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About the Author

James Halle was born into the gloom of post-war Britain, on the 22nd of April 1946. His earlier years were spent in the East End of Glasgow. He travelled to Germany for the first time in 1967, via Brussels and Liege, then entering West Germany at the border town of Aachen, and moving on to Cologne, Bonn, Koblenz and Boppard. He then spent some time in Switzerland, staying around the area of Lake Neuchatel before eventually returning home to the UK. What he saw and heard on that trip engendered a lifelong curiosity in him that has stayed with him to this day. He revisited West Germany again in 1973 on his way to Sweden, passing through Hamburg and Denmark. In 1978 he travelled to Berlin, spending some time in the East. Later he moved on through Poland to the Baltic port, then by sea to Sweden. His last visit to Germany was in June 2012, when he made several visits to Berchtesgaden having been based in the city of Salzburg. Prior to this, in November 2010 he had visited all the major sites in Berlin in connection with World War Two, including the new exhibition Hitler and the Germans in the German Historical Museum. He also visited the Jewish Memorial near the Brandenburg Gate and the remembrance sites in connection with Kristallnacht: (November 9th-10th 1938) and the fall of the Berlin Wall (9th November 1989). He was a member of the Communist party from 1975 until he resigned in 1981. Since then he has had no affiliation to any political party. In early 1993, he and his family moved to Spain. The following is a thought-provoking work, studying the facts with objectivity and presented to the reader for consideration. Many of the opinions expressed are in line with the subject matter and not necessarily those of the author.


James Halle


Copyright James Halle The right of James Halle to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with section 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. Any person who commits any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. A CIP catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.

ISBN 978 184963 380 2 First Published (2013) Austin Macauley Publishers Ltd. 25 Canada Square Canary Wharf London E14 5LB

Printed and Bound in Great Britain

Adolf Hitler was, without doubt, a unique man, a patriot and a political genius with stunning oratory and imagery. A true statesman, with initiative and an overwhelming personality. Before the outbreak of World War Two, he was at his peak. He was the most popular leader in Europe, much loved by his own people and admired by prominent statesmen from all over the world. He had been voted Time magazines Man of the Year, having restored order in a violent, unmanageable country and transformed Germanys fortune by performing an economic miracle envied by many others. During and after World War Two, there has been a surfeit of material dealing with this phenomenon, encapsulating this time of financial, social and moral turmoil. The most common feature of the historical information usually presented in relation to the subject matter is, without question, the total condemnation of the man. Authors, in conjunction with the producers of modern technology, would never risk the moral outrage of conveying approval even in the most trivial of subjects for fear of being isolated. Demonising him is an ongoing industry. This book, written as a thought provoking work, endeavours to pursue the truth as opposed to the stereotypical information usually presented, offering the reader a chance to study the facts with a degree of objectivity not normally associated with such an emotive subject. Have we been denied the right to think for ourselves? Are we incapable of making our own judgements? The covert reluctance of the post-war media to offer a balanced explanation on how the past has shaped the future is as veiled and protected today as ever.

Yes, Adolf Hitler, like anyone else, harboured hatreds and obsessions borne out of his earlier experiences. There is a historical reason for everything. Who were the puppet masters of the past? Who is pulling the strings now? Any reasonable study has to start with an open mind. In the wake of World War Two, German people of all generations have endured an enforced guilt in all forms, including discourteous entertainment. Why is this form of malice still being sustained? It makes no sense, or does it? Let the story commence

Chapter 1
Earliest Years and Vienna Period

The baby boy born to Alois1 and Klara2 Hitler in Upper Austria, in the little border town of Braunau on the Inn on the 20th of April 1889, was named Adolf.3 This town, on the boundary between the two German states, had become the birth place of one in only a handful of people who would go on to change the face of the twentieth century. Adolf would be baptised and brought up as a Catholic. His father Alois was a stern Customs official, who worked for the Austrian Civil Service. When his infant son was in his third year, the family moved to Kapuziner Strasse in Passau, where Alois worked in the Austrian customs house which was situated on the German side of the border. Many people living in this area considered themselves to be German Austrian, in particular expressing loyalty to the German Imperial House of Hohenzollern and its Kaiser. His son, to his fathers dismay, would greet his friends at play with the German Heil. They would also sing the German national anthem Deutschland Uber Alles instead of the Austrian Imperial Anthem. As Alois had worked for the Austrian Imperial Customs as an agent and his only loyalty was to the Hapsburg Monarchy, his displeasure at seeing and hearing this was understandable. His son, when speaking, had also acquired a lower Bavarian dialect that would stay with him forever. Who would have known that
1 2 3

Alois Hitler: See biographical information. Klara Hitler: See biographical information.

