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WRITING LESSON PLAN

Class Profile:
It is an Elementary class of young adult learners on the island of Paros. It consists
of five young adult students, who have lived all their life on the island, except for one,
who was born in Athens and moved to Paros 10 years ago. This particular group has had
classes since last September and they meet every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday for a
one and a half hour session. They have just completed the “English in Mind” Starter book
and now have moved on to use “English for Adults 1” course book. On the whole, it
seems to be a rather good class, with very strong students, the majority of whom I firmly
believe, they will sit for the Cambridge Proficiency exam.

In fact, Elephtheria, an 18 year old student, is a really strong one, with very good
grammar, syntax and strong vocabulary, due to the fact that she is an avid fan of Hard
Rock music. She is the leading figure in class, being ahead of others grammatically and
lexically, volunteers in the teaching procedure effectively, takes risk with the language,
and her strongest point is to write compositions.

Marianna, another strong student,is of the same age as Elephtheria and her best friend,
possess quite strong linguistic features, strong reading and listening skills. Her rather
weak points seem to be her speaking skills compared to those of Elephteria`s , and her
writing skills need further development in terms of cohesion and coherence; time and
practice will, hopefully, work wonders.

On the same level, Manolis, a 17 year old student, is rather strong grammatically,
syntactically and lexically, whenever he wants to convey his messages to foreigners.
Manolis is a strong student at producing and analyzing pieces of language very deeply;
he is rather energetic and expects from the lesson to have constant pace of lively and
tailor made activities that will enable him to let off steam, and communicate effectively
with his classmates and the T, on the whole

On the other hand, Greg and Demeter are weak learners, who need prompt, guidance,
time and support throughout the whole teaching procedure. More specifically, Demeter
struggles to get his messages across both in speaking and writing, since he seems to
confuse the two skills; he has misunderstood the register- he thinks that we write in the
same way we speak, and needs time and loads of practice between the difference of the
two skills.

Greg, on the contrary, is a false beginner, who has recently joined the group.
Nevertheless, he has made great efforts to keep up with the rest of the class and to live up
to the expectations of the lesson. He needs time and practice to develop syntax and time
sequence in order to form complete sentences, but, he is able to grasp the intent of spoken
messages on the radio and on TV, because, he watches many American films and listens
to pop music.

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Lesson Aims/ Objectives for Evidence:
students:

Primary Aim(s): 1. By writing a postcard in groups to


1. To write a postcard to own families, their families back in their country
to focus on the appropriate of origin, using group work and
“content” of expression in writing, different stages of experimental
in the TL. writing and comments before the
actual writing stage.
2. To find “purpose” and “audience” 2. During group work and reordering
in writing. of a model postcard into pieces, will
they realize to “how” and to
“whom” they are to write the
postcard.

Secondary Aim(s): Cohesion:


Sub-Skills of Writing: Brainstorming will assist them to jot down
Cohesion: ideas respective to a paragraph topic and
To develop ideas of the same intent, one then, by means of group / whole class
after the other and categorize them in the work, these ideas will be categorized
correct order in the same paragraph. accordingly.
Coherence:
At the pre-writing stage, they will
Coherence: categorize all the ideas into two paragraphs,
To develop ideas of different category, to in their teams, they will link them
categorize them appropriately in their thematically, and then, they will switch
paragraphs and to link them in order to papers to mark each other`s work.
present them complete and uniform in the
piece of writing. Speaking:
Learners will communicate in the TL
Speaking: amongst them from the beginning of the
To speak fluently in the TL from the lesson, to exchange life experiences by
beginning of the lesson with whatever talking about their island with a variety of
linguistic means they own at their disposal. photos stuck up on around the walls of the
classroom.
Reading: Reading:
To activate top- down and bottom-up The model postcard cut up into strips of
reading skills, to practice skimming and paper will guide learners to reorder it;
scanning in a model postcard divided into hence, they will realize to “whom” and
strips of paper, as an introduction to “why” they are writing and how to develop
purpose, audience, cohesion and and link their ideas, as well.
coherence.

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Writing: Writing:
To produce multiple drafts and edit them in By producing different drafts of postcards
groups before producing the final one for in their teams and self/ peer evaluating
final responding. them amongst them, before producing the
complete postcard to send to England.

