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International Relations is the study of relationships among countries, the roles of

sovereign, inter-governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, non-

governmental organizations, and multinational corporations. This study is very important not just for the government but for everyone. The book Perspectives in Politics: Public and Foreign is one of the best sources of knowledge and ideas about International Relations. This book is a compilation of essays and comments on political issues written by the respected Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz. One of the essay that the book contains is entitled Sovereignty as a Basis for Foreign Policy. It is written in the first paragraph that, The Filipino beginning to be concerned with the study of our foreign affairs in international relations is of course predominantly touched by the crisis and tension that form the background of todays headlines. Veritably, it is inevitable and desirable that attention should be focused on the study of our foreign policy. It is already obvious that our countrys relationship with other foreign countries is necessary. Some are considered as beneficial while some should be stopped. It is good that news on televisions, radios and newspapers include this subject. The significance of Foreign Affairs and International Politics, as Commissioner Professor Lapuz have said should not be an esoteric mystical and recondite subject remote from ordinary people. What does this mean? This topic should not be known by a few numbers of people but must be appreciated and understood by everyone. Even the ordinary people must have interest in this. It is also stated in the book that, It is not a matter that concerns the government only. As we all know, the government should be by the people and for the people. Every decision that it will make will affect everyone. Foreign affairs as described in the essay, affects us all, because it touches the very life and character, the welfare, the interest, the

prosperity, and the national security of the people. Our countrys relationship with foreign countries affects different aspects in our life. It may benefit and might also harm the people. It may be for security and it might also bring a threat to the national security. Foreign policy may be the most domestic of our concerns. Don Claro Mayo Recto, a scholar-statesman used to remind us that there are always two sides to a nations policy, the domestic and the foreign, and that they should be not only mutually consistent but complementary, or they would cancel each other. Recto also warned about these two that the domestic policy should just be an extension, an implementation of the domestic policy. There is definitely a need to discuss public opinions and combine theoretical arguments in foreign policy with real world situations as we focus on the principles and processes of the modern world politics in analyzing themes in international relations, providing the people with deep understanding into the varied aspects of the increasingly vital field of international relations. According to the essay, to present a framework or paradigm that will help out motion to understand what states seek through their governments and political leaders, how states operate in relation to others in periods of stability and war, what techniques states use to achieve or defend their objectives, how states are restrained or unrestrained by moral, ethical, or legal considerations, and how they resolve their conflicts. -Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz Perspectives in Politics, Public and Foreign, 26 (Sovereignty as a Basis for Foreign Policy)

A country's foreign policy, also called the foreign relations policy, consists of selfinterest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve its goals within international relations milieu. The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors. The aforementioned interaction is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed by the government through high-level decision making processes. National interests accomplishment can occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or through exploitation. Foreign policy can be viewed analytically in three angles such as conception, content, and implementation. The first one is conception which is about strategic appraisal, careful consideration and formulation of opinion about what goals are desirable and can be done or achieved. Next is content which is the result of the appraisal made or after a careful thinking in terms of particular selection of national interests. Last is implementation which refers to both the coordinating mechanisms within a state and the means by which it conveys its views and desires to other states. It says that, the state shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states, the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interests and the right to self-determination. This is according to the Section 7 of Article 2 (Declaration of Principles and State Policies) of the 1986 Constitution. Relations to foreign countries must not just focus on the welfare of those countries but on its benefits to our own people and about national interests. Before making a foreign policy, national

interest or interests of the people should be the most important to take into consideration. And the first law of international politics is that a state of the guardian of its own national interests. No other state will protect our interests except us Filipinos. We must look out for ourselves and learn to think for ourselves and stand on our own feet. -Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz Perspectives in Politics, Public and Foreign, 27 (Sovereignty as a Basis for Foreign Policy)

Our own state and government should function for the people. The Filipinos must have the biggest heart and interest for our own country and for our people. If we wont have the heart and eagerness to protect our interests, then no other countries would do that for us.

