a compact space X, then its itself compact and
the image of a compact set by a continuous map, f, is compact. Hence f(C) is a
compact subset of a Hausdor space, Y. Every compact subset of a Hausdor
space is closed. Thus, f(C) is closed. qed.
2.4.1 Cover
A collection A 2
X
covers X, or is a covering of X, if

A2A
A = X.
2.4.2 Open Covering
A is an open covering if it is a covering such that A Open(X) \A A.
2.4.3 Compact Space
A space X is said to be compact if every open covering A of X contains a nite
subcollection that also covers X.
2.4.4 Example 1R is not compact
A = {(n, n + 2) | n Z} is an open cover of R which has no nite subcollection
that covers R.
2.4.5 Example 2
X = {0}
_
1
n
| n N
_
is compact.
Each cover of X will contain 0, and so will contain the innite number of
points that are near it. All the rest of the points are nite.
2.4.6 Example 3Finite Spaces are Compact
2.4.7 Example 4
(0, 1] is not compact, since the open cover A :=
_
(
1
n
, 1] | n N
_
contains no
nite subcollection covering (0, 1].
(0, 1) is not compact (same reason as above) with A :=
_
(
1
n
, 1
1
n
) | n N
_
.
2.4.8 A cover for a subspace
If Y is a subspace of X, a collection A 2
X
is said to cover Y if

A2A
A Y .
48
2.4.9 Lemma 26.1Compact Subspaces
Let Y be a subspace of X.
Claim: Y is compact == \ covering of Y by sets in Open(X), a nite
subcollection which covers Y .
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.4.10 [I] Lemma 26.2Every closed subspace of a compact space is
compact
Proof: TODO (Proven in Rudin PMA chapter 2.)
2.4.11 Lemma 26.3Every compact subspace of a Hausdor space is
closed
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.4.12 Lemma 26.4
If Y is a compact subspace of the Hausdor space X, and x
0
X\Y , then
U, V Open(X) such that x
0
U, Y V and U V = ?.
2.4.13 Example 6Theorem 26.3 breaks down without Hausdor
Condition
Take X = R with the co-nite topology. This space is not Hausdor.
Closed (X) =
_
U 2
X
| |U| <
_
{X}
Claim: Every subset of R is compact in X.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.4.14 Theorem 26.5The image of a compact space under a contin-
uous map is compact
Proof: TODO (Proven in Rudin PMA chapter 4)
2.4.15 [I] Theorem 26.6Verifying that a map is a homeomorphism
Let f : X Y be a bijective continuous function. If X is compact and Y is
Hausdor then f is a homeomorphism.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.4.16 Theorem 26.7The product of nitely many compact spaces
is compact
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
49
2.4.17 Lemma 26.8The Tube Lemma
Assumptions:
Let X be a space and Y be a compact space.
Let x
0
X.
Let N Open(X Y ) such that x
0
Y N.
Claim: W Open(X) such that:
x
0
W
W Y N.
Proof: Proven as part of Theorem 26.7.
2.4.18 Example 7The Tube Lemma does not hold if Y is not com-
pact
Let Y be the y-axis of R
2
. Dene N :=
_
x y : |x| <
1
y
2
+1
_
.
Then 0 R N Open
_
R
2
_
, but it contains no tube about 0 R.
2.4.19 Tychono TheoremThe Innite Product of Compact Spaces
is Compact
Proof: TODO
(HWS09E06)
2.4.20 Finite Intersection Property
A collection C of subsets of X is said to have the nite intersection property if
for every B 2
C
such that |B| < ,

C2B
C ,= ?
2.4.21 Theorem 26.9Criterion for Compactness Formulated in terms
of Closed Sets
Let X be a topological space.
X is compact == \C 2
Closed(X)
such that C has the nite intersection
property,

C2C
C ,= ?.
Proof: TODO (Rudin PMA chapter 2, theorem 2.36anyway, in handwrit-
ing)
Note: If we have a nested sequence, C
i
C
i+1
\i N and C
i
,= ?\i N,
then {C
i
} has the nite intersection property. Thus

i2N
C
i
,= ?.
50
2.5 27 Compact Subspaces of the Real Line
2.5.1 Theorme 27.1Every closed interval is compact
Let X be a simply ordered set having the least upper bound property.
Claim: X in the order topology has the property that each closed interval in X
is compact.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
Corollary 27.2: Every closed interval in R is compact.
2.5.2 [I] Theorem 27.3Characterization of compact subspaces of R
n
(Heine-Borel Theorem)
Let d be the Euclidean metric on R
n
and be the square metric on R
n
.
Claim: A subspace Aof R
n
is compact ==A Closed (R
n
).(diam
d
(A) < . diam

(A) < )
Proof: (Rudin Chapter 2 Theorem 2.34?) Consider only one metric (why?). For
==, build a covering by boxes of length in N. For ==, A is contained inside
some compact box of some nite size, thus, being closed, it is compact also.
2.5.3 Example 1The unit sphere and the closed unit ball are com-
pact in R
n
Because they are closed and bounded.
2.5.4 Example
A =
_
x
_
1
x
_
|x (0, 1]
_
is closed but not bounded, thus it is not com-
pact.
S =
_
x sin
_
1
x
_
|x (0, 1]
_
is bounded but not closed, thus it is not
compact.
2.5.5 Theorem 27.4Extreme Value Theorem
Let f : X Y be continuous, where Y is an ordered set in the order topology.
Claim: If X is compact then points x
min
, x
max
X such that f (x
min
) _
f (x) _ f (x
max
) for any x X.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.5.6 Distance from a point to a set
Let (X, d) be a metric space and let A 2
X
\ {?}. \x X dene the distance
from x to A by the equation:
d (x, A) := inf ({d (x, a) |a A})
Observe that for a xed A, d : X R is a continuous function, because
d (x, A) d (y, A) _ d (x, y).
51
2.5.7 Lemma 27.5The Lebesgue Number
Let A be an open covering of the metric space (X, d).
Claim: If X is compact, c
A
> 0 such that \S 2
X
such that diam(S) < c
A
,
A
S
A such that S A
S
.
The number c
A
is called the Lebesgue number of A.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.5.8 Uniform Continuity
Let (X, d
X
) and (Y, d
Y
) be two metric spaces. A function f : X Y is said to
be uniformly continuous if \- > 0c > 0 : \ (x
0
, x
1
) X
2
, d
X
(x
0
, x
1
) < c ==
d
Y
(f (x
0
) , f (x
1
)) < -.
2.5.9 Theorem 27.6Uniform Continuity Theorem
Let (X, d
X
) be a compact metric space and (Y, d
Y
) a metric space, and let
f : X Y be a continuous function.
Claim: f is uniformly continuous.
Proof: TODO (Rudins PMA chapter 4also in handwriting)
2.5.10 Isolated Point
If X is a space, x X is said to be an isolated point of X if {x} Open(X).
2.5.11 Theorem 27.7A set without isolated points is uncountable
Let X be a nonempty compact Hausdor space. If X has no isolated points,
then X is uncountable.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
Corollary 27.8: Every closed interval in R (thus compact with no isolated points)
is uncountable.
But every superset of au uncountable set is uncountable, thus R is uncountable.
2.5.12 Examples
(HWS07)
Q [0, 1] is not compact. If it were, then Q [0, 1] would have been in
Closed (R) by 26.3, however, it is not closed, since it does not contain its
limit points: (R\Q) [0, 1].
O(n) is closed, and bounded, and thus, it is compact.
A nite space is always compact.
The Cantor set is an ininite intersection of closed intervals, hence closed.
It is also bounded, hence, compact.
52
2.6 28 Limit Point Compactness
2.6.1 Limit Point Compactness
A space X is said to be limit point compact if every innite subset of X has a
limit point.
2.6.2 Theorme 28.1Compactness implies limit point compactness
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.6.3 Example 1
Y := {a, b}, Open(Y ) := {Y, ?}
X := N Y
Claim: X is limit point compact.
Proof: every nonempty subset of X has a limit point.
Claim:X is not compact.
Proof: the covering of X by open sets U
n
= {n} Y has no nite
subcollection covering X.
2.6.4 Example 2
Let S

be the minimal uncountable well-order set, in the order topology.