Source Aids/Handouts:
1. Different website photos of Paros and Antiparos stuck up on the walls of the
classroom, to make students communicate freely (see H/O1).
2. A photo of Joe (see H/O2) to establish audience in writing.
3. A model postcard cut up into strips of paper for Ss to reorder and use it as a basis
and context to develop their own drafts in the process (see H/O3) adapted from
“English for Adults 1” by Longden Fiona and O’ Brien Cathleen (Grivas
Publications August 2003 ) Unit 17 pg.73 –Writing a Postcard.
4. A wh-task sheet (who, to whom, why, what, when, where) to facilitate Ss`
exploitation of the model postcard during pre-writing stage (see H/O4).
5. Layouts of postcards to write multiple drafts, before producing the final one (see
H/O5).
6. The w/b and some blue tack for sticking up photos and the strips of paper.
7. Re alia / postcards of Alyki –Paros, one per group of students to produce their
final draft (see H/O6).
8. Pens/pencils for writing the drafts.

Linguistic assumptions:
This particular class has covered days, months and seasons last year, therefore, they will
be able to describe time in their postcards, effectively. Moreover, the fact that they learnt
how to write addresses at their previous course book, “English in Mind”, will enable
them to write the recipient`s addresses on their postcards.
Furthermore, they covered Past Simple forms , both regular and irregular, last March,
hence, I believe they will be able to express their past life experiences on the postcard,
with a little help, from the T, if possible, for a few irregular Past Simple forms. In
addition, they have been taught “going to” for indefinite plans in the future; therefore, it
will be a great opportunity for them to practice the tense using future plans on their
postcard, during their holidays.
Finally, the topic of describing holidays on their island as tourists will enthuse and
intrigue them to fall back on describing their life experiences on the island to “families
abroad”; a fruitful way to introduce them to writing postcards.

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Anticipated Language Difficulties: Solutions/Remedies:
1. Young adult students will probably 1. The gradual writing process of writing
not be familiar with writing multiple drafts in their teams before
postcards as tourists to their producing their final one , in order to
“families abroad”. familiarize themselves with the
2. Learners will definitely have appropriate genre.
nothing to contribute about the 2. The chosen topic of holidays on their
topic of holidays, because they island will incite them to open up
never go on summer holidays, since freely and express their life
they get part-time summer jobs. experiences about spending holidays
3. Ss might be stuck with ideas about on Paros, which will help them with
“what” to write on each paragraph writing, afterwards.
of the postcard. 3. Reordering of cut up strips of the
4. Ss might be unaware of “audience” model postcard and brainstorming will
“greetings” and “closings” on the assist them greatly to think of and write
postcard. “holiday” ideas in their teams.
4. The photo of “Joe” as well as the “Dear
Amy,” and “Love, Joe” “greetings”
and “closings” of the postcard will
establish “audience” and “discourse”
on the model postcard.

Timetable Fit:
The class was taught Past Simple forms both regular and irregular, in their affirmative,
interrogative and negative forms, five months ago; hence, they will be able to express
themselves in writing using the Past, whenever they have to refer to past life experiences
about holidays, with slight guidance, from T, whenever possible, about irregular Past
Simple forms.

Moreover, they have covered ‘going to’ recently about indefinite plans for the future,
therefore, they will be able to narrate not definite plans in the near future, such as to
describe what they’re going to do on some days during next week.

Finally, the last unit we covered “at the travel Agent`s” on gathering ideas about
holidays, will definitely enable them to brainstorm ideas relevant to the topic of
“Holidays” and use them as a basis for keeping notes for each paragraph of the postcard
and use them in drafts, afterwards.

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Board Plan(s):
Photos of Paros scattered around Unknown Words:
class walls
Go sightseeing?

Explore (by car)?


Paroikia Naoussa

Cave?
Pounda Beach Antiparos

Strips or paper stuck up on the w/b in


the correct order with “Joe”:
Dear Amy
Greeting

I`m having a great time here in Alyki


Where she is/ is she O.K.?
on Paros.

I arrived on Sunday and yesterday I


When did she arrive?
explored the island by car.
What did she do?

Tomorrow, I am going to ride a bike


and go for a long ride in the
What is she going to do
countryside.
tomorrow?
What is it like?
It`s really beautiful

In the afternoon, I am going to cycle


What is she going to do in
to Santa Maria, a wonderful beach,
the afternoon?
so I can try surfing.

On Wednesday, I am going to go
What is she going to do on
sightseeing to Antiparos and take a
Wednesday?
lot of photos.

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You can see them when I get home.

I am also going to spend a lot of time


on Pounda beach. Where is she going to be?

I really need some rest.


Why?
See you soon,

Closing
Love,

Joe

Amy Millis address

Ash Lane

Banbury

England

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Commentary:
The main aim of this lesson plan is to enable learners to express communicatively in
writing in the TL. A real life goal will be achieved and this is the one of writing a
postcard to families in England describing their life experiences, i.e. holidays, which
according to Sharwood-Smith (1972), writing about real life experiences is
communication.

In fact, the presentation of photos of Paros, the learners` native island, scattered
around the walls of the classroom, will incite them to emotional influences and language
transfer between the previously acquired language and the target one (Odlin 1989) and
they also have their say in the production of a piece of writing. (Myles, 2002).

