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Solar Panel

Chapter 04

SOLAR PANEL

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Solar Panel Chapter 04 SOLAR PANEL 35 04.1 Introduction Solar panels (arrays of photovoltaic cells) make
Solar Panel Chapter 04 SOLAR PANEL 35 04.1 Introduction Solar panels (arrays of photovoltaic cells) make

04.1 Introduction

Solar panels (arrays of photovoltaic cells) make use of renewable energy from the sun, and are a clean and environmentally sound means of collecting solar energy. Here at solar panel information, we've amassed a wealth of information relating to solar panels

and the field of photovoltaic technology. Solar Panels are a form of active solar power, a

term that describes how solar panels make use of the sun's energy: solar panels harvest

sunlight and actively convert it to electricity. Solar Cells, or photovoltaic cells, are

arranged in a grid-like pattern on the surface of the solar panel. These solar voltaic cells

collect sunlight during the daylight hours and convert it into electricity.

04.2 Solar Panel Construction

Solar panels are typically constructed with crystalline silicon, which is used in other

industries (such as the microprocessor industry), and the more expensive gallium

arsenide, which is produced exclusively for use in photovoltaic (solar) cells.

Other, more efficient solar panels are assembled by depositing amorphous silicon alloy

in a continuous roll-to-roll process. The solar cells created from this process are called

Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, or A-Si. Solar Panels constructed using amorphous

silicon technology is more durable, efficient, and thinner than their crystalline

counterparts.

For very important solar projects, such as space probes that have to rely on solar

energy, very-high efficiency solar cells are constructed from gallium arsenide by a

process called molecular beam epitaxial. Solar cells constructed by this process have

several p-n junction diodes, each designed to be maximally efficient at absorbing a given part of the solar spectrum. These solar panels are much more efficient than conventional types, but the process and materials involved make them far too expensive for everyday applications.

The newest solar panels function on the molecular or quantum level, and represent an exciting new technology coming into play. These solar panels are created by implanting carbon nanotubes or quantum dots into a treated plastic. Unlike silicon-based solar panels, these solar panels do not have to be constructed in a clean room, and therefore production costs are somewhat demised.

Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use in Bangladesh

room, and therefore production costs are somewhat demised. Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use

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The practical applications of solar panels constructed from plastics are staggering - they could be overlaid onto a laptop screen to provide continuous power, or provide supplemental power to any number of outdoor appliances. The primary hurdle for this new technology is efficiency, and these 'plastic' solar panels have an operational efficiency of about .11% of their silicon-based counterparts. The only short-term solution to this energy problem is for these plastic solar panels to generate electricity from light outside the visible spectrum of light. Some highly-experimental plastic solar panels have been made to absorb infrared energy, and if a solar panel is made that can absorb both infrared energy and light from the visible spectrum, the operational efficiency could increase up to thirty percent.

operational efficiency could increase up to thirty percent. Fig 16: Solar Panel 04.3 Solar Panels Production

Fig 16: Solar Panel

04.3 Solar Panels Production

In direct sunlight at the surface of the equator, a maximally efficient photovoltaic cell about 1/5m in diameter creates a current of approximately 2 amps at 2 volts, however, due to the Earth's atmospheric interference, terrain solar panels will never perform as well as solar panels exposed directly to the sun's rays. Years of overheating and physical wear can, however, reduce the operation efficiency of the photovoltaic unit. Solar cells become less efficient over time, and excess energy is released into its thermally conductive substrate as infrared heat.

Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use in Bangladesh

into its thermally conductive substrate as infrared heat. Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use

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The amount of power solar panels produce is influenced by the quality of the solar panel, the materials and technology used in making the solar panel, and the amount of time the solar panel has been in use. When purchasing solar panels, it is therefore wise to look beyond size and look at the dollars/watt ratio.

04.4 Process of making a solar panel

Making solar panels is a delicate process, and it is for this reason that major solar

advances did not come into play until the lattermost quarter of the last century, when advances in semiconductors and photovoltaic design allowed increasingly efficient and

affordable solar cells to be developed.

efficient and affordable solar cells to be developed . Crystalline Silicon Solar Panels The creation of

Crystalline Silicon Solar Panels

The creation of solar panels typically involves cutting crystalline silicon into tiny disks

less than a centimeter thick. These thin, wafer-like disks are then carefully polished and

treated to repair and gloss any damage from the slicing process. After polishing,

dopants (materials added to alter an electrical charge in a semiconductor or

photovoltaic solar cell) and metal conductors are spread across each disk. The

conductors are aligned in a thin, grid-like matrix on the top of the solar panel, and are

spread in a flat, thin sheet on the side facing the earth.

To protect the solar panels after processing, a thin layer of cover glass is then bonded to

the top of the photovoltaic cell. After the bonding of protective glass, the nearly-

finished panel is attached to a substrate by expensive, thermally conductive cement.

The thermally conductive property of the cement keep the solar panel from becoming

overheated; any leftover energy that the solar panel is unable to convert to electricity

would otherwise overheat the unit and reduce the efficiency of the solar cells.

Despite these protective measures against the tendency of solar panels to overheat, it is

vital that when installing a solar panel, additional steps should be taken to ensure the

solar panel is kept cool. Elevating the solar panel above ground (see solar panel mounts) to let the airflow underneath cool the device.

panel mounts) to let the airflow underneath cool the device. Amorphous Silicon Solar Panels Amorphous silicon

Amorphous Silicon Solar Panels

Amorphous silicon solar panels are a powerful, emerging line of photovoltaic, that differs in output, structure, and manufacture than traditional photovoltaic which use crystalline silicon. Amorphous silicon solar cells, or A-si cells, are developed in a continuous roll-to-roll process by vapor-depositing silicon alloys in multiple layers, with each extremely thin layer specializing in the absorption of different parts of the

Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use in Bangladesh

specializing in the absorption of different parts of the Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient

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solar spectrum. The result is record-breaking efficiency and reduced materials cost (A-si solar cells are typically thinner than their crystalline counterparts).