Adolf: Adolf is a given name used in German speaking countries and to a lesser extent in various Central European countries, meaning Noble Wolf.

this clipped accent with its enhancement of words and unique delivery would, many years later, mesmerise millions. In 1894, Alois, Klara and the children were on the move once more. On this occasion, Alois was posted near Linz, and it was here in June 1895, at the age of 59 years, that he retired on a pension from the Austrian civil service. In June of the following year, Alois was finding retirement difficult and decided to turn his hand to farming. He and Klara were originally from peasant stock. He had the idea that if they returned to their roots, then perhaps they could be successful. They bought the Rauscher Gut farm in the countryside at Hafeld near Lambach. On buying the farm, their childrens carefree days came to an end. Adolf entered primary school at nearby Fischlam. Now the children would have to combine their schoolwork with constant farm chores. This was not an easy time for the family bonds. Over the years, the daily grind at the farm had taken its toll. Alois Junior in particular was the recipient of his fathers frustrations, with constant beatings. The Hitler household now consisted of Alois, Klara, Adolf, his little brother and sister Edmund and Paula,4 his older halfbrother Alois5 and his older half-sister Angela.6 The parents eventually realised that the farm could not be sustained in a productive way any longer and was placing too heavy a burden on family life. In 1897 they sold up and relocated to Lambach, a town halfway between Linz and Salzburg. This was one of many moves during Aloiss restless retirement. The children rejoiced; the move to Lambach was good for them, as it ended the drudgery of farm chores and left them more time for childrens pursuits. At eight years of age, Adolf enrolled at the old Benedictine monastery school in the town, and became a chorister and altar boy at the Great Abbey Church. The interior of the church contained carved stones and woodwork memorials to earlier
4 5 6

Paula Hitler: See biographical information. Alois Hitler (junior): See biographical information. Angela Hitler: See biographical information.

abbots which, with its ceremonies intensified by the scent of incense, generated an intoxicating ambiance which left a magical impression on him. He idolised the priests and was in awe of the Abbott in charge, consciously studying him rule his black robed monks with authority. Being an impressionable nine-yearold, he dreamt of being in the priesthood himself. He did well at monastery school and would recite the solemn pageantry of the High Mass, but like other boys of that age, his attention span was limited and he spent most of his spare time indulging in all the books and games about the American Wild West, which were so popular with children at that time. In 1898 the family were on the move again, this time to the village of Leonding near Linz. They now lived in a small house with a garden next to the local cemetery. This meant another change of school for the young Adolf. His schoolwork continued to improve. He had good grades with little effort, and discovered he had a natural talent for drawing. He could look at a building, memorise its architectural details and accurately reproduce it on paper. Also around this time, he took an interest in reading some of his fathers old books on the military and warfare. In reading, he began to understand the spiritual experience that a nation can take from its historical struggles. Suddenly, the shock of losing younger brother Edmund early in life was bestowed upon the family. His mother Klara had given birth to six children7, of which there were now only two survivors, Adolf and his sister Paula. In the cemetery next to the house, he could see his brothers grave from the window. Sometimes he would sit still on the cemetery wall at night just gazing up at the stars, thinking inwardly. The problem of career choice was now looming. His grade school years were coming to an end. He and his parents had to choose the type of secondary school which would suit him and attend. Would it be classical or technical? Being a dreamer, he would have preferred to become an artist and go to classical

Six children: See biographical information for Klara Hitler.

school. Unfortunately, his father, a traditionalist, wanted him to follow in his footsteps and make a career for himself in the civil service. His father made the decision for him. He would go to technical high school in the city of Linz. It was now 1900. The country boy was now in a city school, which made him unhappy as he felt that he did not fit in. He became more unhappy and lonely. With the emphasis on mathematics and science, he failed his exams and had to repeat his first year. He hoped and prayed that his father would have a change of heart, but no. With his authoritarian fathers outlook on life, he thought his sons pursuit of an artistic career ridiculous. Adolf started his second year at high school as the oldest boy in the class. His classmates were a mixture of different creeds and ethnic origins. To this he paid no attention. This year, with a lot of effort he did get better grades, but failed in maths. The two subjects he enjoyed most and excelled in were geography and especially history. The young boys history teacher was Doctor Leopold Potsch.8 The teachers dazzling eloquence held the youngster spellbound. This was his first real introduction to and understanding of the meaning of nationalism. His teachers imaginative tales of German figures, such as Bismarck and Frederick the Great, started an obsession in him which would remain with him for the rest of his life. His new interest was also in the operas of German composer Richard Wagner.9 He saw his first opera aged twelve and was captivated by the music, the pagan myths, the tales of ancient kings and knights and their glorious battles against their hated enemies. Adolfs struggle with his domineering parent came abruptly to an end in January 1903 when his father died suddenly from a lung haemorrhage, leaving his thirteen-yearold son as head of the household. In the same year, his behaviour at school deteriorated he
8 9

Doctor Leopold Potsch: See biographical information. Richard Wagner: See biographical information.

developed into a moody adolescent became disruptive, morose, and suffered extreme mood swings which resulted in a further deterioration in his schoolwork. Not unexpectedly, he was expelled. He enrolled at the Realschule in Steyr in 1904, but was again expelled in the second year for continuous misbehaviour. On Whit Sunday, on the 22nd of May 1904, at the age of fifteen, he took his first holy communion, his sponsor being Emanuel Lugar, a friend of his father. As a teenager, he spent most of the next two years hanging around cafes in Linz. The clock was ticking and he was treading water. It was 1906. A decision on his future had to be made, and only he could make it. Hitler asked his mother, who was in poor health, if he could travel to Vienna with the ambition of gaining entry to art college. After careful thought, his mother agreed and promised to support him financially. His aunt, his mothers only surviving sister, also offered financial help if necessary. In the year 1907, his mother and sister Paula moved to another house in Linz, at Bluntengasse, and settled there. Hitler, now aged eighteen, travelled to Vienna with a sense of expectation. On arrival he immediately started to make plans to enrol at the Academy of Fine Arts. He arranged to take the exam, confident that he would pass, but to his bitter disappointment he was not admitted. His report read: Adolf Hitler: Braunau on the Inn: Born April 20th 1889: German: Catholic Father: Civil Servant: 4 Classes in High School: Test Drawing Unsatisfactory. Then the ultimate shock. In 1907, his mothers health deteriorated further and she died of breast cancer. He was devastated. The family doctor Edward Bloch, remarking on Hitlers grief, said, I have never witnessed a closer attachment. His short bohemian life in Vienna seemed over, at least for the time being. He was nineteen years of age and the fulfilment of his artistic dream looked unlikely. But after receiving part of his inheritance, he gave his share of his orphans pension to help his sister Paula.

