Sei sulla pagina 1di 70

Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids, Bases and Salts

Properties of Acids

1

Taste

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

Properties of Acids

1

Taste Sour

2

Litmus is

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

Properties of Acids

1

Taste Sour

2

Litmus is Red

3

Phenolphthalein is

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

Properties of Acids

1

Taste Sour

2

Litmus is Red

3

Phenolphthalein is Colourless

4

Bromthymol Blue is

5

 

6

 

7

 

Properties of Acids

1

Taste Sour

2

Litmus is Red

3

Phenolphthalein is Colourless

4

Bromthymol Blue is Yellow

5

Reacts with

6

 

7

 

Properties of Acids

1

Taste Sour

2

Litmus is Red

3

Phenolphthalein is Colourless

4

Bromthymol Blue is Yellow

5

React with metals to form Hydrogen

6

A

conductor of electricity

7

 

Properties of Acids

1

Taste Sour

2

Litmus is Red

3

Phenolphthalein is Colourless

4

Bromthymol Blue is Yellow

5

React with metals to form Hydrogen

6

A GOOD conductor of electricity

7

Will Neutralize

Properties of Acids

1

Taste Sour

2

Litmus is Red

3

Phenolphthalein is Colourless

4

Bromthymol Blue is Yellow

5

React with metals to form Hydrogen

6

A GOOD conductor of electricity

7

Will Neutralize Bases

Properties of Bases

1

Taste

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

Properties of Bases

1

Taste Bitter

2

Feel

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

Properties of Bases

1

Taste Bitter

2

Feel Slippery

3

Litmus is

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

Properties of Bases

1

Taste Bitter

2

Feel Slippery

3

Litmus is Blue

4

Phenolphthalein is

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

Properties of Bases

1

Taste Bitter

2

Feel Slippery

3

Litmus is Blue

4

Phenolphthalein is Pink

5

Bromthymol Blue is

6

 

7

 

8

 

Properties of Bases

1

Taste Bitter

2

Feel Slippery

3

Litmus is Blue

4

Phenolphthalein is Pink

5

Bromthymol Blue is Blue

6

react with most metals

7

 

8

 

Properties of Bases

1

Taste Bitter

2

Feel Slippery

3

Litmus is Blue

4

Phenolphthalein is Pink

5

Bromthymol Blue is Blue

6

Don’t react with most metals

7

conductors of electricity

8

 

Properties of Bases

1

Taste Bitter

2

Feel Slippery

3

Litmus is Blue

4

Phenolphthalein is Pink

5

Bromthymol Blue is Blue

6

Don’t react with most metals

7

GOOD conductors of electricity

8

Will neutralize

Properties of Bases

1

Taste Bitter

2

Feel Slippery

3

Litmus is Blue

4

Phenolphthalein is Pink

5

Bromthymol Blue is Blue

6

Don’t react with most metals

7

GOOD conductors of electricity

8

Will neutralize Acids

When an ACID and a BASE are mixed, you get a

When an ACID and a BASE are mixed, you get a

When an ACID and a BASE are mixed, you get a SALT

When an ACID and a BASE are mixed, you get a SALT

When an ACID and a BASE are mixed, you get a SALT and WATER

When an ACID and a BASE are mixed, you get a SALT and WATER

Salts like Sodium Chloride (NaCl) are used as food preservatives

Salts like Sodium Chloride (NaCl) are used as food preservatives Salted fish

Salted fish

Microorganisms are the cause of most food spoilage. High salt concentrations kill microorganisms

Salt and vinegar are used to preserve pickles.

Salt and vinegar are used to preserve pickles.