TODO!!!
Claim: S

is not compact.
Proof: It has no largest element.
2.6.5 Example
(HWS09E02) In [0, 1]
N
with the uniform topology, The set
_
a [0, 1]
N
: i
0
N :
i0
(a) = 1 .
i
(a) = 0\i N\ {i
0
}
_
is innite but has no limit point.
(HWS09E03) [0, 1] is not limit point compact in the lower limit topology.
Take the set
_
1
1
n
: n N
_
, it has no limit points. The neighborhood
[1, 2) of 1 does not intersect the set at all.
2.6.6 Limit Point Compactness and Continuous Functions
(HWS09E04) If f C (X, Y ) and X is limit point compact, f (X) is not
necessarily limit point compact
Take X :=
_
N, 2
N
_
({a, b} , {?, {a, b}}) and let the continuous
function be the projection onto the rst coordinate. X is limit point
compact, but
_
N, 2
N
_
is not.
53
2.6.7 Limit Point Compactness and Closedness
(HWS09E04) If X is limit point compact and A Closed (X) then A is limit
point compact.
2.6.8 Sequential Compactness
Let X be a topological space. If every sequence of points of X has a convergent
subsequence then X is sequentially compact.
2.6.9 CounterexampleNon-Sequentially Compact Space
(HWS09E05)
[0, 1]
[0, 1]
is not sequentially compact. If x [0, 1] then dene f
n

[0, 1]
[0, 1]

N
as f
n
(x) := the nth binary digit of x. If there were a subsequence of f
n
con-
verging, then we could take the number dened as alternating digits of that
subsequence, and the function on that number wouldnt converge.
2.6.10 Theorem 28.2
Let X be a metrizable space. Then the following are equivalent:
1. X is compact.
2. X is limit point compact.
3. X is sequentially compact.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.7 29 Local Compactness (note: not in material for test
utility for measure theory)
2.7.1 Local Compactness at a point
A space X is called locally compact at x X i some compact C
x
2
X
such
that U
Cx
Open(X) such that x U
Cx
C
x
.
2.7.2 Local Compactness of a space
A space X is locally compact i it is locally compact \x X.
Observe: A compact space is automatically locally compact, as the space itself
would contain any neighborhood of any point.
54
2.7.3 Example 1R is locally compact, Q is not
Take any x R. Then a, b R such that x (a, b) [a, b]. [a, b] is compact.
Q is not locally compact: Take any rational r Q. If Q were compact, wed be
able to nd a neighborhood U
r
whose closure would be compact, hence sequen-
tially compact, hence, contain a sequence which has a convergent subsequence.
But we can take then a sequence of rationals in U
r
convering to an irrational in
closure
R
(U
r
).
2.7.4 Example 2R
n
is locally compact, R
N
is not.
The same argument as above applies for R
n
. For R
N
, any basis element will not
be contained in a compact subspace.
2.7.5 Example 3Simply Ordered set with Sup Property
Every simply ordered set X with the least upper bound property is locally
compact: Given a basis element for X, it is contained in a closed interval in X,
which is compact.
2.7.6 Theorem 29.1One Point Compactication
(HWS07) Alexandro Compactication
Let X be a space.
Claim: X is locally compact Hausdro == a space Y such that:
1. X Y with the subspace topology.
2. |Y \X| = 1
3. Y is a compact Hausdor space.
If Y and Y
0
are two spaces satisfying these conditions, then there is a homeo-
morphism of Y to Y
0
that equals the identity map on X.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
Observe: If X is itself compact, then Y is simply X together with a single
point. If X is not compact, Y \X contains a limit point of X in Y , so that
closure
Y
(X) = Y .
Dene Y = X{} and Open(Y ) := Open(X){{} X\K : K X is compact}.
2.7.7 Compactication
If Y is a compact Hausdor space, and X is a proper subspace of Y such that
closure
Y
(X) = Y , then Y is called the compactication of X. If |Y \X| = 1,
then Y is called the one point compactication of X.
55
2.7.8 Example 4R and R
2
(HWS08)
The one-point compactication of R is homeomorphic to S
1
.
The one-point compactication of R
2
is homeomorphic to S
2
.
If R
2
is considered as C, then the one-point compactication, C{} is called
the Riemann Sphere or the extended complex plane.
Observe that S
2
is not homeomorphic to S
1
S
1
(
1
_
S
1
S
1
_
Z
2
which
is not homomorphic to
1
_
S
2
_
= {[e
x0
]}.
2.7.9 Theorem 29.2Another Characterization of Local Compact-
ness
(HWS07)
Let X be a Hausdor space.
X is locally compact == \x X\ neighborhood of U of x, a neighborhood
V of x such that closure
X
(V ) is compact and closure
X
(V ) U.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.7.10 Corollary 29.3
Let X be locally compact Hausdor and let A 2
X
. If A Closed (X) or
A Open(X) then A is locally compact.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
2.7.11 Corollary 29.4
A space X is homeomorphic to an open subspace of a compact Hausdor space
== X is locally compact Hausdor.
Proof: Theorem 29.1 and Corollary 29.3.
2.7.12 Proper Maps
(HWS07)
A map of topological spaces f : S T is said to be proper ==\ topological
space Z, f id
Z
: S Z T Z is closed.
S is a compact topological space == S {} is proper.
The composition and product of proper maps is proper.
Let S be Hausdor and T be locally compact Hausdor. f is proper ==
f is closed . f
1
({t}) is compact \t T == \K T which is compact,
f
1
(K) is compact.
56
3 Chapter 4 Countability and Separation Axioms
(not part of the curriculum for the testfor
competeness reasons)
3.1 31 The Separation Axioms
3.1.1 Regular and Normal Spaces
Assume X is a space such that {x} Closed (X) \x X.
If \
_
x
B
_

_
X
_
Closed (X) 2
X\{x}
__
U, V Open(X) such that:
x U
B V
U V = ?
Then X is said to be regular.
If \
_
A
B
_
Closed (X)
_
Closed (X) 2
X\A
_
U, V Open(X) such
that:
A U
B V
U V = ?
Then X is said to be normal.
Observe: A regular space is Hausdor, and a normal space is regular.
3.2 35 Imbeddings of Manifolds
3.2.1 m-Manifold
Let m N. An m-manifold is a Hausdor space X with a countable ba-
sis (1.10.21) such that \x X, N
x
Open(X) : x N
x
such that V
Open(R
m
) such that N
x
is homeomorphic with V .
1. A curve is a 1-manifold.
2. A surface is a 2-manifold.
It can be proven that a manifold can be imbedded in a nite-dimensional Eu-
clidean space.
3.2.2 Support of a Function
Let c R
X
. Dene the support of c, supp (c) := closure
X
_
c
1
(R\ {0})
_
.
Observe: If x / supp (c) then U Open(X) : x U such that c(U) = {0}.
57
3.2.3 Partition of Unity
Let {U
i
}
n
i=1
Open(X) be an open covering of the space X. {c
i
}
n
i=1