The Philippines should have the freedom to govern its own territory; there should not be superior agency to which it owes allegiance and loyalty. This is because our country is supposed to be an independent political unit. This only means that the Philippines should not be controlled by anyone but itself. The supreme and exclusive lawmaker within its own territory should be its government, and foreign political units, for example the United States, cannot enforce rules or settle disputes on our own territory. Foreign relations of the Philippines are administered by the President of the Philippines and the Department of Foreign Affairs. Philippine international affairs are influenced by ties to Southeast Asian neighbors, United States, and the Middle East. The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations; an elected member of the Security Council and participant in the FAO, International Labor Organization (ILO), UNESCO and World Health Organization. Like most nations, the Philippines are a signatory of Interpol. The Philippines is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit, and

the Latin Union. It was formerly a member of the now-defunct SEATO. Declaring itself as independent of any major power block of nations, the Philippines are a member of the NonAligned Movement. Economically, the Philippines is a participant in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian Development Bank, the Colombo Plan, the World Bank, Next Eleven and the World Trade Organization (WTO). The foreign policy of the Philippines is based on the advancement of Filipino ideals and values, which include the advancement of democracy and advocacy for human rights worldwide. We are actively engaging with regional neighbors in Southeast Asia through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations with the intention of strengthening regional harmony, stability, and prosperity. It has been a supporter of East Timor since the latter's independence and has expanded trade links with its traditional allies Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Relations with Vietnam and Cambodia have thawed in the 1990s after their entry into the ASEAN. Our development as a nation is a testament to our struggles. According to Apolinario Mabini, the Brains of the Revolution, at the turn of the 19th Century, We must always strive for the independence of our country because we, alone, have real interests in her greatness. We all have to fight for what is ours. And what is for us. Freedom and independence must be maintained because this is our country, our sovereign. In one of the essays entitled World Peace, Global Government, and Hope to the world of Nations it is stated that, The contemplation of the mystery of Incarnation invites us to be born again through a more vital union with Jesus Christ who became Man for us. -Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz Perspectives in Politics, Public and Foreign, 29 (World Peace, Global Government, and Hope to the world of Nations)

Every Christmas, we are reminded of his sacrifice and how we should give and forgive, be better people and learn to appreciate the beauty and essence of life. It is also stated that We should walk like the three wise men with a lively, sparkling faith, ever seeking the true God and longing for His heavenly gifts. Everyone must have strong faith in God. Never be discouraged. Believe in Him for everything is possible in Him. Be like the three wise men, seeking for God and longing for His gifts. God is peace. He can help you forgive and move on and He can bring unity into His people. Just think about this. If God can forgive, then who are we to refuse doing it? If for world peace you should sacrifice, then it is going to be worth it. Release the anger. Hatred and regrets in your hearts and be born again and start fresh. The Gospel had sang in Luke 2, verses 1-14: And suddenly a multitude of the heavenly host was with the angel, praising God and saying: Glory to God in high heaven, and on earth peace among men of good will. How can one define peace? Peace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violence, conflict behaviors and the freedom from fear of violence. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility, peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality, and a working political order that serves the true interests of all. In our troubled world at the present period peace, ending the quarrels and misunderstandings is the most important common of mankind. We should give our best efforts and intellectual powers to a careful consideration of how the social values of each nation connect and will result into peace

and unity for all nations. Peace between two people would already mean a lot. What more if there would be peace on earth? It would bring hope, happiness, security, contentment, understanding and would surely strengthen the ties between people and countries, between countries, between culture and religions. Why is peace important? According to Sara Javeed: The world has a choice. Either we concentrate on maintaining peace for the sake of the progress of humanity or we get ourselves ready to destroy our enemies it. Human beings located somewhere on this earth.

The clouds of war of enormous proportions are looming in the world. They will not contribute to the happiness of the people of the world: they will only make the arms produces richer. Let the resources being spent on instruments of destructions be diverted to save infants, protect mother, educating the youth and bringing happiness to the globe instead of destruction, misery and gloom. According to the Global Engage, Peace, which is only a 5-letter word, plays an important role in our lives. It is peace which makes us live happily and comfortably. It affects life in so many ways. Peace means order, discipline, prosperity and benefits; we all feel safe when our life is peaceful. On the other hand, conflicts or wars mean destruction, fear, sadness and finally death. Accordingly, let's live and let live.