It is also an excellent opportunity, using the Writing –Process approach (White &
Arndt 1991) to talk and write about holidays on the island, since they are not accustomed
to going on holidays during summer seasons, because they get part-time seasons.

A variety of activities have been designed to attract the learners` attention and to
guide them to produce drafts of postcards, before producing the final one for responding-
to practice writing for content, purpose and audience (Raimes cited in Ghaith 2002) in
their teams.

The model postcard cut up into strips of paper will guide them to the content of a
postcard (genre); it will activate top-down and bottom-up reading skills of the postcard,
its addresses, greetings and closings, a process which will enable learners to “learn to
write” (Tribble 1996, p.118) at the later stages of the Process Writing Approach.

The wh-task will be used as a springboard for learners to contribute ideas for the
brainstorming session of gathering data to use for producing drafts, later. More
specifically, after collection of data, in two teams, they will be invited to select ideas
/establish viewpoints and create a first draft in their teams.

Next, there will be a rough evaluation amongst teams, since they will swap papers
and be invited to comment on each other`s drafts. Based on the comments, they arrange
information and structure the text produce the first drafts, to deliver them to the next
group for peer evaluation and responding (White and Arndt 1991).

After feedback, a second draft will be produced in their teams, with prompting and
guidance, this time, to focus on developing cohesion and coherence between paragraphs-
discoursal based approach towards learner-centres syllabuses (N. Holmes 2000-2004)-
before delivering it in for self-evaluation / proof-reading.

Finally, they will finish editing their final draft on the re alia/postcard and deliver it for
final responding to their classmates, who, in turn read it out to class. It is a process, in
which we feel that credit is given for every aspect of their effort which goes into the
writing process. Our goal is to present writing as lively, stimulating process, which Lu
Chi cited in White & Arndt 1991 puts the “matching of matter and manner”, such that it

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becomes “the ferry” between the writer and the reader.

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DELTA Lesson Plan Name: Paraskevi Date: 15/08/08
Andreopoulou
PROCEDURE

Stage Teacher Activity Learner Activity Aims Materials Interaction Time


Ice- T sticks up different Ss enter the class To warm up the class and H/O1 Plenary Mode 2`
Breaker: photos of Paros on the to establish a game-like
walls of class, before they atmosphere
enter the class.
Then, when, they enter
the class, she tells them:

“Stand up and look around Ss stand up and look around To explore around the
you all the photos of Paros them all the photos of Paros on class, to be introduced to
on the walls. the walls the topic of holidays,
gradually
“Look at them and then, Ss look at them and then, they
say to others which of say to their classmates which To exchange views, to
these places you like to go of these places they like to go state preferences /dislikes
on holidays and why” on holidays and why and to give reasons for
their choices
“You have 1’ to do this”

Pre-Writing After feedback, T shows Ss observe the task To establish context and to H/O2+3 Plenary Mode 3-4`
(a): photo of “Joe” and use learners` schematic
informs Ss that he visited knowledge of the world to
Paros last August for 5 combine it with the
days and he wrote a lesson`s topic
postcard to his best friend,
Amy, back in England.

“Unfortunately, this Ss get into two groups- Groups To promote group work,
postcard is in pieces and A+B get their pieces of paper to reorder pieces of paper,

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you must put it back into of the postcard and try to re- to work out context in
the correct order to find order them groups and to activate
out what he wrote to her.” bottom-up reading skills
“Do it altogether”.
Pre- After feedback, T advises Ss look at the model postcard To work out in context H/03 Pair Work 1-2`
Writing (b): learners to look at it complete and try to find out purpose and audience, in
complete and this time, to who wrote to whom and why teams and to activate top-
find out who writes to and comment on it in pairs down reading skills
whom and why.
T tells them to talk about
it, in pairs.
Pre- After feedback, T holds Ss look at the unknown words, Topre-teach unknown H/O3 Plenary Mode 1-2`
Teaching the attention of Ss to the in context ,and try to guess vocabulary, to work out its
Vocabulary: unknown words in their meaning meaning in context, using
context; mime /gestures and to
T elicits their meaning in practice stress, intonation
context, using mime Ss observe the unknown words and rhythm
/gestures; after and repeat them chorally/
presentation, individually
choral/individual
repetition of it ensues

Pre-Writing After feedback, T assigns Ss are assigned to work on two To practice reading skills, H/O3+4 Group Work 2-3`
(c): two paragraphs for each paragraphs in their teams and such as scanning and
group to work on, of the get the wh-comprehension task reading for detail
model postcard, and hands to complete for their
out a wh-comprehension paragraphs
task to complete for their
paragraphs.