C (X, [0, 1]) is said to be a partition of unity dominated by {U
i
}
n
i=1
if:
1. supp (c
i
) U
i
\i {1, . . . , n}
2.

n
i=1
c(x) = 1\x X
3.2.4 Theorem 36.1Existence of Finite Partitions of Unity
Let {U
i
}
n
i=1
Open(X) be an open covering of the normal space X. Then a
partition of unity dominated by {U
i
}
n
i=1
.
Proof: TODO
4 Chapter 7 Complete Metric Spaces and Func-
tion Spaces
4.1 43 Complete Metric Spaces
4.1.1 Complete Metric Spaces
The metric space (X, d) is said to be complete if every Cauchy sequence in X
converges.
4.1.2 Lemma 43.1
A metric space X is complete if every Cauchy sequence in X has a convergent
subsequence.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
4.1.3 Theorem 43.2R
k
is complete
Euclidean space R
k
is complete in either of its usual metrics, the Euclidean
metric d or the square metric .
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
4.1.4 Lemma 43.3
Let X be the product space X =

.
Let x
n
be a sequence of points of X.
Claim: x
n
x ==

(x
n
)

(x) \
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
58
4.1.5 Theorem 43.4Metric on the product space R
N
such that it is
complete
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
d (a, b) := min ({|a b| , 1}) is the standard bounded metric on R.
Dene the metric D on R
N
by D(x, y) := sup
_
d(xi, yi)
i
| i N
_
D induces the product topology on R
N
.
Claim:
_
R
N
, D
_
is complete.
4.1.6 Example 1Non-complete Metric Space
Q with d (x, y) := |x y| is not complete. Take any sequence of rationals
convering to
_
2, which is Cauchy in Q but does not converge in Q.
4.1.7 Example 2Non-complete Metric Space
(1, 1) Open(R) with the metric d (x, y) := |x y| is not complete. The
sequence x
n
:= 1
1
n
is Cauchy but does not converge.
However, (1, 1) is homeomorphic to R, and R is complete, thus, com-
pleteness is not preserved under homeomorphisms. Thus completeness is not a
topological quality.
4.1.8 The Uniform Metric
Let (Y, d) be a metric space. Dene d (a, b) := min ({d (a, b) , 1}) to be the
standard bounded metric on Y derived from d.
Let x := (x

)
2J
and y := (y

)
2J
be two points in the cartesian product Y
J
.
Dene:
(x, y) := sup
__
d (x

, y

) | J
__
is a metric, called the uniform metric on Y
J
corresponding to the metric
d on Y .
4.1.9 Theorem 43.5Complete Cartesian Product Spaces
If Y is complete in the metric d, then Y
J
is complete in the uniform metric
corresponding to d.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
4.1.10 Theorem 43.6All Continuous and Bounded Functions
Let X be a topological space Y be a metric space.
1. Dene C (X, Y ) Y
X
to be the space of all continuous functions f : X
Y .
59
Claim: C (X, Y ) Closed
_
Y
X
,
_
Claim: If Y is complete, (C (X, Y ) , ) is complete.
2. Dene B (X, Y ) Y
X
to be the space of all bounded functions f : X Y .
Claim: B (X, Y ) Closed
_
Y
X
,
_
Claim: If Y is complete, (B (X, Y ) , ) is complete.
4.1.11 The Sup Metric
Let (Y, d) be a metric space, and dene a metricthe sup metricon B (X, Y )
by: (g, f) := sup ({d (f (x) , g (x)) | x X})
Observe: (f, g) = min ({ (f, g) , 1})
Observe: If X is compact, C (X, Y ) B (X, Y ) and so the sup metric is
dened on C (X, Y ). Thus if Y is complete, C (X, Y ) is also complete in
_
Y
X
,
_
.
4.1.12 Completion of a Metric Space
Let X be a metric space. If h Y
X
is an isometric imbedding of X into a
complete metric space Y , then the subspace h(X) of Y is a complete metric
space, called the completion of X. The completion is uniquely determined up
to an isometry.
(HW10E05) The completion of Q is R with respect to the standard metric.
The completion of Z is Z with respect to the standard metric.
4.1.13 Theorem 43.7Isometric Imbedding in a Complete Metric
Space
Let (X, d) be a metric space.
Claim: an isometric imbedding of X into a complete metric space.
Proof: TODO (in Rudin PMA (chapter 3 and 8twice!)
4.1.14 l
2
(R) space
(HWS10E01) The set l
2
(R) of all sequences in R such that

1
i=1
x
2
i
converges
is complete in hte l
2
-metric: d (x, y) :=
_

1
i=1
(x
i
y
i
)
2
.
If a
n
l
2
(R)
N
is Cauchy then, then each coordinate separately is Cauchy,
and so converges to something. The sequence a
n
then converges to the
point composed of all those coordinates.
60
4.2 44 Theorem 44.1The Peano Space-Filling Curve
Let I = [0, 1].
Claim: f C
_
I, I
2
_
such that f (I) = I
2
.
Proof: TODO (in handwritingalso in Rudin PMA chapter 8 in exercises)
(HWS10E02)
There is also a continuous surjective map g : I I
n
\n N, but of course
it is not injective, because then it could be made into a homeomorphism,
but I without a point is disconnected and I
n
isnt.
Thus we can create such a map from R R
n
, as a limit of maps into
compact subspaces.
R
N
with the product topology has no continuous surjective map from R
to it.
R
N
is not the countable union of compact subspaces.
4.3 45 Compactness in Metric Spaces
4.3.1 Total Boundedness
A metric space (X, d) is totally bounded if \- > 0, a nite covering by --balls.
Observe: Total boundedness implies boundedness.
Observe: Boundedness does not imply total boundedness! In the bounded met-
ric, R is bounded but not totally bounded.
4.3.2 Example 2
Under the metric |a b|, R is complete, but not totally bounded, whereas
(1, 1) is totally bounded but not complete. [1, 1] is both complete and
totally bounded.
4.3.3 Theorem 45.1Complete Metric Spaces
A metric space (X, d) is compact == X is complete and totally bounded.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
4.3.4 Products of Compact Metric Spaces
(HWS10E03)
If (X
i
, d
i
) are metric spaces \i N then D(x, y) := sup
_
di(xi, yi)
i
: i N
_
is a metric on