He returned to the Imperial Capital with renewed hope. On this occasion he was accompanied by his friend August Kubizek10, who also had his own ambitions. They had first met while queuing for entry into the Opera House in Linz to see and listen to a Richard Wagner Opera. August sought to pursue a career in the arts. They rented a pension together in the upmarket district of Stumpergasse. August achieved the first step towards his ambition and enrolled in college. By contrast, Adolf was again rejected. However, on this occasion, the college did advise him that his future may lie in the field of architecture, but his failings at school had now caught up with him and he did not possess the necessary qualifications to pursue a career in this field either. When August started at college, Adolf left the pension, and unfortunately they lost touch. Within a year, and with his money running out, he was living in homeless shelters and eating in charity soup kitchens. One by one all his ambitions were turning sour, and the hostel for homeless men seemed the end of the road. He tried his best to make a living by utilising his talent as an artist; his watercolours of landmarks such as the Cathedral, the Theatre and the Opera House were sold on to the many tourists visiting the city. He also painted advertising cards which could be displayed to enhance shop windows. This provided a small but regular income. By the year 1910, he was still renting a room in the poor working mens hostel in Meldemann Strasse, Brigittenau. Nothing had changed, and his life of solitude had become a miserable time for him. To try and bring a semblance of structure to his day, he visited art galleries, museums, exhibitions and anything of interest. Sometimes he just people watched. He observed the thousands of Jewish merchants who huddled together, wheeling and dealing in the city centre. They were instantly recognisable in their sombre garb. In his own interest, he had made a point of making contact with some of

August Kubizek: See biographical information

them, and, through time, developed a small trade with his artwork, which in turn helped him to increase his modest income. These Jews were helping him survive until he would hopefully recover financially. Over time, as much as his dealings with these traders had benefitted him, his general perception of them was that they kept their distance. Their whole persona somehow seemed to emanate a meanness that was quite profound. This perception of them had unfortunately made it difficult for him to develop any kind of fondness towards them. He became curious as to where they had all come from. Who were they? Were they German or Austrian an intriguing question? In 1913, he at last received the final part of the payments from his fathers estate. With his newfound financial assistance, and having harboured a desire to live in a real German city to realise his dream of artistic success, he was destined for Munich. Vienna had been a huge and unforgettable learning curve, but the isolation and desolation had left a mark on him. Now, recharged, it was time to move on. Looking back, his original target of entry to art college had been a failure, but the change of course this enforced opened his eyes to another meaning in life and study. As a young boy growing up in Linz, he had lived in modest comfort. In Vienna, however, there was homelessness and gloom which had created a feeling of insecurity in him. This was compounded by the observation of his contemporaries, fuelling a bitterness that would remain for the rest of his life. A new dawn of understanding had now been realised. A vision had taken shape in experiencing a standard way of living that he and so many others had to endure. He was convinced that there had to be a better way than this continual suffering for so many souls. He had witnessed the architectural splendour of the bourgeois world and the celebrations surrounding the Emperor Franz Josef, who had remained on the throne for the past sixty years.

He considered such offices and the inequalities of the class system as dead relics of a bygone age. Vienna, as in other large European cities, was full of riches and dire poverty. A dubious social melting pot, where the questions remained unanswered. He educated himself in his surroundings and became a regular spectator at the Austrian Parliament, which he described to himself as a Hellenic Marvel on German soil. The Parliament in Austria, The Reichsrat, had a system of government along the same lines as the two chamber parliamentary system in the United Kingdom. At a tender age, he attended his first session of the House of Deputies. He was full of admiration as he took his seat in this magnificent building. After the first session he had, for the first time, witnessed democracy at work, and he listened in disbelief. A standard way of thinking had been obliterated by a series of farcical scenes that had unfolded before his eyes. Hundreds of the members had assembled together to discuss and make decisions of vital economic importance. On almost any question put before the House, the members became a gesticulating screaming mass. Some of them did not even speak the same language. At the same time, the elder statesman, The Speaker, violently rang his bell and shouted for some semblance of order to restore the dignity of the house, all in vain. A few weeks later he attended the house again. Astonishingly this time, everything had changed beyond recognition. The benches were almost empty. Half the members below were asleep, and others just sat yawning. One member was attempting to speak, but no one was listening. Apathy prevailed. It was laughable. From then on, over a period of almost two years, he attended the parliament building at every opportunity. Little by little he developed his own ideas and opinions. His views on parliamentary democracy had been changed forever. Now the whole principle of majority rule as the foundation of this institution, and the intellectual and moral values of those gentlemen supposedly there to serve the electorate came into