Advocates believe that world government could be able to provide and secure world peace. What is a world government? As defined in Wikipedia, World government is the notion of a single common political authority for all of humanity. Its modern conception is rooted in

European, particularly in the philosophy of ancient Greece, in the political formation of the Roman Empire, and in the subsequent struggle between secular authority, represented by the Holy Roman Emperor, and ecclesiastical authority, represented by the Pope. World government, as understood in international law and politics, is a political system in which are central set of institutions would preside over all human beings and political unit on the planet.

One of the proposals for this type of government is that nation-states should surrender total sovereignty over their territory and would just be under by the world government which they would share power with. This type of government has dominance for ruling the world. Closely equal to this is the Federation. A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, are typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. The governmental or constitutional structure found in a federation is known as federalism. It can be considered the opposite of another system, the unitary state. An example of federation is Germany with sixteen Lander which its neighbors such as Austria and Bundeslander, was a unitary state, that is composed of administrative divisions that became federated.

Federations may be multi-ethnic and cover a large area of territory, although neither is necessarily the case. The initial agreements create a stability that encourages other common interests, reduces differences between the disparate territories, and gives them all even more common ground. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they

experience a funding gap. Under the Antideficiency Act, they must cease operations, except in certain emergency situations or when law authorizes continued activity. Can this type of government really help produce and maintain world peace? I personally do not think so. First of all, who would be the head of that world government? It would not be believable if someone will say that leaders from different countries will have equal powers. You cant kill the issue of being not fair. This might even be worsening by this type of government. It is also possible that the treatment to the fellow countrymen of those who are in position would be better than what is being experienced by other races. Secondly, how would the world government exercise sovereignty? Is assigning authorities to different parts of the globe enough already? These questions may or may not be anymore answered because a world government is unlikely to happen. People might go wild because of this. Nationality and independence might grow stronger in the hearts of the people because having this type of government may make them feel tied up. It would be very difficult, I can say for this kind of government to penetrate the lives and territories of other countries. Instead of the world peace that they want to achieve, the situation might lead into the exact opposite of what is planned. Another possibility being taken into consideration is the Confederation. A confederation is a permanent union of political units for common action in relation to other units. Usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution, confederations tend to be established for dealing with critical issues, with the central government being required to provide support for all members. The nature of the relationship among the states constituting a confederation varies considerably.

Likewise, the relationship between the member states, the central government, and the distribution of powers among them is highly variable. Some looser confederations are similar to intergovernmental organizations and even may permit secession from the confederation. Other confederations with stricter rules may resemble federations. A unitary state or federation may decentralize powers to regional or local entities in a confederal form. In the confederation government, it is said that the world government would enjoy some limited degree of power and authority but the greater part of it would be clearly retained by the constituent nation-state units. Third possibility might be the creation of several separate global authorities in different functional areas, along the lines of the International Seabed Authority proposed at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). An example of a confederation is that in Canada. What are its positive and negative effects to their country? It is stated in wiki answers that one of the positive effects of this type of government for Canada is the avoidance of annexation from the United States. What is annexation? It is the permanent acquisition and incorporation of a territorial entity into another geo-political entity which is either adjacent or non-contiguous. The territories which are often or usually annexed are those which are considered weaker of the other country it would soon belong to and it is also smaller. Canada, having this type of government may help them be independent form the United States. Another advantage is that Canada can control their taxes, education and military. Because they are independent, they would have the opportunity to decide for their own welfare. They can also pass bills more easily. Having a bigger state may delay passing of bills because of having a double majority. One bad thing is that the French would be somewhat assimilated into the English way.

They felt like they were losing their culture by giving into a central government, that's why they wanted more provincial rights. Military control could also be kind of bad for the country. Before, it is said that Britain took control of all the military aspects of Canada which means that they paid for the military expenses and this might help them gain power over the Canadian government.

There have been many different models of a world constitution when it comes to executive, legislative and judicial organs; and other components of a government. Among the many popular propositions, the one by Grenville Clark and Louis Sohn, in World Peace through World Law, proposed a permanent world police force with exclusive control on the legitimate use of force. To start this world government, there could be an amendment in the UN General Assembly voting procedures wherein each states voting strength will be based on some criteria, population for example, other than sovereign equality. Veto power, the power to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation, of the state shall be removed and UN resolutions would be binding and every country is obliged rather than recommendary or advisory. Theorizing or proposing about the types and structures of a world government is said to have rooted from a science fiction. The setting of Star Trek year 2600 is said to may have been the reason to it. Its effects to people and its popularity might have affected the views of the people on the life that we have right now. The one value that a world government would most likely to maximize is PEACE. It is good if the people will be joined together by their values, interests but most importantly, they should be fastened under one government. This means having unity. Living as one, connected and working as family. In any event, the historic mission of delivering all the peoples of the world from the horrors of war into the corridors of peace must be fulfilled.