i2N
X
i
. X is totally bounded if each X
i
is totally bounded. Thus
by 45.1, since X is complete (TODO), then X is complete and totally bounded,
and so, compact.
61
4.3.5 Equicontinuity
Let (Y, d
Y
) be a metric space. Let X be a topological space. Let F C (X, Y ).
Let x
0
X.
F is equicontinuous at x
0
i \- > 0U Open(X) : x
0
U such that \x
U, \f F:
d
Y
(f (x) , f (x
0
)) < -
If F is equicontinuous at x
0
\x
0
X, then F is equicontinuous.
4.3.6 Lemma 45.2
Let (Y, d
Y
) be a metric space. Let X be a topological space. Let F C (X, Y ).
Claim: If F is totally bounded is totally bounded under the uniform metric
corresponding to d
Y
, then F is equicontinuous under d
Y
.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
4.3.7 Lemma 45.3
Assumptions:
1. Let (Y, d
Y
) be a compact metric space.
2. Let X be a compact topological space.
3. Let F C (X, Y ) be equicontinuous under d
Y
.
Claim: F is totally bounded under the uniform and sup metrics corre-
sponding to d
Y
.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
4.3.8 Pointwise Boundedness
Let (Y, d
Y
) be a metric space. Let F C (X, Y ). F is called pointwise bounded
under d
Y
if \x X, {f (x) | f F} is bounded under d
Y
.
4.3.9 Theorem 45.4Ascolis Theorem, the Classical Version
Let X be a compact topological space. Let d be the Euclidean metric or the
square metric on R
n
. Let (C (X, R
n
) , ) be the corresponding metric space with
the uniform metric. Let F C (X, Y ).
Claim: Closure
(C(X, R
n
), )
(F) is compact == F is equicontinuous and
pointwise bounded under d.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
62
4.3.10 Corollary 45.5
Let X be a compact topological space. Let d be the square metric or the
Euclidean metric on R
n
. Let (C (X, R
n
) , ) be the corresponding metric space
with the uniform metric. Let F C (X, Y ).
Claim: F is compact == F is closed, bounded under the sup metric
and equicontinuous under d.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
4.3.11 Equicontinuity Criterions
(HWS10E04)
Let (Y, d) be a metric space. Let F 2
C(X, Y )
.
|F| < ==F is equicontinuous.
If f
n
C (X, Y )
N
converges uniformly, then {f
n
} is equicontinous (com-
pare with Rudin about compact condition).
If F is a collection of dierentiable functions f R
R
such that each x R
lies in a neighborhood U on which the derivatives of the functions in F
are uniformly bounded, then F is equicontinous.
4.4 46 Pointwise and Compact Convergence
(HWS07E01)
4.4.1 The Compact-Open Topology
Let X and Y be topological spaces. If C is a compact subspace of X and U
Open(Y ), dene S (C, U) := {f C (X, Y ) : f (C) U}. The sets S (C, U)
form a subbasis for a topology on C (X, Y ) that is called the compact-open
topology.
C ({} , Y ) Y
If X is compact and Y is metrizable, then the compact-open topology is
metrizable.
If Y is Hausdor, then the compact-open topology is Hausdor.
63
Part II
Algebraic Topology
5 Chapter 9 The Fundamental Group
The goal: to be able to show that two given spaces are not homeomorphic.
Thus we need to generate more topological properties. One such property is
the free group.
TODO: The long line.
Two spaces that are homeomorphic have fundamental groups that are
isomorphic.
Simple-connectedness means the fundamental group is trivial.
Throughout, I := [0, 1].
5.1 51 Homotopy of Paths
5.1.1 Groupoid
A group without closure (the composition is not dened on any two elements).
5.1.2 Homotopy of Maps
Let f, f
0
C (X, Y ).
f is homotopic to f
0
if F C (X I, Y ) such that F (x, 0) = f (x).F (x, 1) =
f
0
(x) \x X.
F is called a homotopy between f and f
0
.
f being homotopic to f
0
is denoted by f f
0
.
5.1.2.1 Nulhomotopy If f f
0
and f
0
is a constant map, then f is nul-
homotopic.
5.1.3 Path Homotopy
Let x
0
, x
1
X.
Let f and f
0
be two paths from x
0
to x
1
.
f and f
0
are path homotopic f F C
_
I
2
, X
_
such that:
\s I
F (s, 0) = f (s)
F (s, 1) = f
0
(s)
(s can be thought of as where we are at a given path)
64
\t I
F (0, t) = x
0
F (1, t) = x
1
(t can be thought of as a label for the set of possible paths)
F is a path homotopy between f and f
0
.
f being path homotopic to f
0
is denoted by f
p
f
0
.
Thus a path homotopy between two paths is also a homotopy, but a stronger
one, in the sense that the end points are kept xed for all the variations of paths
in between (so that they are also paths).
5.1.4 Lemma 51.1Homotopy and Path Homotopy are Equivalence
Relations
The path homotopy class of f will be denoted by [f].
Proof: TODO (in handwriting)
5.1.5 Example 1Straight-Line Homotopy
Let f, g C
_
X, R
2
_
.
Then f g: F (x, t) := (1 t) f (x) +tg (x), which is a homotopy between f
and g.
If f and g are paths from x
0
to x
1
, then F is a path homotopy from f to g.
5.1.5.1 A convex set in R
n
A convex set in R
n
contains the straight line
between any two points inside of it.
If A is a convex subspace of R
n
then any two paths f, g in A from x
0
to x
1
are path homotopic in A, for the straight-line homotopy F between them has
its image set in A.
5.1.5.2 Star Convex (HWS11E01)
A R
n
is star convex if a point a
0
A such that all line segments joining
a
0
to the other points of A lie in A.
A star convex set which is not convex is star shaped subset of R
2
.
A star convex set is simply connected.
5.1.6 Example 2The Punctured Plane
Let X := R
2
\ {0}. Then f (s) :=
_
cos (s)
sin (s)
_
and g (s) :=
_
cos (s)
2 sin (s)
_
are path
homotopic. The straight-line homotopy between them exists. But the path
h(s) :=
_
cos (s)
sin (s)
_
is not homotopic to f, for example (this is not a proof)
the straight line homotopy will necessarily pass through the origin.
65
5.1.7 The Product of Paths
Let x
0
, x
1
, x
2
X.
Let f C (I, X) such that f (0) = x
0
and f (1) = x
1
.
Let g C (I, X) such that g (0) = x
1
and g (1) = x
2
.
Dene a path from x
0
to x
2
, denoted by f g, called the product of the paths
f and g as follows:
(f g) (s) :=
_
f (2s) s

0,
1
2

g (2s 1) s

1
2
, 1

f g C (I, X) (by the pasting lemma)


5.1.8 The Product of Path Homotopy Classes
Dene a composition law between two path homotopy classes [f] and [g] as
[f] [g] := [f g].
Claim: This product is well-dened.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.1.9 Theorem 51.2The Path-Homotopy Classes Form a Groupoid
5.1.9.1 Denition of Identity Map Dene e
x
C (I, X) by e
x
(s) :=
x \s I.
5.1.9.2 Denition of the Reverse Map If f is a path from x
0
to x
1
then
dene path from x
1
to x
0
, denoted by f, called the reverse of f, by f (s) :=
f (1 s) \s I.
5.1.9.3 Denition of the Positive Linear Map If a, b, c, d R such that
a < b . c < d then !p C ([a, b] , [c, d]) of the form p (x) =
dc
ba
x a
dc
ba
+c
such that p (a) = c . p (b) = d.
p is called the positive linear map from [a, b] to [c, d]. The inverse of a positive
linear map and the composite of two positive linear maps are positive linear
maps.
5.1.9.4 Associativity of If [f] ([g] [h]) is dened, then ([f] [g]) [h]
is also dened and [f] ([g] [h]) = ([f] [g]) [h].
5.1.9.5 Right and Left Inverses for If f is a path from x
0
to x
1
then
[e
x0
] [f] = [f] and [f] [e
x1
] = [f].
66
5.1.9.6 Inverse for If f is a path from x
0
to x
1
, then [f]

