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The uAxes solution 3GPP compliancy


Technical Note

Version: Filename: Archive: Editor:

0.1 3gpp_compliancy_v01 /common/home/. Mikko Hurskainen

Version history
Vers. 0.1 0.2 Date/Initials 20120328/MHu,RSu 20120329/MHu,RSu Comment Initial version Reviewed

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Executive Summary
This document presents the 3GPP standardized I-WLAN solution and the uAxes solution. Theres also a comparison to I-WLAN solution, that which parts are the same and which are different and what is the reasoning for deviations. The uAxes solution uses same interfaces towards the core network as the I-WLAN solution. It can be used also in more standalone fashion, if deep integration with 3G core network is not desired. It provides same security level as I-WLAN solution.

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Abbreviations
3GPP AAA ANDSF I-WLAN PCRF PCEF PDG WLAN UE 3rd Generation Partnership Project Authentication, Authorization and Accounting Access Network Discovery and Selection Function Interworking-WLAN Policy and Charging Rules Function Policy and Charging Enforcement Function Packet Data Gateway Wireless Local Area Network User equipment

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary......................................................................................................................................... 2 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................................. 3 1 2 3 4 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 5 3GPP I-WLAN solution ........................................................................................................................... 6 The uAxes solution ................................................................................................................................ 7 Comparison of features and integration ............................................................................................... 8

References ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

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Introduction

This document describes the 3GPP compliancy of the uAxes solution. First the 3GPP reference design for I-WLAN solution is presented. After that the uAxes solution is presented with differences compared to the I-WLAN solution. Finally, theres a summary of differences and benefits of each solution.

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3GPP I-WLAN solution

The 3GPP I-WLAN solution is presented in 3GPP TS 29.234. The basic principle of I-WLAN solution is that the data plane is connected to the core network. The solution adds new elements to existing 3G core network and reuses some of the elements. The main integration points are the PDG (Packet Data Gateway) and the WiFi-AAA server.

Figure 1: 3GPP I-WLAN architecture The WiFi-authentication is EAP-SIM or EAP-AKA that is achieved with HLR/HSS integration. First phase of the authentication is done when UE accesses the WiFi access network with EAP-SIM/EAP-AKA. The WiFi network is assumed as untrusted however, and thus there is always a VPN tunnel between the UE and the network. The establishment of VPN tunnel includes another EAP-SIM/EAP-AKA authentication. VPN is terminated to PDG that is connected through PCEF to the Internet. The I-WLAN does not require mobile IP, but it can be run on top of it (as a separate entity). For charging the PCEF and PDG are connected to OCS and OFCS. The I-WLAN solution clients can be assisted with ANDSF (3GPP TS 24.312) in network selection. The ANDSF however, requires a client on platform. Vendors who have implemented the ANDSF have found the specification missing critical features and thus implemented proprietary extensions.

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The uAxes solution

The uAxes solution is more loosely integrated to the Core Network. It can work also as a standalone solution. Typically it is integrated to SMSC (SMS Center) and OCS (Online Charging System). SMS is used for secure messaging and OCS is used for online charging & subscriber validation. HLR/HSS integration is normally not required because OCS is integrated to HLR/HSS.

Figure 2: uAxes solution For charging and policy the uAxes can either be integrated to OCS for billing and charging or there can be a PCRF & a PCEF. In PCEF case it is responsible billing, charging and traffic monitoring. In alternative 1 (without PCEF), traffic monitoring is handled on the Wifi network side. The accounting in alternative 1 is based on RADIUS accounting. The alternative 1 is more cost-efficient and scalable solution and thus recommended. The alternative 2 is same as 3GPP I-WLAN solution. In alternative 2, the PCEF can be centralized (as in I-WLAN), but it can also be be distributed to Access Points, Wireless Access Controllers and internet gateways. In the uAxes the user is authenticated with SMS and in the WiFi, who is then granted temporary credentials. The SMS authentication is based on already existing authentication between SIM card and the network. Temporary credentials can be on any WiFi authentication scheme (WISPr, EAP, PEAP, PSK). The temporary credentials are only given after user is authenticated, whereas in I-WLAN the user is first let into the access network and then authenticated. The solution is as secure as EAP-SIM. The access network is assumed to be secure and thus theres no need for end-to-end VPN tunnel. However, the access point and the AC (Access Controller) can be connected with VPN tunnel if access network is not secure. The uAxes solution does not require VPN between UE and network and thus does not interfere with other VPNs solutions, such as Enterprise-VPNs. Also the handover between 3G and WiFi is faster when VPN tunnel establishment is not required.

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Comparison of features and integration

The table below lists the features of two solutions and the integration required to core network. Feature: User authentication Core network integration Billing & Charging Client required All platforms Policy based offloading Mobile IP 3GPP EAP-SIM + VPN Always Gy, Gz interfaces No, if without VPN & ANDSF No ANDSF Can be added uAxes SMS / SIM based Optional Gy, Gz or WS/SOAP Yes Yes uAxes server Can be added

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References
3GPP TS 29.234 V9.2.0: 3GPP system to Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Interworking 3GPP TS 24.312 V11.2.0: Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF) Management Object (MO)

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