question. Inevitably, most of those elected to The House were career politicians, prominent members of the upper strata, the selected few who, in following in their familys traditions had been educated at the great universities To Go into Politics. Others that made up the numbers were self-made men, lawyers, bankers and former trade unionists. Being a Member of Parliament was a lucrative position, in many cases a job for life, with all the personal gifts that the corruption in this institution delivered. Serving the state was secondary, the key area in every question being the absence of responsibility and accountability. The whole idea of responsibility must be bound up with the individual. Crucially, decisions must be made by the leading statesman without having to ask for approval from all the other elected and non-elected careerists. As it was, the art of persuasion was the criteria for any successful motion. If there was success by this means, the original idea and plan always had to be watered down to reach any agreement, making the original motion almost sterile. Hitlers opinions on parliamentary democracy were clearly stated in the 1920s, when he declared that: Parliamentary decisions by mob rule subject the genius in all leaders to impotency. Most people then, as today, see a dictatorship as being against freedom, but any true progress in the world has always come from the mind of the individual and not from majority decisions. It is against the law of nature to reject the authority of the individual and replace it by numbers. A fluctuating majority of people can never be made fully responsible anyway. The individual statesman of genius and leadership must reduce himself to the level of flattery, or worse, degrade himself to the level of a political gangster. In any decisions of importance, parliamentary democracy hides behind the skirts of majority rule. It turns the minister with true ability to the level of a coward. So, what kind of freedom is democracy, when its a freedom

to exploit, and manipulate? In Hitlers earlier years, his vague political understanding, like his contemporaries, had generally come from reading newspapers, studying political pamphlets handed out on street corners, by the radical right, or simply listening to the opinions of others through any other medium. Newspapers in those days of mass circulation would, as always, reflect the views of their owners. Editors were employed to put their opinions into print. This, as today, is standard practice. The personal point of view of the owner is transferred to the reader in an attempt to sway them in the direction of the political party supported by the paper, sometimes with lies. Now his understanding was quite clear on the bending of minds. Who were the directors of the democratic press and mass media? He checked and re-checked all media ownership, local and national. In general, these outlets had Jewish proprietors. They were also well represented in the Reichsrat, trade unions and as heads of influential organisations. The influence of Jewish culture was embedded in most aspects of society. In his youth, while living in Linz, Hitler had, on occasion, come into contact with Jewish children. It never crossed his mind that they had been Germanised over the years. They were no different from him, and only their religious habits seemed a bit strange. As a young boy, he had been brought up to show tolerance, and anyone who would argue over the special merits of their own particular religion was being disrespectful to others. In his opinion, anyone should be entitled to worship in anyway which suited their own personal beliefs. This stance, as he grew up, was never a problem for him. However, now wiser and with hindsight, he firmly believed that religion had no place at the political table. In this instance, religion was not a factor. This seemed to him to be a power struggle of racial domination. He vowed, from the moment of this realisation, that his lifes work would be to become thoroughly acquainted with Jewish history and doctrine and try, in any way possible, to be

the saviour of souls. He firmly believed that this was a spiritual destiny which had been bestowed upon him to do the work of the Lord. In Vienna in those times there would have been approximately two hundred thousand Jews. Most of them had been expelled from Tsarist Russia. They had taken up residence in many different countries in Europe, and had been border crossing for centuries. In the early 1800s, around twenty thousand Jewish refugees left Russia annually. By the late 1890s, this exodus had increased to over 50,000 per year having been expelled by the Russian Tsar. Suspicions had arisen after a claim by the Russian State Police to have discovered a text11 outlining the plans of international Jewry to achieve world domination. These wanderers moved west, passing through Germany and Austria. Year on year, thousands of them settled in those countries in great numbers. Over time, as had happened in Russia and other Eastern European states, a gradual resentment of the Jewish minority occurred. Again and again this scenario repeated itself. Is it possible that the reason for this recurrence may have lain in their unfortunate method of self-preservation? Their target for existence was to build a wide range of dependencies through money, land and property. A network of control would soon appear which, in turn, initiated a tension between them and the indigenous people of whatever country they had settled. In times of strife, the Jewish money-lending landlords could be seen by their tenants to be heartless and greedy. Jealousy and hatred could easily follow. Jews were seen as outsiders, seldom mixing with others outside their circle. Marriage with a partner of a different race was frowned upon. They kept to themselves and lived in their own communities. This suited their philosophy of life.

Text: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion later claimed to be fraudulent.

In Adolf Hitlers lifetime, accommodating the Jewish problem was not a new phenomenon. For example, Jewish communities of a significant size first came to England at the time of William the Conqueror in 1066. Their percentage of the total population at this time was around 1% (3,000). They acquired a reputation as extortionate money lenders, which made them extremely unpopular with the general public and the church, which forbade usury (the lending of money for profit). Judaism permitted loans with interest between Jews and non- Jews. While anti-Semitism was widespread in Europe Spain having issued the Alhambra decree in 1492 expelling all Jews medieval England was particularly anti-Semitic. In 1190, over one hundred Jews were massacred in the city of York. Every successive King formally reviewed a Royal Charter granting Jews the right to remain in England, but without the same rights as the English. This hatred and suspicion eventually spread to Wales and Scotland, and in the year 1218, England became the first European nation to insist that the Jews wear a marking badge on their outer clothing. In 1290 Edward the First of England, tired of the continual conflict, eventually issued an edict of expulsion, which was widely popular, to remove all Jews, more than two hundred years after their arrival. It would be three hundred and fifty years before this act would be overturned in 1656. Most of the Middle Ages were Jew free. The portrayal of the archetypal Jew in the Arts had a distinct anti-Semitic atmosphere. They depicted the Jew as the moneylender and landlord, continually placing a heavy burden on the poor and working class. William Shakespeare, in the 16th and 17th centuries, The Merchant of Venice had an anti-Semitic tendency featuring