= [e
x0
]
and

f

[f] = [e
x1
].
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.1.10 Theorem 51.3
Let f be a path in X and let {a
i
}
n
i=1
be n numbers such that 0 = a
0
< a
1
<
< a
n
= 1. Let f
i
C (I, X) be the path that equals the positive linear map
of I onto [a
i1
, a
i
] followed by f. Then
[f] = [f
1
] [f
n
]
Proof: TODO.
5.2 52 The Fundamental Group
5.2.1 Loops
Let X be a space, and let x
0
X. A path in X from x
0
to x
0
is called a loop
based at x
0
.
5.2.2 The Fundamental Group
The set of path homotopy classes of loops based at the point x
0
X, together
with the operation , is called the fundamental group of X relative to the base
point x
0
. It is denoted by
1
(X, x
0
). Alternatively it is called the rst homotopy
group of X.
Given two loops f and g with base at x
0
, the product f g is always dened
and is a loop based at x
0
. Thus is closed on the set of path homotopy classes
and so by 51.2 we have indeed a group.
5.2.3 Example with Topological Groups
(HWS11E04) If G is a topological group then
1
(G, x
0
) is Abelian. This follows
from observing that [f] [g] = [m(f (t) , g (t))] where m is the group compo-
sition and also by observing that m((a b) (t) , (c d) (t)) = m(a (t) , c (t))
m(b (t) , d (t)) and using tricks with the identity element.
5.2.4 Example 1R
n
Let x
0
R
n
be any point. Then
1
(R
n
, x
0
) is trivial. This is because the
straight-line homotopy is a path homotopy between any loop based at x
0
and
the constant path at x
0
.
Generally, if X is any convex subset of R
n
, then
1
(X, x
0
) = {[e
x0
]}. This, in
particular, includes the unit ball.
67
5.2.5 Fundamental Groups at Dierent Base Points
Let be a path in X from x
0
to x
1
.
Dene a map
1
(X, x
1
)
1(X, x0)
by the equation ([f]) := [] [f] [] for
any [f]
1
(X, x
0
).
5.2.6 Theorem 52.1
The map is a group isomorphism.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.2.7 Corollary 52.2
If X is path connected and x
0
, x
1
X , then
1
(X, x
0
) is isomorphic to

1
(X, x
1
).
It is easy to verify then that if C is a path component of X containing x
0
then

1
(C, x
0
) =
1
(X, x
0
), since all loops and homotopies in X that are based
at x
0
must lie in a subspace of C. Thus
1
(X, x
0
) depends on only the path
component of X containing x
0
and gives no information about the rest of X.
5.2.8 LemmaExercise 3Path connected and Abelianness
(HWS11E02)
The isomorphism of
1
(X, x
0
) with
1
(X, x
1
) is independent of path if and
only if the fundamental group is Abelian. That is:
Let x
0
, x
1
X, where X is path connected.

1
(X, x
0
) is Abelian == \, a paths from x
0
to x
1
, =

a.
5.2.9 Simply Connectedness
A space X is said to be simply connected if it is a path-connected space and
if
1
(X, x
0
) is trivial for some x
0
X (and hence for every x X). This is
denoted by
1
(X, x
0
) = 0.
5.2.10 Lemma 52.3
If X is simply connected, any two paths from the same initial to nal points are
path homotopic.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.2.11 The Homomorphism Induced by a Continuous Map
Let h C (X, Y ) such that h(x
0
) = y
0
. Dene (h
x0
)


1
(Y, y
0
)
1(X, x0)
by
the equation (h
x0
)

([f]) := [h f].
The map h

is called the homomorphism induced by h, relative to the base point


x
0
(once x
0
is chosen y
0
= h(x
0
)).
h

is indeed a group homomorphism, because (h f) (h g) = h (f g).


68
5.2.12 Theorem 52.4Functorial Properties of the Induced Homo-
morphism
Let h C (X, Y ) such that h(x
0
) = y
0
and let k C (Y, Z) such that k (y
0
) =
z
0
.
Then:
(k h)

= k

.
(id
X
)

is the identity homomorphism.


Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.2.13 Corollary 52.5
If h : (X, x
0
) (Y, y
0
) is a homeomorphism of X with Y , then h

is a group
isomorphism of of
1
(X, x
0
) with
1
(Y, y
0
).
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.2.14 Example
(HWS11E03)
Let x
0
, x
1
X, y
0
, y
1
Y . Let h C (X, Y ) such that h(x
0
) = y
0
.h(x
1
) =
y
1
. Let be a path from x
0
to x
1
and dene a := h (a path from y
0
to y
1
).
Then

a h

= h

.
5.3 53 Covering Spaces
5.3.1 Evenly Covered Open Sets
Let p C (E, B) be surjective. U Open(B) is evenly covered by p if:
{V

} Open(E) such that V

= ?\ ,= a.
p
1
(U) =

.
\, p|
V
is a homeomorphism of V

onto U.
{V

} is called a partition of p
1
(U) into slices.
Observe: If U is evenly covered by p and W Open(B) 2
U
, then W is also
evenly covered by p.
5.3.2 Covering Map and Covering Space
Let p C (E, B) be surjective. If \b BU Open(B) : b U such that U
is evenly covered by p, then p is called a covering map, and E is said to be a
covering space of B.
Observe: If p : E B is a covering map, then
\b B, p
1
({b}) E with the subspace topology has the discrete topol-
ogy.
p is an open map.
69
5.3.3 Example 1
Let X be any space. id
X
is a covering map.
More generally, let E = X {1, . . . , n} (n disjoint copies of X). The map
p : E X given by p (x, i) = x\i {1, . . . , n} is a covering map.
5.3.4 Theorem 53.1
The map p
_
S
1
_
R
given by the equation p (x) :=
_
cos (2x)
sin (2x)
_
is a covering
map.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.3.5 Local Homeomorphism
If p : E B is a covering map, then p is a local homeomorphism of E with B:
Each point e E has a neighborhood that is mapped homeomorphically by p
onto an open subset of B. The condition that p be a local homeomorphism does
not suce, however, to ensure that p is a covering map.
5.3.5.1 Example 2Counter Example The map p : R
+
S
1
given by
the equation p (x) :=
_
cos (2x)
sin (2x)
_
is surjective, and it is a local homeomorphism.
But it is not a covering map:
_
1
0
_
has no neighborhood U that is evenly covered
by p. Each neighborhood of
_
1
0
_
has a preimage that contains an interval of
the form (0, -) (along with neighborhoods of n\n N) but the interval is not
homeomorphically mapped onto U, only imbedded in U by p (not surjective).
5.3.6 Example 3
The map p : S
1
S
1
given by p (z) := z
2
is a covering map.
5.3.7 Theorem 53.2
Let p : E B be a covering map. If B
0
is a subspace of B, and if E
0
= p
1
(B
0
)
then the map p
0
: E
0
B
0
obtained by restricting p is a covering map.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.3.8 Theorem 53.3
If p : E B and p
0
: E
0
B
0
are covering maps, then pp
0
: EE
0
BB
0
is a covering map.
Proof: TODO
70
5.3.9 Example 4The Torus
The space T = S
1
S
1
is called the torus. The product map: p p : R R
S
1
S
1
is a covering map of the torus by the plane R
2
, where p denotes the
covering map of Theorme 53.1.
5.3.10 Example 5The Figure-Eight Space
B
0
:=

S
1

_
1
0
_

_
1
0
_
S
1

is the gure-eight space.