We must end the senseless waste of human labor on the development of means of extermination and development. Human labor, as well as other resources used in developing a countrys military system and weapons should not be spent in a way that would just cause destruction and agony. There are other things which should be given attention. There are more important things that we should be focusing on and spending precious manpower and scarce resources. In place of armaments, mankind must concentrate all known resources on ensuring the greater welfare and socio-economic progress of all the countries in the world. The weapons of war must be destroyed before they destroy us.
-Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz Perspectives in Politics, Public and Foreign, 32

(World Peace, Global Government, and Hope to the world of Nations)

Why built and create something that would just cause destruction?! What is seen during periods of war? Homeless people; many are dead; soldiers lose their chance on going home to their families and die struggling; shortage, if there are goods lefts, it would be sent on a higher price; hunger; blood; tears; women, elders and children are weeping. What is good upon seeing this? It only breaks everybodys heart. As mentioned in the essay, Adlai E. Stevenson said: Peace is the one condition of survival in this nuclear age. In a world where everyone can be killed in just a blink of an eye, would you take risks and join a war? The safest and brightest way of staying alive is by seeking for peace. It should be love and not war. Though there are times when you should fight, still, search for a reason to find peace. Humility is also

necessary. Letting your pride take over your whole being is like being blinded by rage. You would not know what is wrong and right anymore. Out of a hundred reasons to fight, find one reason to raise you white flag. After all we are all humans. Created by God and loved by Him. By engaging into a war, you are putting not just your own life in danger but also the life of your enemies and love ones. Only God can take lives. Always remember that so you will have a control of whatever difficult situation you are in. Let us hasten the fulfillment of the biblical divine prophecy as foretold by the Hebrew prophet Isaiah in the book of the Old Testament: They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift us sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore. The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and a fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. Whatever your personality is, you should follow Jesus Christ. He is the son of God. In Him, you will never be troubled. Commissioner Professor Lapuz is the one who is best to ask about the relationship between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America military issues. One of the best examples of his knowledge about this can be seen on the first essay of the book entitled RP-US Bases. The subject RP-US Military Bases is one of the most talked about on every news, televisions, radios and debates. According to Commissioner Professor Lapuz, there is another problem connected on this issue, Philippine-American Treaties to which he wants to invite attention of policy-makers. It is about the matter of integration and systematic correlation of all our military agreements with the

USA, including the amended bases agreement of March 14, 1947; Military Assistance Agreement of March 21, 1947; and the mutual defense treaty of August 30, 1951. It is said that if youll pay attention to the agreements, as stated in the book, you will notice that these three agreements, although they touch upon the same subject, simply do not jibe, nor do they complement one another. As a support to this idea, there are the articles 3 and 4 of the agreement between the Government of the Philippines and the Government of the United States of America on military assistance to the Philippines: Article 3. If the government of the Republic of the Philippines should desire that this agreement be extended beyond the stipulated period, it shall make a written proposal to the effect at least one year before the expiration of this agreement. Article 4. This agreement may be terminated before the expiration of the period of five years prescribed in Article 2, or before the expiration of an extension authorized in Article 3, by either government, subject to three months written notice to the other government. All we need to do now is to notice that these last two aforementioned agreements will terminate one year after the giving of notice. As state has to be considered as completely independent and, within the territory under its control, therefore, a sovereign state must be acknowledged as supreme and not subject to foreign control. -Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz Perspectives in Politics, Public and Foreign, 3 (RP-US Bases)

Therefore, we must not be a puppet of anyone. We should stand on our own. Dont let other countries take advantage of our condition. The more we allow them, the more they think that we are weak. We can associate with foreign countries but should set limitations. We must, in the main, rely on ourselves. The bottom line is a competent government that believes in the truth and worth of our independence. -Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz Perspectives in Politics, Public and Foreign, 3 (RP-US Bases)