Shylock, the Jewish moneylender, and the pound of flesh being the interest on the loan. Charles Dickens, in the 19th century, portrayed the Jew Fagin in Oliver Twist, a despicable character engaged in running a school for delinquent boys and teaching them the art of pickpocketing. In the year 1913, Hitlers exit from Vienna was now in the past but not forgotten. Munich beckoned

Chapter 2
Munich, War and Political Awakening

In the spring of 1913, Hitler arrived in Munich. This was a contented time for him. He had always regarded Munich as the metropolis of German art and he still had the dream of becoming a great artist this had never deserted him. Although he had inherited some money from his fathers estate, in contrast he lacked the security of a steady income, and this was always a concern. Hitler fell in love with Munich and immediately settled down. Everything seemed perfect. For the first time in years, he was able to face the day without the burden of hunger and anxiety that had plagued him in Vienna. In Munich, from the concert halls to the museums of art, this was a real German city. More than anything else it seemed to embody the development of the life he had in mind. He had left Vienna for personal and cultural reasons. However, while living there, he had developed an ability to study and experience the political structure. After a period of interaction in Munich, he gradually discovered that there was a lingering element of deception being instilled in the minds of most of the common people, which was false. Their perception was that Austria could well be regarded as a true German State ally. Hitler knew from observations at first hand that the internal politics in Vienna were nothing more than a mockery, which consisted of Austria-Hungary and its accumulation of Slavic friends. Indeed, the triple alliance between Austria-Hungary, Germany and Italy was never a practical reality. If only people could see that this exalted alliance was nothing more than a sham. In 1914, the storm clouds of war were looming. The

outbreak on the 1st of August stopped Hitlers journey in its tracks. After the shock and excitement that seized the people on this announcement, the alliance treaty really showed its worth. Italy quickly leapt out of the triple pact and reverted to base as an enemy. The only exponents of this ridiculous pact were the Austrian Monarchy and the Germans. The monarchy, out of the necessity to show strength and good will to the Austrian people, and the Germans to show faith in the belief that the alliance would strengthen and secure the Reich. On the contrary, it only chained the Reich to a corpse of a state which would eventually drag them into the abyss. This alliance was a swindling match. Hitler, in leaving Austria, had escaped national service. At no time would he ever have considered fighting for the Hapsburg State.12 Now, as an Austrian living in Germany, he petitioned His Majesty King Ludwig 111 with a request to join a Bavarian regiment, and within a short time his request was approved. Hitler now began, as he said, The greatest and most unforgettable time in his earthly existence. Hitler was enlisted as a volunteer in the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment. He served with this regiment throughout the period 1914-1918. Its commander was Colonel List. The young men marched with no fear in their hearts when they left Munich, their destination being the Fields of Flanders. Adolf Hitler was deployed as a battalion messenger, running the daily gauntlet of enemy machine gun fire. The misery in the mud-filled trenches soon replaced the joy they had felt when leaving Munich. Being a regimental messenger meant risking his life every day. For Acts of Bravery, Hitler was

The Hapsburg Dynasty reigned from the 15th-20th centuries over most of Europe. The Hapsburg State covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Hapsburg. They survived the revolution in 1848, but after the 1866 Austrian-Prussian war had to make concession to Hungarian nationalism and in 1867 formed the monarchy Austria-Hungary. As Nationalists became more and more powerful and the First World War broke out, the empire was broken up, and in 1918 the last Hapsburg monarch Charles I of Austria renounced his title.

awarded the Iron Cross, first and second class. The war was relentless. The romance of battle had been replaced by horror. The earlier confidence was stifled by mortal fear. The young volunteers soon became old soldiers. Hitler was promoted to Lance Corporal, but significantly there were no further promotions, possibly because of his Austrian background. As a soldier, there was never any mention of politics on the battlefields. No one would have listened to anything political anyway. As Hitler was, he could not help himself gradually thinking of certain manifestations which affected the Nation and, in particular, the soldiers. There were a number of details that profoundly angered him. At the outset, and with the news of victories, a section of the German press slowly started to undermine the actions at the Front by sending out thinly disguised messages which dampened the general enthusiasm of the troops. This was done beneath a mask of benevolence. It gave the impression that, perhaps, some people had misgivings about the level of joy with success. Possibly a contribution to reconciliation should now have been considered. The best men were dying at the Front, and the rhetoric at home was wrecking their solidarity. Honest soldiers were fighting for peace and honour, while perjuring criminals had already started the process of organising a revolution. The contents of the letters from home, from worried mothers, wives and girlfriends, only dampened the spirits further. Their loved ones had had their minds filled with impending slaughter and defeat. All this doom and gloom had a depressing effect on the troops. In September 1916, Hitlers division moved to the Battle on the Somme. This was not war, it was more like hell. The front lines on both sides moved back and forward but never wavered. It was stalemate. In October 1916, Hitler was wounded and transported to Germany. He was going home for the first time in two years. On the train going back, he passed through Brussels, Liege and then into Germany. This was the same route he had taken almost to the day two years earlier. He arrived at the hospital

in Beelitz near Berlin. What a difference from the mud and slaughter on the Somme to the white linen bed sheets in the hospital. The Germany he had left had changed in other respects. The spirit of the front line soldiers was not in evidence here. Everywhere there was talk of the shirking of duty and the feigning of injury in order to get back home. This was spoken about quite openly. It had become commonplace. Many listened in silence and few dissented, but nothing, nor no one, was ever reported. Hitler left the hospital as soon as he could walk properly and got permission to travel to the Soldiers Home in Berlin. The old city was a depressing place, with only misery and discontent as a companion. The British Naval Blockade13 of German ports had torn the very soul from the German Nation. After being discharged, he travelled to Munich where he could join the replacement battalion. He could not recognise