The space E
0
= p
1
(B
0
) = (R Z) (Z R) is the innite grid. It is only one
covering space of the gure eight.
5.3.11 Example 6
The map p id
R+
: R R
+
S
1
R
+
where p is the map of theorem 53.1 is
a covering map.
We can thus form a covering of R
2
\ {0} by compsing pid
R+
with the standard
homeomorphism of R R
+
with R
2
\ {0}.
5.4 54 The Fundamental Group of the Circle
5.4.1 A Lifting
Let p B
E
. If f C (X, B), a lifting of f is some

f E
X
such that p

f = f.
5.4.2 Example 1
Let p : R S
1
be as dened in Theorem 53.1.
Let f : [0, 1] S
1
be a path beginning at from
_
1
0
_
given by f (s) =
_
cos (s)
sin (s)
_
.
f lifts to the path

f (s) =
s
2
beginning at 0 and ending at
1
2
.
5.4.3 Lemma 54.1
Let p B
E
be a covering map, such that p (e
0
) = b
0
. Any path f : [0, 1] B
beginning at b
0
has a unique lifting to a path

f in E beginning at e
0
.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.4.4 Lemma 54.2
Let p B
E
be a covering map, let p (e
0
) = b
0
. Let the map F C
_
I
2
, B
_
be
such that F (0, 0) = b
0
.
Claim:
! a lifting of F to a continuous map

F C
_
I
2
, E
_
such that

F (0, 0) = e
0
.
71
If F is a path homotopy, then

F is a path homotopy.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.4.5 Theorem 54.3
Assumptions:
Let p C (E, B) be a covering map.
Let p (e
0
) = b
0
.
Let f, g C (I, B) be two paths from b
0
to b
1
.
Let

f, g be their respective liftings to paths in E beginning at e
0
.
Claim: If f
p
g then

f and g end at the same point of E and

f
p
g.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.4.6 Lifting Correspondence
Assumptions:
Let p B
E
be a covering map.
Let b
0
B. Choose e
0
so that p (e
0
) = b
0
.
Let [f]
1
(B, b
0
).
Let

f be the lifting of f to a path in E that begins at e
0
.
Dene c([f]) :=

f (1).
Claim: c is a well-dened set map: c :
1
(B, b
0
) p
1
({b
0
}), called the
lifting correspondence derived from the covering map p.
5.4.7 Theorem 54.4
Assumptions:
Let p B
E
be a covering map.
Let b
0
B. Choose e
0
so that p (e
0
) = b
0
.
Claims:
E is path connected == c is surjective.
E is simply connected == c is bijective.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
72
5.4.8 Theorem 54.5
The fundamental group of S
1
is isomorphic to (Z, +).
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.4.9 Theorem 54.6
Assumptions:
Let p B
E
be a covering map.
Let b
0
B. Choose e
0
so that p (e
0
) = b
0
.
Claim:
The homomorphism induced by p is injective.
Dene H := p

(
1
(E, e
0
)). The lifting correspondence c induces an
injective map:
:
1
(B, b
0
) /H p
1
({b
0
}) of the collection of right cosets of H
into p
1
({b
0
}), which is bijective if E is path connected.
If f is a loop in B based at b
0
, then [f] H == f lifts to a loop
in E based at e
0
.
5.5 55 Retractions and Fixed Points
5.5.1 A Retraction
If A 2
X
, a retraction of X onto A is r C (X, A) (surjective) such that
r|
A
= id
A
.
5.5.2 A Retract of a Space
If A 2
X
and a retraction of X onto A, then A is a retract of X.
5.5.3 Lemma 55.1
If A is a retract of X, then the homomorphism of fundamental groups induced
by inclusion j : A X is injective.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.5.4 Theorem 55.2No-Retraction Theorem
@ retraction of B
2
onto S
1
, where B
2
is the closed unit ball in R
2
.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
73
5.5.5 Theorem 55.3
Let h C
_
S
1
, X
_
.
Claim: The following conditions are equivalent:
1. h is nulhomotopic.
2. h extends to some k C
_
B
2
, X
_
.
3. h

is the trivial homomorphism of fundamental groups.


Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.5.6 Corollary 55.4
The inclusion map j : S
1
R
2
\ {0} is not nulhomotopic.
id
S
1 is not nulhomotopic.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.5.7 Theorem 55.5
Given a nonvanishing vector eld on B
2
, v : B
2
R
2
\ {0}, z S
1
where the
vector eld points directly inward and z
0
S
1
where the vector eld points
directly outward.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.5.8 Theorem 55.6Brouwer xed-point theorem for the disc
If f C
_
B
2
, B
2
_
then x B
2
such that f (x) = x.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.5.9 Theorem 55.7A Classical Theorem by Frobenius
Let A Mat
33
(R
+
). Then A has a positive real eigenvalue (characteristic
value).
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.5.10 Theorem 55.8
Let T =
_
(x, y) R
2
: x _ 0 . y _ 0 . x +y _ 1
_
.
Claim: - > 0 such that \ open covering A of T by sets of diameter less
than -, some point of T belongs to at least three elements of A.
Proof: TODO.
74
5.6 58 Deformation Retracts and Homotopy Type
5.6.1 Lemma 58.1
Let h, k C (X, Y ) be such that h(x
0
) = y
0
. k (x
0
) = y
0
. If h and k are
homotopic, and if the image of the base point x
0
of X remains xed at y
0
during the homotopy, then the homomorphisms h

and k

are equal.
5.6.2 Theorem 58.2
The inclusion map j : S
n
R
n+1
\ {0} induces an isomorphism of fundamental
groups.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.6.3 Deformation Retract
Let A be a subspace of X. A is a deformation retract of X if id
X
is homotopic
to a map that carries all of X into A, such that each point of A remains xed
during the homotopy.
That is, H C (X I, X) such that H (x, 0) = x and H (x, 1) A \x X,
and H (a, t) = a \a A.
The homotopy H is called a deformation retraction of X onto A, and H is a
homotopy between id
X
and j r where j is the inclusion map.
5.6.4 Theorem 58.3
Let A be a deformation retract of X; Let x
0
A. The the inclusion map
j : (A, x
0
) (X, x
0
) induces an isomorphism of fundamental groups.
Proof: As in 58.2.
5.6.5 Example 1
R
3
\
_
(0, 0, z) R
3
: z R
_
has the punctured xy-plane,
_
R
2
\ {0}
_
0, as a
deformation retract. The map H (x, y, z, t) := (x, y, (1 t) z) is a deformation
retraction.
5.6.6 Example 2The Doubly Punctured Plane
R
2
\ {p} \ {q}, the doubly punctured plane, has the gure eight space as a
deformation retract.
5.6.7 Example 3Theta Space
The doubly punctured plane has the theta space as a deformation retract: :=
S
1
(0 [1, 1]).
75
5.6.8 Homotopy Equivalences and Homotopy Inverses
Let f C (X, Y ) and g C (Y, X). Suppose g f id
X
and f g id
Y
. Then
the maps f and g are called homotopy equivalences, and each is said to be a
homotopy inverse of the other.
5.6.9 Homotopy Equivalent Spaces
Given two spaces X and Y , if there are homotopy equivalences between X and
Y then X and Y are called homotopy equivalent, or of the same homotopy type.
Homotopy equivalence is an equivalence relation.
Observe: If A is a deformation retract of X, then A has the same homotopy
type as X.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.6.10 Lemma 58.4
Let h, k C (X, Y ), and assume that h(x
0
) = y
0
and k (x
0
) = y
1
. If h k,
a path in Y from y
0
to y
1
such that k

= h

. In particular, if H
C (X I, Y ) is the homotopy between h and k, then is given by (t) =
H (x
0
, t).
5.6.11 Corollary 58.5
Let h, k C (X, Y ) be homotopic. Let h(x
0
) = y
0
and k (x
0
) = y
1
. If h

is
injective, or surjective, or trivial, so is k

.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.6.12 Corollary 58.6
Let h Y
X
. If h is nulhomotopic, then h

is the trivial homomorphism.


Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.6.13 Theorem 58.7
Let f C (X, Y ) and let f (x
0
) = y
0
. If f is a homotopy equivalence, then
f

:
1
(X, x
0
)
1
(Y, y
0
) is an isomorphism.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.7 59 The Fundamental Group of S
n
5.7.1 Theorem 59.1Special Case of the Seifert-van Kampen Theo-
rem
Suppose X = U V where U, V Open(X). Suppose that U V is path
connected, and that x
0
U V . Let i and j be the inclusion mappings of U
and V , respectively, into X.
76
Claim: The images of the induces homomorphisms i

:
1
(U, x
0
)

1
(X, x
0
) and j

:
1
(V, x
0
)
1
(X, x
0
) generate
1
(X, x
0
).
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.7.2 Corollary 59.2
Suppose X = U V where U, V Open(X) and suppose that U V ,= ? is
path connected. If U and V are simply connected, then X is simply connected.
5.7.3 Theorem 59.3S
n
is simply connected for n _ 2
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.8 60 Fundamental Groups of Some Surfaces
5.8.1 Theorem 60.1Fundamental Groups Product Spaces
Claim:
1

X Y,
_
x
0
y
0
_

=
1
(X, x
0
)
1
(Y, y
0
)
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.8.2 Corollary 60.2Fundamental Group of the Torus is isomorphic
to that of Z
2
The torus is dened as T = S
1
S
1
. Since
1
_
S
1
, z
0
_

= Z, the result follows.


5.8.3 Antipodal Points
(HWS11E05)
The map o : S
1
S
1
sending any point to its antipodal point is the identity
homomorphism.
5.8.4 The Projective Plane
The projective plane P
2
is the quotient space obtained from S
2
by identifying
each point x S
2
with its antipodal point x.
5.8.5 Theorem 60.3
The projective plane P
2
is a compact surface, and the quotient map p : S
2
P
is a covering map.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
5.8.6 Corollary 60.4

1
_
P
2
, y
_

= 2
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
Observe: Any group of order 2 is isomorphic to Z/2.
77
5.8.7 The Projective n-Space
Let n N. Dene P
n
, the projective n-space, as the space obtained from S
n
by identifying each point x with its antipode x.
Note: Theorem 60.3 applies on P
n
without change. (HWS11E06)
Note: S
n
is simply connected \n _ 2, |
1
(P
n
, y)| = 2.
5.8.8 Lemma 60.5The Figure Eight Fundamental Group
The fundamental group of the gure eight is not Abelian.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
(HWS12E01)
The fundamental group of the gure eight is in fact F
2
(the free group of
two symbols). For a bouquet of n circles, the fundamental group is F
n
(using
van Kampen theorem).
5.8.9 The Hawaiian Earring
The Hawaiian Earring is dened as H :=

n2N
_
x
y
_
R
2
: x
2
+
_
y
1
n
_
2
=
1
n
2
_
endowed with the subspace topology. Observe that the Hawaiian earring is not
homeomorphic to B
1
(the Hawaiian earring is compact yet B
1
is not: the
complement of x
0
is open, together with a small neighborhood of x
0
is an open
cover with no nite subcover). Alternatively,
1
(H, x
0
) is uncountable, whereas
F
1
is countable.
5.8.10 Theorem 60.6The Double Torus Fundamental Group
The double torus, T#T, is the surface obtained by taking two copies of the
torus, deleting a small open disc from each of them, and pasting the remaining
pieces together along their edges.
Claim: The fundamental group of the double torus is not Abelian.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
Claim: The gure eight, X, is a retract of T#T.
Proof: TODO (in handwriting).
Observe: This implies that the inclusion map j : X T#T induces
an injective homomorphism j

, so that
1
(T#T, x
0
) is not Abelian.
5.8.11 Corollary 60.7
The 2-sphere, torus, projective plane, and double torus are topologically dis-
tinct.
78
6 Chapter 11The Seifert-van Kampen Theorem
6.1 67 Direct Sums of Abelian Groups
Let G be an Abelian group and let {G

}
2J
be a sequence of subgroups in it.
6.1.1 Generators
{G

}
2J
generates G if \g G:
1. n N
2. a sequence {
i
}
n
i=1
such that
i
J\i {1, . . . , n}.
3. g
i
G
i
\i {1, . . . , n}
Such that g = g
1
g
2
g
n
.
In this case we say G is the sum of {G

}.
Note: Since G is Abelian, then there is no signicance for the order of {
i
}.
Thus if
i
=
j
for some i ,= j {1, . . . , n} we could rearrange the sequence
so that this is never the case.
6.1.2 Direct Sums
Let {G

} generate G. If \g G:
1. ! n N
2. ! a sequence {
i
}
n
i=1
such that
i
J\i {1, . . . , n}.
3. ! g
i
G
i
\i {1, . . . , n}
Such that g = g
1
g
2
g
n
.
then G is the direct sum of {G

}. This is denoted by G =

2J
G

.
6.1.3 Example 1R
N
Observe that R
N
is an Abelian group under the operation of coordinate-wise
addition.
Dene G
n
:=
_
{x
i
}
i2N
: x
i
= 0\i ,= n
_
. This is a subgroup of R
N
which hap-
pens to be isomorphic to R.
Observe: {G
n
}
n2N
generates the subgroup R
1
of R
N
. In fact, R
1
=

n2N
G
n
.
6.2 68 Free Products of Groups
Let G be a (not necessarily Abelian) group. Let {G

}
2J
be a family of sub-
groups of G.
79
6.2.1 Generators
{G

}
2J
generates G if \g G:
1. n N
2. a sequence {
i
}
n
i=1
such that
i
J\i {1, . . . , n}.
3. g
i
G
i
\i {1, . . . , n}
Such that g = g
1
g
2
g
n
.
6.2.1.1 Words The sequence {g

}
n
i=1
is called a word of length n in the
groups {G

}. It is said to represent g G.
Note:
1. If for some i {1, . . . , n}, g
i
= e, then we could omit this term from the
word, thereby obtaining a word of length n 1.
2. If for some i {1, . . . , n},
i
=
i+1
, then since G
i
is a group, g
i
g
i+1

G
i
and so we can redene the word: g
0
i
:= g
i
g
i+1
and omit g
i+1
.
If we apply the two rules repeatedly we obtain a reduced word: {g
i
}
n
i=1
where
(g
i
,= e .
i
,=
i+1
) \i {1, . . . , n}.
We dene the representation of e to be ? by convention. Thus if {G

}
2J
generates G, then every element of G can be represented by a reduced word in
the elements of the groups {G

}
2J
.
Note: If {x
i
}
n
i=1
represents x and {y
i
}
m
i=1
represents y then dene z
i
=
_
x
i
i _ n
y
in
i > n
\i {1, . . . , n +m}. In this case {z
i
}
n+m
i=1
represents xy. However,
do note that {z
i
}
n+m
i=1
is not necessarily a reduced word, even if both {x
i
}
n
i=1
and {y
i
}
m
i=1
are reduced words. The condition for {z
i
}
n+m
i=1
to be a reduced word
is that @ in the list of two words such that x
n
, y
1
G

.
6.2.2 Free Product
Let G be a group, and let {G

}
2J
be a family of subgroups of G that generates
G. Suppose that G

= {e} \ ,= a. G is the free product of the groups


G

if \x G, ! reduced word in the groups G

that represents x. In that case


we write:
G =

2J
G

Or in the nite case G = G


1
G
n
.
80
6.3 69 Free Groups
Let G be a group, let {a

} be a family of elements of G, \ J. We say {a

}
generate G if every element of G can be written as a product of powers of the
elements a

. If the family {a

} is nite, we say G is nitely generated.


