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ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 10: Mechanical Design Local Buckling (External Overpressure): Part 1

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland spkenny@engr.mun.ca

Course Update

Mid-Term
Monday March 3 0100-0200PM EN4035

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Lecture 10 Objective

to examine local buckling (system collapse) mechanical behaviour of pipelines subject to external overpressure

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

External Overpressure

Characteristics

Pe

Pe > Pi
Pi

Pressure

1MPa (10bar) per 100m (328ft) water depth

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

External Overpressure (cont.)

Effects

Ref: Rigzone (2008)

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Gulf of Mexico

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Gulf of Mexico (cont.)

Ref: MMS (2008)

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Gulf of Mexico (cont.)

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Worldwide Deepwater Basins

Off Continental Shelf


Norwegian Sea North Sea Grand Banks Scotian Shelf Gulf of Mexico Asia West Africa Brazil Australia

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Local Deepwater Basins


Orphan Basin

2200m 1100m 1500m

Flemish Pass

Salar Basin

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Effects of External Overpressure

Ref: Rigzone (2008)

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

C-FER Test Facility


Ref: DeGeer et al. (2007) Ref: DeGeer et al. (2004)

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

C-FER Test Facility (cont.)

Ref: DeGeer et al. (2004)

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Bending of Thin Circular Ring

Strain Energy

Inextensional deformation

Centerline neglected Bending strain only


d 2w Mr 2 Pr 3 +w = (1 cos ) 2 d EI 2EI
2

U=

M r 2r 2 2 d = M d 2E I EI 0

Pr 3 4 + w= cos sin 4EI


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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Ref: Timoshenko and Geer (1961)

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Bending of Thin Circular Ring (cont.)


Consider Hydrostatic Pressure

Point force

P = r 2

Ring Section Behaviour


Perfect circular cross-section Compressive force <<< critical n Pr 3 ( 1) cos ( n ) w=

EI n =2
3

(n
n

v=

Pr EI n =2 n n 2 1 2

( 1) sin ( n )

Ref: Timoshenko and Geer (1961)

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Uniform Pressure on Circular Ring

Thin Ring Solution

Consider Forces

Compressive Tensile
2Pr w= EI
3

n =2

( 1)

cos ( n )

Sr 2 n 1 1 2 n 1 EI
2

Ref: Timoshenko and Geer (1961)

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Uniform Pressure on Circular Ring (cont.)

Radial Deflection

Increases with S Minimum critical force (n = 2) Radial deflection expression


2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

n ( S=

1 EI r2

3EI Scr = 2 r

2Pr 3 cos ( 2 ) w = 9 EI Sr 2 1 S cr
Ref: Timoshenko and Geer (1961)

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ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Uniform Pressure on Circular Ring (cont.)

Radial Deflection
D = 1.0m t = 25mm E = 205GPa

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Critical Pressure for Elastic Stability


Elemental Ring Unit Width

E E/(1 - 2) I h3/12

Perfect Circular Cross-Section

Equation Terms

Pecr elastic collapse pressure ecr elastic membrane stress E elastic modulus r mean pipeline radius t nominal wall thickness Poissons ratio

E tnom Pec = 4 1 2 r

E tnom ec = 2 2 r 1

Ref: Timoshenko and Geer (1961)

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Critical Pressure for Elastic Stability


E tnom Pec = 4 1 2 r
D/t <10 Plastic yield / ovalization
3

y = 360MPa

E tnom ec = 1 2 2r

Elastic instability: imperfection sensitivity

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Practical Considerations

Tolerance Requirements
Geometric imperfections Out-of-roundness

Strength Properties
Heat treatment Compressive residual stress

Loading
Installation Bauschinger effect

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

Reading List

Braskoro, S., Dronkers, T.D.T.,and van Driel, M. (2004). From Shallow to Deep Implications for Offshore Pipeline Design. Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community [2004_Braskoro_Deepwater_Design.pdf] DeGeer, D., Marewski, U., Hillenbrand, H-G., Weber, B. and Crawford, M. (2004). Collapse Testing of Thermally Treated Line Pipe for Ultra-Deepwater Applications. Proc., 4th International Conference on Pipeline Technology, 12p. [2004_DeGeer_Collapse_Ultra_Deep.pdf]

DeGeer, D., Timms, C., Wolodko, J., Yarmuch, M., Preston, R. and MacKinnon, D. (2007). Local Buckling Assessments for the Medgaz Pipeline. Proc., OMAE 2007, OMAE2007-29493, 11p. [2007_DeGeer_Local_Buckling_Medgaz.pdf] Luciano, O. Mantovano, L.O., Amenta, P., Charreau, R.. Johnson, D., Assanelli, A. and Toscano, R.G. (2006). Finite Element Modelling and Experimental Validation of Buckle Arrestors for Deepwater Pipelines., Mecnica Computacional Vol XXV, pp.687-704.

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10

References

DeGeer, D., Marewski, U., Hillenbrand, H-G., Weber, B. and Crawford, M. (2004). Studies on Collapse Testing of UOE Linepipe for Deepwater Applications., Proc., Pipeline Technology, p.753-771. DeGeer, D., Timms, C., Wolodko, J., Yarmuch, M., Preston, R. and MacKinnon, D. (2007). Local Buckling Assessments for the Medgaz Pipeline. Proc., OMAE 2007, OMAE2007-29493, 11p. DNV (2007). Submarine Pipeline Systems. Offshore Standard, DNV OS-F101, October 2007, 240p. MMS (2008) http://www.mms.gov Rigzone (2008). http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=5222 Timoshenko, S.P. and Gere, J.M. (1961). Theory of Elastic Stability. McGraw-Hill. Ugural, A.C. and Fenster, S.K. (2003). Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 544p.

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 10