Some Amorphous Solar Panels also come with shade-resistant technology or multiple circuits within the cells, so that if an entire row of cells is subject to complete shading, the circuit won't be completely broken and some output can still be gained. This is especially useful when installing solar panels on a boat.

The development process of Amorphous Silicon solar panels also renders them much less susceptible to breakage during transport or installation. This can help reduce the risk of damaging your significant investment in a photovoltaic system.

04.5 Solar Panel Installation

Solar Panels are typically installed on rooftops, building tops, or stand-alone facilities. It

is vital to install the solar panel so that it gets the most direct sun exposure - solar panel

is maximally effective year round. To do this, there are several web-based solar

resources to help properly set up and install the solar panels by tracking the position of

the sun in the sky over the course of the year.

position of the sun in the sky over the course of the year. Position the solar

Position the solar panel in direct sunlight

Solar Panels perform at optimum capacity when placed in direct sunlight. Try to

position the photovoltaic array directly under the noontime sun for maximum

efficiency from the photovoltaic unit.

Notice obstructions to sunlightsun for maximum efficiency from the photovoltaic unit. Remove all items unnecessary items or trim branches

Remove all items unnecessary items or trim branches that may be blocking sunlight to

your solar unit. Trace the path of the sun in the sky to determine if an object is casting a

shadow over the solar photovoltaic panels. If this is the case, then the operating

efficiency of the unit will undoubtedly suffer.

operating efficiency of the unit will undoubtedly suffer. Mounting the solar Panel Solar Panel Mounts are

Mounting the solar Panel

Solar Panel Mounts are used to install photovoltaic solar panels. Solar panel mounts come in three main varieties: pole mounts, roof-ground mounts, and flush mounts. Using these mounts, one can install the solar panel onto an RV, on top of or against the side of a pole, on the roof, or even install them as a free-standing unit.

Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use in Bangladesh

on the roof, or even install them as a free-standing unit. Study of Solar Module &

Solar Panel

Water pumping with solar panelsSolar Panel 39 A good way to put solar panels to use is to install a

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A good way to put solar panels to use is to install a solar-powered water pump for well.

Although windmills have traditionally been used to power such systems, a solar- powered system works just as well, and is equally friendly to the environment.

Well Pumpjust as well, and is equally friendly to the environment . It is important to choose

It is important to choose a quality well pump for use with the solar powered well pump

system, one that makes the best use of the power and doesn't require an inefficient, wasteful transformer. Well drilling provider is likely to offer the industry standard well

pump, a 220 volt alternating current model. The problem with such a high-voltage

pump system is that the required transformer is extremely wasteful and can be a huge

strain on the inverter during startup. This can cause the power to home to dip, and the

lights to dim, which can cause a full-out inverter failure unless one has a top-quality

inverter. Avoid such a high voltage system if one can, and instead, opt for a 120 volt AC

model, which is much more efficient and does not put nearly as much of a burden on

the inverter.

04.6 Home Solar Panel Efficiency

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Use of solar panels at household level has increased largely today. Solar panels are used

in cooking, heating, boiling and a large number of electric appliances. Solar panels are

installed to generate solar energy for microwaves, refrigerator, electric gas, iron, water

heater, air conditioner, inverter, room heater and many other devices at home. Solar

energy is abundant, renewable and cheap.

While calculating the solar panel efficiency at home, we must first make an average

estimate of the total energy consumed by these electrical devices and then calculate the

solar panel efficiency. Scientists have found out that of the total solar energy striking the

solar panels; only 20% is converted to electrical energy. That means home solar panel

efficiency is average 20%, when the solar energy is converted to electricity. When it

comes to lighting bulbs or tube lights, then the efficiency further falls. For example, if the solar cell efficiency is 20 %, the rest part goes in converting the direct current to alternating current which consumes 15 % more energy. The energy that is left is finally used to light bulbs and the output is only 5% efficiency. Due to the low output, solar panels are normally not used to light up homes. This was an approximate estimation of solar panel efficiency at home.

Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use in Bangladesh

approximate estimation of solar panel efficiency at home. Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use

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Fig 17: Solar home system

04.7 Flexible Solar Panel Efficiency

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Flexible solar panels are used for devices which require low solar panel output and

generate less energy. The flexible solar panel devices are solar hot water heaters, solar

landscape lights like solar garden lights, solar security lights, solar sunlight’s and solar

flood lights solar fountains and pumps, solar battery chargers, photovoltaic solar cell

etc. These flexible devices also require a low consumption of solar energy, and therefore

a low efficiency solar panel can be used. The output should be between 5% to 20%.

04.8 Precautions of Solar Panel

If the solar panel cover is not hermetically sealed like insulated window glass, then one may be able to replace it with a new piece. Be sure to use tempered glass to protect the cells from hail and flying objects. Seal the new glass so it is water tight.should be between 5% to 20%. 04.8 Precautions of Solar Panel Broken panels produce low power,

Broken panels produce low power, but one won't know how low without testing. If several panels are connected together with the broken one, the voltage of the entire string will degrade to whatever output the broken panel is producing.and flying objects. Seal the new glass so it is water tight. Be careful with damage

Be careful with damage in newer crystalline panels. Even one broken cell will reduce the power of the module by 25 to 33%.degrade to whatever output the broken panel is producing. Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient

Study of Solar Module & It’s Efficient Use in Bangladesh

cell will reduce the power of the module by 25 to 33%. Study of Solar Module