The British Naval Blockade of German Ports during the latter part of World War One produced the first secret Holocaust. Over one million men, women and particularly children were forced to live, then die due to starvation levels imposed on them by a strict naval blockade on food and cattle supplies to the country from its trading partners. All imports of food related products seed and fertiliser were also blocked. Germanys President Hindenburg, with the knowledge of his countrys lack of natural resources, introduced a number of food related schemes, which failed or were only partially successful. The British Naval Blockade, on the orders of government, received a complete press blackout in Britain and America as a deterrent against any form of sympathy or protest. In the aftermath, historians from both countries continued to participate in the cover-up of this appalling crime, as did the guilt of the Worlds press who informed the public after the event, but kept them in ignorance of the criminal policies of the Allies who had produced it. Dead and starving German children with tiny faces, large dull eyes overshadowed by huge puffed foreheads with thin small crooked arms, just skin and bones, above rickety legs, dislocated joints and swollen, pointed stomachs, all created by the hunger oedema. Relief efforts started by Herbert Hoover, who was later to become American President, started too late, but his mission was the beginning of a welcome end to the murderous blockade policy. Later observers stated that this was one of the reasons that Adolf Hitler (a war veteran) decided to involve himself in politics.

the inhabitants of this great city that he loved. His fellow soldiers all had issues. Their lack of mutual respect with the older training officers was obvious. It seemed to Hitler that now the whole of Germany was a swelling mass of defeatists. In 1916 the German government introduced a census for Jews, having had concerns over their lack of patriotism. At this time, Hitler also took notice that nearly all the clerks in the offices were Jewish. He could not help but compare these office clerks with their rare representatives at the front. Administration seemed to be their forte. Their work at all the war corporations was making them indispensable. They had become central to the war effort. In the years 1916-1917, war production gradually became controlled by Jewish finance. Who did these people really support? The poisonous propaganda in the press was continuing unabated. Hitler believed that the Jews were now dominating the course of events. At the beginning of 1917, he was back with his regiment at the front and glad to be back after witnessing all the bickering at home. In May of 2012, proof of this patriotism was confirmed by the recent discovery of a postcard which he had sent to his army colleague Karl Lanzhammer in December 1916 while he was recovering from a war wound sustained in the Battle of the Somme. It revealed his intention to report voluntarily for the field immediately after recovery. The card read: Dear Lanzhammer, I am now in Munich at the Ersatz Battalion. Currently I am under dental treatment. By the way I will report voluntarily for the field immediately. Kind regards, A. Hitler. Towards the end of 1917, the low point of the Armys dejection seemed to be passing. There was fresh hope. The Russians had collapsed. The Italians followed suit. At last confidence was soaring through the German ranks. Now, again, there was a realistic hope of victory. The groaners became rarer. The soldiers and the people at home were beginning to believe again. As this glorious faith flowed in the spring of 1918, there was a mixture of relief and confidence.

The fighting at the Front, however, remained quiet. Eerily quiet. The last preparations were being made. Was this the lull before the storm? Suddenly the biggest piece of treachery in the whole of the war broke out in Germany. A munitions strike was organised by the trade unions. The offensive was thwarted. Jewish international capital was now also Master of Germany. The swindle of nations had been achieved. Social democracy in Germany had sent the wolf to mind the sheep. Much as they tried, the munitions strike was not as successful as they had hoped; it had little bearing on the German Front, which collapsed soon after, but moral damage had taken its place. The ordinary soldier asked himself, What are we fighting for if in the homeland they do not care for victory anymore? All the sacrifices the soldiers had made seemed to no longer matter. Hitler was filled with rage and indignation at the psychological mass murder that had been committed. He had fought in Ypres, The Somme, Arras and Passchendaele. At Ypres there had been over 40,000 men killed in twenty days: The massacre of the innocents. By December of that year, in Hitlers company alone, 250 men had been reduced to 42. In October 1918, his war was over. He had been wounded and temporarily blinded by poisonous mustard gas. In the early part of November in the same year, a selected delegation of German politicians (non-military) had, through an intermediary, arranged to meet members of the French High Command to arrange an amicable ceasefire. However, at the meeting, under the threat of a continuation of hostilities, they eventually asked for an armistice. Within a seventy two hour period, the terms of the Armistice, which stripped away Germanys right to exist as a Sovereign State, were laid bare before them. Under duress, they eventually signed the agreement, which contained the harshest of terms, thus ending the World War One Conflict on the 11th of November at precisely 11a.m. While recovering in hospital, news of the German

surrender left him shocked and numb. He was but a nameless soldier, one among eight million others. He had held his tongue and did his duty as a soldier in the trenches. The rebellion in Germany, inspired by Communist ideals, led to a Republic being proclaimed on the 9th of November 1918. Thereafter, Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated and lived in exile. The German Imperial Government was replaced after the centre parties swept to power in election victory. The formal establishment of The Weimar Republic14 took place in August 1919, when a National Assembly convened in Weimar, with many Jews holding prominent positions of office in the new German realm. In fact, the new constitution was written by the Jew Hugo Preuss. The new Republic was labelled by Nationalists as The Republic of the Jews. Thus ending the power of the monarchy in Germany and Austria. The Prussian dynasty going back to the days of Frederick the Great was over. Foreign troops would be based in Germany for the first time, in the Ruhr Valley. Colonies and large parts of her territory would be confiscated; the map of Europe would be redrawn. The right to maintain a capable military force on land, sea or air was denied. The country was on its knees, and all was lost. Hitler, back in Munich, still had his time to come. Towards the end of 1918, after leaving the military hospital, Hitler travelled to Munich to join up with the replacement battalion of his regiment. On arrival he found it to be in the hands of mutinous Soldiers Councils.15 This situation he found repellent to say the least. His battalions domination was part of a seizure of power by revolutionary elements in the army. One of the main instigators was the political agitator Kurt Eisner,16 the former editor of the