We must believe on our capacity. You cannot make someone believe that you are strong if you do not believe in yourself. The more those foreign countries see us dependent on them, the more they take advantage of our country. From our national hero Jose P. Rizal to the living heroes of today, it Filipinos can be described as people who are willing to die for the country, intelligent people, brave and knows how to fight and love. Let us not waste the contributions of those heroes. We, in this period should be brave enough to stand for our country. We can interact with other countries but the sovereignty over our state should just be on us, on our government. The administration of Jimmy Carter began with an emphasis on political rights and civil freedoms throughout the world. In our foreign policy, the Philippines must reiterate our position that our ideal is the close respect to human rights in all its dimensions but that the exceptional and sui generis set of political, social and economic circumstances prevailing in individual countries, priorities differ, and that the belief system, doctrine, Weltanschauung of the west need

not dominate. The topic on human rights is very important because it gives us understanding. Hearing the sides of other countries about human rights may help us ease tensions between countries. Knowing that every country values human rights may soften the hearts of its enemy. Above all, we must not allow the human rights issue to be used as a tool for other super-powers to implement their own brand of moral and cultural imperialism. -Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz Perspectives in Politics, Public and Foreign, 35 (Basic and Human Rights and Foreign Policy)

Though this is such a good topic, we should not let western countries use this to implement their own values. States differ from one another. Different countries have different customs, traditions and culture. Third world countries differ from other wealthier countries. Our needs differ from one another. We should also be heard. It is not enough to just listen to their sweet talks. We should release our own stand on this subject for them to know that we have our own definition of it and own, maybe even better stand upon this issue. Having established the autonomy of the political sphere and given the ubiquity of the power struggle in all social relations and all levels of social organizations, the political realist does not find it surprising that international politics is of necessary power politics. Thus the main sign post that helps political realism find its way through the landscape of international politics is the concept of interest in terms of power. -Commissioner Professor Jose David Lapuz Perspectives in Politics, Public and Foreign, 185 (A Realist Perspective on World Politics)

Realism is a tradition of international theory centered upon four propositions: 1. The international system is anarchic 2. States are the most important actors.3. All states within the system are unitary, rational actors 4. The primary concern of all states is survival. Classical realism states that it is fundamentally the nature of man that pushes states and individuals to act in a way that places interests over ideologies. Classical realism is an ideology defined as the view that the "drive for power and the will to dominate [that are] held to be fundamental aspects of human nature.

Realists think that humankind is not inherently benevolent but rather self-centered and competitive. Theorists such as Thomas Hobbes, shares the same perspective, he views human nature as egocentric (not necessarily selfish) and conflictual unless there exist conditions under which humans may coexist. It is also disposed of the notion that an individual's intuitive nature is made up of anarchy. The state emphasizes on the hunger for power, interest in accumulating power to ensure position in the anarchic world. Polarity which refers to the number of blocs of states that exert power in an international system, a key concept under realism is the international distribution of power. The state is sovereign and guided by a national interest defined in terms of power. It is believed by the realists that Sovereign states are the principal actors in the international system, and special attention is afforded to large powers as they have the most influence on the international stage. They see International institutions, non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations, individuals and other sub-state or trans-state actors as having little independent influence.

Realists believe that instead a state must always be aware of the actions of the states around it and must use a pragmatic approach to resolve problems as they arise; there are no such things as universal principles with which all states may guide their actions. Realism, also known as political realism, is a view of international politics that stresses its competitive and conflictual side. It is usually contrasted with idealism or liberalism, which tends to emphasize cooperation. There are several contending general theories or theoretical perspectives in the study of international relations. For those who are realists, principal actors in the international arena are the states, which are concerned with their own security. Some of the realists may deny the presence of ethics in international relations. There are also some realists who do not deny the presence of this. In both cases, however, international or better, interunit politics had to be transformed into a domestic model of politics, either imperial or at best, federative. A key concept under realism is the international distribution of power referred to as system polarity. Polarity refers to the number of blocs of states that exert power in an international system. A multipolar system is composed of three or more blocs, a bipolar system is composed of two blocs, and a unipolar system is dominated by a single power or hegemon.

The Game Angels Play:

Ideas on International Relations and Foreign Policy Gathered From the Teachings of our Beloved Professor, Jose David Lapuz

Sheila Mae L. Fabian BPS 3-1