6.3.1 Free Group
Let G be a group, let {a

} be a family of elements of G, \ J. Suppose each


a

generates an innite cyclic subgroup G

of G. If G is the free product of the


groups {G

}, then G is said to be a free group, and the family {a

} is called a
system of free generators for G.
6.4 70 The Seifert-van Kampen Theorem
6.4.1 Theorem 70.1The Seifert-van Kampen Theorem
Assumptions:
1. U, V Open(X)
2. X = U V
3. U, V, U V are path connected.
4. x
0
U V
5. H is any group.
6. c
1
H
1(U, x0)
is a homomorphism.
7. c
2
H
1(V, x0)
is a homomorphism.
8. i
1
is the inclusion map of U V in U, (i
1
)

is the induced homomor-


phism.
9. i
2
is the inclusion map of U V in V , (i
2
)

is the induced homomor-


phism.
10. j
1
is the inclusion map of U in X, (j
1
)

is the induced homomorphism.


11. j
2
is the inclusion map of V in X, (j
2
)

is the induced homomorphism.


Claim: If c
1
i
1
= c
2
i
2
==! a unique homomorphism :
1
(X, x
0
)
H such that j
1
= c
1
. j
2
= c
2
.
Proof: TODO.
6.5 71 The Fundamental Group of a Wedge of Circles
6.5.1 A Wedge of Circles
Let X be a Hausdor space such that X =

n
i=1
S
i
where each S
i
is homeo-
morphic to S
1
(the unit circle). Assume that there is a point p X such that
S
i
S
j
= {p} \i ,= j. Then X is called a wedge of the circles S
1
, . . . , S
n
.
81
7 Chapter 13Classication of Surfaces
Convention: throughout this chapter, p : E B is a covering map means
that E and B are locally path connected and path connected, unless otherwise
stated.
7.1 79 Equivalence of Covering Spaces
7.1.1 Equivalent Covering Spaces
Let p C (E, B) and p
0
C (E
0
, B) be two covering maps. They are said to
be equivalent if a homeomorphism h : E E
0
such that p = p
0
h. The
homeomorphism h is called an equivalence of covering maps or an equivalence
of covering spaces.
7.1.2 Lemma 79.1The General Lifting Lemma
Let p : E B be a covering map; Let p (e
0
) = b
0
. Let f : Y B be a
continuous map, with f (y
0
) = b
0
. Suppose Y is path connected and locally
path connected. The map f can be lifted to a map

f : Y E such that

f (y
0
) = e
0
if and only if f

(
1
(Y, y
0
)) p

(
1
(E, e
0
)).
If such a lifting exists, it is unique.
7.1.3 Theorem 79.2
Let p : E B and p
0
: E
0
B be covering maps; Let p (e
0
) = p
0
(e
0
0
) = b
0
.
an equivalence h : E E
0
such that h(e
0
) = e
0
0
if and only if the groups
H
0
= p

(
1
(E, e
0
)) and H
0
0
= p
0

(
1
(E
0
, e
0
0
)) are equal. If h exists, it is unique.
7.2 80 The Universal Covering Space
Suppose p : E B is a covering map, with p (e
0
) = b
0
. If E is simply connected,
then E is called a universal covering space of B. By theorem 79.4, any two
universal covering spaces of B are equivalent.
7.2.1 Lemma 80.1
Let B be path connected and locally path connected. Let p : E B be a cover-
ing map in the former sense (so that E is not required to be path connected). If
E
0
is a path component of E, then the map p
0
: E
0
B obtained by restricting
p is a covering map.
7.2.2 Lemma 80.2
Let p C (X, Z), q C (X, Y ) and r C (Y, Z), such that p = r q.
1. If p and r are covering maps, so is q.
2. If p and q are covering maps, so is r.
82
7.2.3 Theorem 80.3
Let p : E B be a covering map, with E being simply connected. Given any
covering map r : Y B, a covering map q : E Y such that r q = p.
7.2.4 Lemma 80.4
Let p : E B be a covering map. Let p (e
0
) = b
0
. If E is simply connected,
then b
0
has a neighborhood U such that inclusion i : U B induces the trivial
homomorphism i

:
1
(U, b
0
)
1
(B, b
0
).
7.2.5 Example 1The Hawaiian Earring
C
n
:=
_
x
y
_
R
2
:
_
x
1
n
_
2
+y
2
=
_
1
n
_
2
_
X :=

n2N
C
n
b
0
:=
_
0
0
_
Claim: If U is any neighborhood of b
0
in X, then the homomorphism of
fundamental groups induced by inclusion i : U X is not trivial.
7.3 81 Covering Transformations (Deck Transformations)
A covering transformation is the set of all equivalences of a covering map p :
E B with itself. Composites and inverses of covering transformations are
covering transformations, so this set forms a group, called the group of covering
transformations, denoted by C (E, p, B).
In this section we assume that p : E B is a covering map, with p (e
0
) = b
0
and H
0
:= p

(
1
(E, e
0
)).
7.3.1 Dention
H _ G, then the normalizer of H in G is the subset of G dened by N (H) :=
_
g G : gHg
1
= H
_
.
Claim: N _ G.
H E N
N is the largest such subgroup of G.
7.3.2 Denition
Given p : E B with p (e
0
) = b
0
, let F := p
1
({e
0
}). Let :
1
(B, b
0
) /H
0

F be the lifting correspondence of theorem 54.6. It is a bijection. Dene also
a correspondence : C (E, p, B) F by setting (h) := h(e
0
) \ covering
transformation h : E E. Since h is uniquely determined once its value at e
0
is known, the correspondence is injective.
83
7.3.3 Lemma 81.1
The image of the map equals the image under of the subgroup N (H
0
) /H
0
of
1
(B, b
0
) /H
0
.
7.3.4 Theorem 81.2
The bijection
1
: C (E, p, B) N (H
0
) /H
0
is an isomorphism of groups.
7.3.5 Corollary 81.3
H
0
E
1
(B, b
0
) == \ pair of points e
1
and e
2
of p
1
({b
0
}), a covering
transformation h : E E such that h(e
1
) = e
2
. In this case an isomorphism

1
: C (E, p, B)
1
(B, b
0
) /H
0
.
7.3.6 Corollary 81.4
Let p : E B be a covering map. If E is simply connected, then C (E, p B)

1
(B, b
0
). If H
0
E
1
(B, b
0
) then p : E B is called a regular covering map.
7.3.7 DenitionThe Orbit
Let X be a space, and let G be a subgroup of the group of homemorphisms of
X with itself. The orbit space X/G is dened to be the quotient space obtained
from X by means of th equivalence relation x g (x) \x X, \g G. The
equivalence class of x is called the orbit of x.
7.3.8 DenitionProperly Discontinuous
(HWS11E06)
If G is a group of homemorphisms of X, the action of G on X is said
to be properly discontinuous if \x X U Open(X) : x U such that
g (U) U = ? whenever g ,= e
G
. It follows that g
0
(U) g
1
(U) = ? whenever
g
0
,= g
1
, for otherwise U and g
1
0
g
1
(U) would not be disjoint.
7.3.9 Theorem 81.5
Let X be path connected and locally path connected. Let G be a group of
homeomoprhims of X. The quotient map : X X/G is a covering map if
and only if the action of G is properly discontinuous. In this case, the covering
map is regular and G is its group of covering transformations.
7.3.10 Theorem 81.6
If p : X B is a regular covering map and G is its group of covering trans-
formations, then a homeomorphism k : X/G B such that p = k where
: X X/G is the projection.
84