The Weimar Republic was named after Weimar, the city where in 1919 a National Assembly convened and a new constitution for the German Reich was written. 15 Soldiers Councils were modelled on the Soviets of the Russian revolution, an organisation into which elements on the left in the German army grouped themselves. 16 Kurt Eisner: See biographical information.

Vorwarts.17 He would later lead the revolution in Munich and head the new government on November the 8th 1918. The future as Hitler saw it looked bleak, and with his friend and comrade Ernst Schmiedt, he travelled back to Traunstein and remained there until the camp was disbanded. The situation in Munich seemed untenable. The revolution continued with the dictatorship of the soldiers councils. The liberation of Munich18 by the German Army eventually took place on March the 18th 1919. A few days later, Hitler was ordered to report to the examining commission who had been concerned with the revolutionary occurrences in the second infantry regiment. Within a month he was again ordered to attend a course for members of the Armed Forces. These indoctrination courses were held at Munich University between June 6th and 12th 1919, and were the idea of Captain Karl Mayr of the Von Mohl Command, who was Staff Captain and in charge of information, press and propaganda. He conceived the idea of Nationalist agitators within the army ranks to counter the professional agitators on the left. Hitler attended. He learned for the first time the fundamentals of civic thinking. He could also mix with likeminded soldiers. Attending these courses opened up a broader understanding of the economics of capital and labour. Previously, Hitler had been unable to recognise with the desired clarity the difference between this pure capital as the end result of productive labour and a capital whose existence and essence rested exclusively on speculation. Capital should always remain the handmaiden of the State and not the Mistress of the Nation.

Forward was the central organ of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, published daily in Berlin from 1891 to 1933 18 After the murder of Kurt Eisner on February the 21st 1919, there was in place a majority socialist government in Munich. On April the 7th, the Workers Soviets proclaimed the Republic of Soviets. A temporary council of Independents and the Bavarian Peasants League (Bavernbund) was formed. On April the 10th , this was overthrown by the Communists. Reichswehr units from surrounding states marched on Munich and occupied it on May the 1st 1919.

In due course, Hitler and his fellow students agreed that the existing parties of the centre and social democracy and the other so-called bourgeois national formations, even with the best of intentions, could never be Germanys saviours. The lecturer at these courses was Gottfried Feder19, who had founded the German fighting league for the breaking of interest slavery in 1917. This was the first time that Hitler had heard a principled discussion of international stock exchange and loan capital. This period of learning confirmed the opinion the soldiers held. In their own circle they discussed the foundation of a new party with the politics of the future, a party that would appeal to the broad masses. Hitler was convinced that a new party was needed, with new policies and ideas and participants who must be prepared to carry this fight to the end, which also should be closest to the hearts and minds of the people and with their life and work followed with admiring gratitude and emotion. They should have the power to mend broken hearts and raise despairing souls. In listening to the financial lectures of Gottfried Feder, Hitler realised that every doctrine and all knowledge must serve this purpose. The breaking of interest slavery was paramount. The fight must also be to safeguard the existence and reproduction of race and people, the sustaining of purity of blood, the freedom and independence of the homeland, the maturity and fulfilment of the mission allotted by the creator of our universe. Hitler studied this as a natural phenomenon again and again. For the first time, he achieved an understanding of Karl Marxs20 life effort, Das Kapital. He now understood the struggle of social democracy against the international economy, which aims only to prepare the ground for the domination of international finance and stock exchange capital.

19 20

Gottfried Feder: See biographical information. Karl Marx: See biographical information.

These courses were of the greatest consequence to Hitler in another respect also. As his confidence soared one day Hitler stood up and asked for the floor. One of the participants had begun to defend the Jews and their systematic way of working with a lengthy argument. This had moved him to answer. The majority of students took his standpoint. This opportunity had also given him the chance to use his natural gift of oratory. His developing art of persuasion didnt go unnoticed. Captain Mayr promoted him in his unit to be used as a propagandist and political agent. Hitler then received orders from his headquarters to attend a meeting, which was apparently a political organisation under the name of The German Workers Party.21 He had to take notes and report back. The Army, understandably, was concerned about any political activity, as the revolution in Germany had given soldiers civil rights and freedom of speech. The meeting took place on the evening of September the 12th 1919. Hitler entered the Leiber rooms of the former Steineckerbrau in Munich. There were some twenty or so people present, mainly working class. Feder was lecturing and as Hitler had, in the past, listened intently to Feder, and he therefore had enough experience to inspect the organisation on behalf of the army. His impressions were neither good nor bad. This new organisation was like many others. New parties developed continually, and then after a short period simply ceased to exist. He judged the German Workers Party no differently. When Feder had stopped speaking, Hitler was ready to leave; he had heard and seen enough, but now there was a free discussion period and, having second thoughts, he decided to remain after all.