Feedback: After feedback, she tells Ss get the pieces of paper, To reorder the strips of H/O3 Plenary Mode 2-3`
them to come to the w/b come to the w/b and put them paper on the w/b, to
and put the strips of paper one under the other present it as a whole, and
one under the other. to use it as a springboard
for the brainstorming
session

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Brainstormi After class feedback, T Ss think of themselves as a To activate their H/O5 and Group Work 4-5`
ng: tells Ss to think of tourist who visited Paros last schematic knowledge of pens/pencils
themselves as a tourist August for five days the world, to combine
who visited Paros last their schemata to
August for five days. culturally targeted topics

“What are the things you They are going to take down And to ask them to
did and what are you the things they did and what brainstorm ideas in their
going to do the next few they are going to do the next teams useful for
days?” few days producing drafts

“Think of those things and Ss are going to take them


write them down on a down on a piece of paper
piece of paper, in your
teams.”

During the activity, T goes


around , monitors and
provides help, wherever
necessary
While- After feedback, T informs Ss write their ideas down in To write fast a rough draft, H/O5 Group Work 5`
Writing them that they will have to any order they like on the to select ideas and to
(Rough write their ideas down, in model postcard, rather fast- establish a viewpoint
draft): any order they like, on the one group member writes the
model postcard, - one draft and the others give help
group member will write and guidance
the draft and the others
will give help and
guidance.

During the activity, T goes


around, monitors and
provides assistance.

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Peer- After writing, T advises Ss Ss exchange papers with the To promote collaboration H/O5 Group Work 2-3`
Evaluation: to change papers with the other team and give comments amongst group members,
other team and give on each other`s work to peer- evaluate, to offer
comments on each other`s support and guidance with
work. written speech
While- After peer feedback, T Ss attempt to re-write clearly To arrange information, H/O6 Group Work 5`
Writing advises Ss to re-write the the postcard, using “Dear….” to structure the text
(First postcard, using the “Love…..”, as well as (White and Arndt 1991),
draft): address, “Dear…”, selecting which ideas will go to use “purpose” and
“Love….”as well as to to each paragraph, in their “audience”
select which ideas will go teams;
to which paragraph, in
their teams;

T tells them that one of One group member writes the To work collaboratively to H/O6 , w/b & Plenary Mode
them will write the draft draft and the others help out achieve an aim H/O3 & Group Work
and the others will help
out; at the same time she
points at the model
postcard on the w/b and
explains

Peer After writing, T tells Ss to Ss swap papers and give them To promote co-operation H/O6 Group Work 2-3`
Evaluation: swap papers and give to the other group to re-read to achieve a goal, to peer-
them to the other group to them and to make comments evaluate, to respond to the
make comments- first draft and to give
feedback on the content
(Raimes cited in Gaith
2002)

While- After feedback, T advises Ss rewrite their drafts To improve the skill of H/O6 Group Work 2-3`
Writing Ss to rewrite their drafts, writing (Charles 1990)
Second much better, now, they`ve
draft): got the feedback from
other groups;

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Editing: After writing, T tells Ss to Ss read out what they`ve To edit, to proof-read H/O6 Plenary Mode 2`
read out what they`ve written content
written;
Post- After feedback, T hands Ss get the postcards and copy To take more Re alia / Group Work 3-4`
Writing out real postcards and tells out on the postcard, what there responsibility for what postcards
(finished Ss to copy out on the is on their papers they write, to present their
draft): postcard, what there is on pieces of writing complete
their papers

Post- T tells Ss to read out in Ss read out their postcards to To get their meaning Re alia / Plenary Mode 2-3`
Writing class, their postcards class across to the Postcards
(final readership(Charles 1990)
responding) and to get final responding
: (White & Arndt 1991)
Follow- T thanks for their time Ss thank for time, too None None None None
Up:
APPROX
55 mins

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APPENDICES (H/O1)

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(H/O2)

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(H/O3) (It will be cut up into strips of paper)
Dear Amy,
I`m having a great time here in Naoussa on Paros. I
arrived on Sunday and yesterday I explored the island by car.

Tomorrow, I`m going to rent a bike and go for a long bike


ride around the island. It`s really beautiful. In the afternoon,
I`m going to go to Pounda Beach, so I can try wind surfing.

On Wednesday, I`m going to go sightseeing to Antiparos in


the cave and take a lot of photos. You can see them when I get
home. I`m also going to spend a lot of time on the beach in Amy Millis
Logaras. I really need some rest. Ash Lane
Banbury
ENGLAND
See you soon,

Love,
Joe

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(H/O4)

Who?

To whom?

Why?

What?

When?

Where?

(H/O5)

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(H/O6) (Realia / postcard)

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