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Choosing, Using, and Understanding Early Assessment: Fluency WSRA Early Intervention Committee February 8, 2008 Amber
Choosing, Using, and Understanding
Early Assessment:
Fluency
WSRA Early Intervention Committee
February 8, 2008
Amber Petersen
Reading Specialist/RtI Coordinator
Kettle Moraine School District
petersea@kmsd.edu
Fluency What is it? Why is it important? How do we assess for fluency? Resources
Fluency
What is it?
Why is it important?
How do we assess for fluency?
Resources for assessment and
instruction
What is Fluency? Fountas and Pinnell (2006) define fluent processing as “using smoothly integrated operations
What is Fluency?
Fountas and Pinnell (2006) define fluent
processing as “using smoothly integrated
operations to process the meaning, language,
and print” (p. 62).
Rasinski (2004) refers to fluency as “accurate
decoding of words in a text, along with
expressive interpretation of the text, to achieve
optimal comprehension” (p.2).
Working definition Automatic processing at letter, word, phrase/sentence, text level Attention to features of text
Working definition
Automatic processing at letter, word,
phrase/sentence, text level
Attention to features of text
Observable set of behaviors
Accuracy and rate
Prosody-phrasing and expression
Why is it important? Critical component of learning to read Bridge between word analysis and
Why is it important?
Critical component of learning to read
Bridge between word analysis and
comprehension
Interpretation of author’s message
According to NAEP, nearly half of
American 4 th graders have not achieved
minimal level of fluency-associated with
difficulties in comprehension when silent
reading
Four Levels of Fluency Letter Word Phrase/Sentence Text Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell,
Four Levels of Fluency
Letter
Word
Phrase/Sentence
Text
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking,
and writing, K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Letter Level Distinguish features of letters Access visual information accurately and quickly See letters in
Letter Level
Distinguish features of letters
Access visual information accurately and
quickly
See letters in connection with others
within words
Process visual information automatically
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking,
and writing, K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Word Level Recognize both short and complex words quickly Use word parts automatically Solve words
Word Level
Recognize both short and complex
words quickly
Use word parts automatically
Solve words rapidly within the context of
reading
Read words as strings of language,
rather than isolated units.
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking,
and writing, K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Phrase/Sentence Level Parse language into meaningful phrases Notice and use punctuation Notice and use sentence
Phrase/Sentence Level
Parse language into meaningful phrases
Notice and use punctuation
Notice and use sentence structure
Stress words to reflect author’s meaning
Understand connectedness of sentences to
each other
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking, and writing, K-8.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Text Level Anticipate what will logically come next Use previous information, syntax, vocabulary and writer’s
Text Level
Anticipate what will logically come next
Use previous information, syntax, vocabulary
and writer’s tone to provide momentum while
reading
Understand and use text structure
(organization) to process effectively
Read with expression to indicate
comprehension
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking, and writing, K-8.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Changes over time “Talking like a book”-Reading Reenactment Early Reading Behaviors (Levels A-C) Fluent and
Changes over time
“Talking like a book”-Reading
Reenactment
Early Reading Behaviors (Levels A-C)
Fluent and Oral Reading (Levels D-I)
Fluent and Phrased Oral Reading/Rapid
Silent Reading (Levels J+)
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking,
and writing, K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Levels A-C 1:1 match Cross-checking language with visual information (print) Slow reading with careful and
Levels A-C
1:1 match
Cross-checking language with visual
information (print)
Slow reading with careful and precise
finger pointing
Word-by-word reading with some
phrasing
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking,
and writing, K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Levels D-I Tracking with eyes Automatic word recognition and word solving Faster, more phrased reading-awareness
Levels D-I
Tracking with eyes
Automatic word recognition and word solving
Faster, more phrased reading-awareness of
meaning and syntax
Sounds fluent on easy text (“like talking”)
Sounds fluent on stretches of challenging new
text
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking,
and writing, K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Levels J+ Tracks with eyes Quick word recognition and word solving Faster pace Sounds fluent
Levels J+
Tracks with eyes
Quick word recognition and word solving
Faster pace
Sounds fluent
Adapted from Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking, talking,
and writing, K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Assessment Observations and Anecdotal notes Developmental behaviors Oral Reading Fluency-Words per Minute
Assessment
Observations and Anecdotal notes
Developmental behaviors
Oral Reading Fluency-Words per Minute
One-minute reading probe
Reading Rates
Beginning mid-first grade
Rubrics
Multi-dimensional Fluency Rubric
NAEP Oral Reading Fluency Scale
IRIs
Running Records
Developmental Behaviors Automatic word recognition High word accuracy rate 1:1 match with eyes tracking print
Developmental Behaviors
Automatic word recognition
High word accuracy rate
1:1 match with eyes tracking print rather than finger
Response to punctuation by changing of voice
Use of pitch, stress, and/or intonation when
appropriate to approximate telling important or
unusual information
Brief pauses while reading
Problem-solving on the run
Reads in phrases
Sounds like “talking”
Target Reading Rates Fall Winter Spring Grade (WCPM) (WCPM) (WCPM) 1 0-10 10-50 30-90 2
Target Reading Rates
Fall
Winter
Spring
Grade
(WCPM)
(WCPM)
(WCPM)
1 0-10
10-50
30-90
2 30-80
50-100
70-130
3 50-110
70-120
80-140
*wcpm=words correct per minute (words per minute-errors)
Adapted from: Rasinski, T. V. & Padak, N. (2005). 3-minute reading assessments: Word recognition, fluency &
comprehension. New York: Scholastic.
Resources and Bibliography Cooper, J. D., Chard, D. J., & Kiger, N. D. (2006). The
Resources and Bibliography
Cooper, J. D., Chard, D. J., & Kiger, N. D. (2006). The struggling reader: Interventions that
work. New York: Scholastic.
Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for comprehension and fluency: Thinking,
talking, and writing, K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Levels A-K Reading Assessment. The Teachers College Reading and Writing Project,
Columbia University. Retrieved September 17, 2007, from
http://rwproject.tc.columbia.edu/default.aspx?pageid=1099
Rasinski, T. V. & Padak, N. (2005). 3-minute reading assessments: Word recognition,
fluency & comprehension. New York: Scholastic.
Rasinski, T. V. (2004). Assessing reading fluency. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for
Education and Learning. Available at www.prel.org/programs/rel/rel.asp.
Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word
recogntion, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic.
Samuels, S. J. & Farstrup, A. E., (Eds.). (2006). What research has to say about fluency
instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.