The German Workers Party originated as a breakaway splinter from the Fatherland Party, an annexationist party formed with army backing in 1917. It linked up with a member of the Nationalist Secret Society, the Thule Association, in 1918. The new party was formally founded on January the 5th 1919. Its recruitment of members was a secret affair and its membership was only gradually increased after the full involvement of Adolf Hitler.

The discussions were of the usual, nothing significant. Then a Professor named Baumann took the floor. He questioned the soundness of Feders arguments, and then, after Feder had replied well, the Professor recommended that the young party take up the Separation of Bavaria from Prussia. This was a particularly important political point at that time. He then maintained that in this case Germany-Austria would at once join Bavaria and that the peace would be better. At this point Hitler jumped to his feet and commanded attention. He gave his opinions at length, and as he continued to dominate the debate, he observed the learned gentleman departing. The small audience gazed up at him with a look of astonishment. As Hitler was about to leave, one of the patrons leapt forward and introduced himself. He handed him a little booklet, a political pamphlet, and asked him to read it. This worker left a good impression on him. With the meeting at an end, Hitler left the hall. At this time, Hitler lived in the barracks of the second infantry regiment. During the day he spent most of his time out with the Forty-First Rifles. He was an early riser and was usually up and about around 5am. He suddenly remembered the past evening and the little booklet he had been given by the worker. He lay down on top of his bed and began to read it. The author of the pamphlet, a German Workers Party member, described how he had returned to national thinking. The title of the booklet was My Political Awakening. Reading through this small book reminded Hitler of his former years. It was interesting, and reflected a process that he had gone through twelve years before. He looked at it a few times and was about to put it to one side when he received a postcard. It confirmed that he had been accepted as a member of The German Workers Party. He was also requested to attend a committee meeting of this party the following Wednesday. The address and details of the meeting were included in the card. Hitler was astounded at the way this young party was adding to its membership. He didnt know whether to laugh or

be angry. He had no intention of joining any established party. He had always preferred to be the founder of his own party. He was just about to send his rejection in writing when he hesitated and decided there and then that he would appear on the appointed day and explain his reasons personally. Wednesday arrived. The meeting was to take place at a local tavern, namely the Altes Rosenbad in the Herrenstrasse. It was a very run down establishment. Sadly in 1919, even the larger restaurants could offer very little in the way of allurements. Hitler travelled to the tavern. Until this time he had never heard of it. Opening the door, there was an ill-lit dining area, and there was no one there. He opened the door to the back room and the session was before him. In the dim light of a broken gas lamp, four young people sat at a table. Among them was the author of the little booklet. They all at once greeted Hitler and introduced themselves, welcoming him as a new member of the German Workers Party. He was informed that the National Chairman would arrive late. Hitler was not impressed, though he decided to stay and observe. The gentleman finally appeared. The chairman of the National organisation was a Karl Harrer. Harrers official title in the German Workers Party was Reichs Chairman. He worked as a reporter with a Munich National newspaper. The chairman of the Munich district was Anton Drexler.22 Now at least, Hitler knew the names of the leading individuals. The minutes of the last meeting were read and the secretary, Michael Lotter, was given a vote of confidence. Michael Lotter was the first secretary of the German Workers Party, an engine driver and friend of party member Anton Drexler. He resigned from the party on personal grounds in 1920. Next came the treasury report. All in all, the association possessed a total of seven marks and fifty pfennigs, for which

Anton Drexler: See biographical information.

the treasurer received a vote of general confidence. This too was entered in the minutes. Then the chairman read the answers to a letter from Kiel, one from Dusseldorf and one from Berlin. Everyone expressed approval. Next was a report given on the incoming letters. One from Berlin, one from Dusseldorf and one from Kiel, whose arrival was received with great satisfaction. This growing correspondence was interpreted as the best and most visible sign of spreading the word. There was a long deliberation with regard to the answers made. Hitler could not believe what he was seeing and listening to. Was he now to join this organisation? Next on the agenda was new membership. Hitler was astonished to find that he was the only one that the committee had to consider. Aside from a few directives, there was nothing no programme, no printed matter, no membership cards, not even a rubber stamp. There was only good faith and intentions. Hitler had stopped smiling. Much was vague and unclear. Nothing was present which could not have passed as a sign of a struggling realisation, but Hitler knew what these people felt was the longing for a successful political movement. Later that evening, he returned to the barracks without having made any commitment to the party and faced the hardest of decisions. Should he join or should he decline? After two days of agonised pondering and reflection, he finally came to the conclusion that he should take this step and join this fledgling party. From here on in, there would be no turning back. Hitler registered as a member of the German Workers Party and received a provisional membership card with the number 555, knowing full well that the partys membership numbers began at 501. On the 28th of June 1919, the humiliating Treaty of Versailles was ratified in line with the armistice conditions. Insane sums of money would later have to be repaid in

reparations,23 mainly to the French for civil damage. Germany lost her Colonies and large parts of her territory. The tasks ahead would be formidable


The Supreme Allied Council met in Paris in 1921 and decided upon an elaborate plan of reparation payments. Annual payments were to begin at two billion gold marks per year and gradually increase to six billion at the end of eleven years. The London conference, held from April the 29th to May the 5th of the same year, sent an ultimatum to Germany, demanding one billion gold marks on penalty of occupying the Ruhr, Germanys industrial valley. The German government paid the sum by borrowing the money in London.