Indicators are substances that are different colours in acids and bases. One example is litmus paper:

Indicators are substances that are different colours in acids and bases. One example is litmus paper:

Another is Phenolphthalein

Another is Phenolphthalein

Another is Bromthymol Blue

Another is Bromthymol Blue

Some Common Acids

Acid Name

Where acid is found

Some Common Acids Acid Name Where acid is found

Some Common Acids

Acid Name

Where acid is found

Citric Citrus fruits
Citric
Citrus fruits

Some Common Acids

Acid Name

Where acid is found

Citric

Citrus fruits

Malic

Apples

Some Common Acids

Acid Name

Where acid is found

Citric

Citrus fruits

Malic

Apples

Oxalic

Rhubarb

Some Common Acids

Acid Name

Where acid is found

Citric

Citrus fruits

Malic

Apples

Oxalic

Rhubarb

Acetic

Vinegar

Some Common Acids

Acid Name

Where acid is found

Citric

Citrus fruits

Malic

Apples

Oxalic

Rhubarb

Acetic

Vinegar

Lactic

Sour Milk

   

Some Common Acids

Acid Name

Where acid is found

 

Citric

Citrus fruits

 

Malic

Apples

 

Oxalic

Rhubarb

 

Acetic

Vinegar

 

Lactic

Sour Milk

 

Carbonic

Soft Drinks

H

2 CO 3

Acid Name

Where acid is found

Citric

Citrus fruits

Malic

Apples

Oxalic

Rhubarb

Acetic

Vinegar

CH 3 COOH

Lactic

Sour Milk

Carbonic

Soft Drinks

H

2 CO 3

Sulphuric

Car Batteries

H

2 SO 4

Acid Name

Where acid is found

Citric

Citrus fruits

Malic

Apples

Oxalic

Rhubarb

Acetic

Vinegar

CH 3 COOH

Lactic

Sour Milk

Carbonic

Soft Drinks

H

2 CO 3

Sulphuric

Car Batteries

H

2 SO 4

Hydrochloric

Stomach

 

HCl

Burning fuels that contain sulphur can cause sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) to form in the air. This causes ACID RAIN.

Burning fuels that contain sulphur can cause sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) to form

Some Common Bases

Base Name

Formula

Where Base is found

Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found
Some Common Bases Base Name Formula Where Base is found

Some Common Bases

Base Name

Formula

Where Base is found

Sodium Hydroxide

NaOH

Oven & Drain Cleaner

Some Common Bases

Base Name

Formula

Where Base is found

Sodium Hydroxide

NaOH

Oven & Drain Cleaner

Potassium Hydroxide

KOH

Oven & Drain Cleaner

Some Common Bases

Base Name

Formula

Where Base is found

Sodium Hydroxide

NaOH

Oven & Drain Cleaner

Potassium Hydroxide

KOH

Oven & Drain Cleaner

Magnesium Hydroxide

Mg(OH) 2

Laxative (Milk of Magnesia)

Some Common Bases

Base Name

Formula

Where Base is found

Sodium Hydroxide

NaOH

Oven & Drain Cleaner

Potassium Hydroxide

KOH

Oven & Drain Cleaner

Magnesium Hydroxide

Mg(OH) 2

Laxative (Milk of Magnesia)

Aluminum Hydroxide

Al(OH) 3

Antacid

Neutralization

Acid +

Base Water + A Salt

Neutralization Acid + Base Water + A Salt
Hair “perms” use Neutralization

Hair “perms” use Neutralization

The “waving lotion” is a Base. An Acid (Neutralizer) is poured over the Base to
The “waving lotion” is a Base.
An Acid (Neutralizer) is poured over the
Base to form a Salt, which is rinsed off.

Many household products are acids and bases. If spilled, they can be neutralized.

Vinegar (a weak acid) will neutralize Bases

Baking soda (a weak base) will neutralize Acids

Some Common Salts

Salt Name

Formula

Where Salt is found

Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found
Some Common Salts Salt Name Formula Where Salt is found

Some Common Salts

Salt Name

Formula

Where Salt is found

Sodium Chloride

NaCl

Table Salt

Some Common Salts

Salt Name

Formula

Where Salt is found

Sodium Chloride

NaCl

Table Salt

Sodium Bicarbonate

NaHCO 3

Baking Soda

Some Common Salts

Salt Name

Formula

Where Salt is found

Sodium Chloride

NaCl

Table Salt

Sodium Bicarbonate

NaHCO 3

Baking Soda

Potassium Chlorate

KClO 3

Match Heads

Some Common Salts

Salt Name

Formula

Where Salt is found

Sodium Chloride

NaCl

Table Salt

Sodium Bicarbonate

NaHCO 3

Baking Soda

Potassium Chlorate

KClO 3

Match Heads

Potassium Nitrate

KNO 3

Fertilizer, Explosives