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Lecture #13

ERDM

Prof. John W. Sutherland Feb. 9, 2004


John W. Sutherland Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

The Product Design Process


Concept Design - System Design Module definition - Assemblies Detailed Product Design - Material Type & Features Detailed Product Design - Dimensions & Tolerances Prototyping and Testing

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

So far....
Want to understand how the characteristics of a product design impact the environment Material selection issues Mining & Metals processing, Plastics Concept design QFD proposed as one way to hear the voices: customer and environment

Next: How does product design geometry influence recycling?


Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

John W. Sutherland

Product Life Cycle


Product Usage Product Creation Material Refinement Product Reuse Remanufacturing Product Disposal

Recycling Raw Materials/ Energy Acquisition Material Disposal Nature


Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

John W. Sutherland

Reuse?
What promotes it?

What discourages it?

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Remanufacturing?
What promotes it?

What discourages it?

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Recycling?
What promotes it?

What discourages it?

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Geometric Features
Focus on a single part (element of a larger product) Holes Slots Threads Contours In general, the size and shape of a product. How do these features influence the three Rs??
Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

John W. Sutherland

Role of Geometric Features


Large parts vs. small parts Large surface area vs. small Complex vs. simple Presence of mating / sliding surfaces Sections / features that experience high stress

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Product Features

Hole

Boss

Bore

Chamfer

Groove

Threads

Slot

Bend

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Opitz Classification Code


1st Digit Component Class 0 Rotational Components 1 2 3 4 5 Non-rotational Comp. 6 7 8 9 L < 0.5 D 0.5 < L < 3 D L>3 D L < 2 With D Deviation L > 2 With D Deviation Specific A < 3, A > 4 B C A <3 B A < 3, A < 4 C B Specific
Overall Shape Principal Bores Plane Surface Machining Auxiliary holes, Gear teeth, Forming

2nd Digit Overall or Main Shape

3rd Digit Rotational Surface Machining

4th Digit Plane Surface Machining

5th Digit Auxiliary holes Gear Teeth Forming

1st 2nd 3rd 4th Digit

External Shape, external shape elements

Internal Shape, internal shape elements

Plane Surface Machining

Auxiliary holes and Gear Teeth

Overall Shape

Rotational Machining Internal and External Shape Elements

Plane Surface Machining

Auxiliary holes, Gear teeth, Forming

Overall Shape

Overall Shape

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Dimension Material Initiation of Raw Materials Accuracy

MDSI Code (Manf. Data Sys., Inc.)

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

D-Class Code
Str. Cylder (A,B) Round Cont. Changing O.D. Tapered (C) Curved/ Spherical w/ straight Combo w/o straight Solid Shapes Gearlike Round w/ devations Reg. Dev. Irreg. Dev. Rotational Round w/ bent centerline Basic Shape Drawn/ Spun (L) (G) (H) (J) (F) (D) (E)

(K)

Column Str. NonSheet Form Rotational Box-Like Unnamed

(M) (N) (P) (Q-Z)

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Post-use Alternatives
Original Part

Original Part

New Part
New Parts New Part

xcess

New Part Excess New Parts Excess

Excess

Excess

Excess

Excess

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Washing Machine
Washing Machine Part Distribution Str. Cylder 26.38% Cont. Changing O.D. 3.15% Tapered DCLASS Category (A,B) Percentage of Total Parts 26.38% (C) 1.97%

Round 31.10%

Curved/ Spherical w/ straight

(D) (E) (F)

1.18% 1.57% 0%

Combo 1.57% Solid Shapes 61.41% Round w/ devations 19.29% Rotational 61.41%

w/o straight

Gearlike Reg. Dev. Irreg. Dev. Round w/ bent centerline 11.02%

(G) (H) (J)

1.18% 18.11% 0%

(K) (L)

11.02% 0%

Basic Shape 100%

Drawn/ Spun 0% Column Str. NonSheet Form Rotational 38.59% Box-Like Unnamed

(M) (N) (P) (Q-Z)

2.76% 18.11% 9.06% 8.66%

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

RPI - Reprocessability Index System (Wentland)


Focus on Rotational Parts Number of Parts 254 53 122 79 188 Rotational Parts % 61% 60% 80% 68% 68%

Product Washing Mach. Cordless Drill Automotive Jack Electric Drill Utility Engine

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

RPI Philosophy
Define metrics that, when small, are more likely result in product post-use. Metrics for the following Part complexity (more complex is bad) Part size (smaller parts are bad) Removable features (preferred) Relative stress level (low stress -- less damage?) Amount of mating (moving) contact areas (minimize)
Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

John W. Sutherland

Definition of RPI Terms


V BV Volume of Bounding Volume R 1 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- = ---------Part Volume V

Projected Volume

Part

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

RPI Terms - 2
Surface Area SA - = -------------R 2 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Surface Area of Bounding Volume SABV

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

RPI Terms - 3
4 other terms to consider other factors RPI = R i Want to minimize RPI RPI calculation linked to AutoCAD

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

D-Class Parts

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Washing Machine Parts

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Washing Machine Parts - 2

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University

Another Example

John W. Sutherland

Environmentally Responsible Design & Manufacturing (MEEM 4685/5685) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics Michigan Technological University