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1.

D
[1]

2.

(i)

as molecules become larger / heavier / have higher Mr values / number of electrons increases; van der Waals / London / dispersion forces increase; 2 2
[4]

(ii)

hydrogen bonding between molecules in H2O; this bonding is stronger (than van der Waals forces); Must be an implied comparison with (a) (i)

3.

(i) (ii)

tetrahedral (accept correct 3-D diagram); bent / V-shape / angular (accept suitable diagram); 105 (accept 103 106); lone pairs repel each other more than bonding pairs; Do not accept repulsion of atoms.

2 2
[4]

4.

bonds are polar as Cl more electronegative than Si; Allow electronegativities are different molecule is symmetrical, hence polar effects cancel out / OWTTE; 2
[2]

5.

(a)

(i) (ii)

A sodium iodide, B sodium, C iodine (three correct [1]); Accept correct formulas. A ionic bonding; B metallic bonding; C van der Waals forces (and covalent bonding); (for Na) (for NaI) (lattice of) positive ions / atoms; delocalized / free electrons / sea of electrons; oppositely charged ions / positive and negative ions; free to move (only) in molten state;

(b)

(i)

4 2
[10]

(ii)

forces between I2 molecules are weak; ionic / metallic bonding strong(er);

6.

C
[1]

7.

A
[1]

8.

B
[1]

9.

(a) O H C O H No mark without lone electron pairs. Correct shape not necessary. Do not award mark if dots / crosses and bond liens are shown. Accept lone pairs represented as straight lines. 1

(b)

O C O = 120 / H C O = 120; C O H = 109 / <109; No mark for 109.5 Accept answer in range 100109

(c)

length: C = O < C O; strength: C = O > C O; greater number of electrons between nuclei pull atoms together and require greater energy to break; Or double bonds are shorter / single bonds are longer; double bonds are stronger / single bonds are weaker; Accept stronger attraction between nuclei and (bonding) electrons. 3

[6]

10.

B* * For Spanish question paper both B and C can be accepted


[1]

11.

C
[1]

12.

C
[1]

13.

Br: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p5 / 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p5; For Br, accept only complete configuration (which is asked for). Fe3+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5; Accept [Ar] 3d5 since [Ar] already listed above.
[2]

14.

for H2S, H2Se and H2Te, as size / mass / Mr increases, van der Waals forces increase (and b pt. increases); H2O experiences Hbonding; Hbonding stronger than van der Waals / explanation of Hbonding; 3
[3]

15.

(i)

C4H10 : non-polar, only van der Waals forces that cannot replace / interact with Hbonding in water; C2H5Cl : only slightly polar / not capable of Hbonding with water; 2

(ii)

(CH3)2CO: highly polar / forms Hbonding with water; C3H7OH : forms Hbonding with water (as H is bonded to O); 2
[4]

16.

(i)

O C OTTWE Award [1] each. Need charge on for [1]. Penalize missing lone electron pairs only once. (ii) CO 3 ;
2 2 CO 3

O O

C O 3

11 11 3 bond order / 3 bonds each compared to double bonds in CO2 and


triple bond in CO; the fewer the number of bonding electrons, the less tightly nuclei are held together, the longer the bond; 3
[6]

17.

(i) N N I N H

N II

H 2

(ii)

NNN 180in both; due to two centres of electron charge / density (arranged as far apart as possible); I: NNH 120/ = 120; due to three centres of electron charge / three electron pairs (one of which is a lone e pair); II: NNH 109/ < 109 / any angle between 104 and 109; four electron pairs / four centres of electron charge, two of which are lone e pairs / extra repulsion due to lone electron pairs;

6 2
[10]

(iii)

I: sp2; II: sp3;

18.

D
[1]

19.

B
[1]

20.

D
[1]

21.

C
[1]

O
22. (i)

C H S

O H ;

;
2 Accept dots, crosses, a combination of dots and crosses or a line to represent a pair of electrons.

(ii)

CO2 is linear; two charge centres or bonds and no lone pairs (around C); HS is bent / v-shaped / angular; two bond pairs, two lone pairs (around S); 4 2
[8]

(iii)

CO2 is non-polar, H2S is polar; bond polarities cancel CO2 but not in H2S;

23.

CH3Cl dipole-dipole attractions; CH4 van der Waals / dispersion / London forces; CH3OH hydrogen bond; 3
[3]

24.

C
[1]

25.

D
[1]

26.

C
[1]

27.
x x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

+
x x

Accept lines for pairs of electrons. If charge is missing, penalize only once. ion NO2 NO2
+

shape bent / angular; linear;

explanation three charge centres one of which is a lone / non-bonding pair / OWTTE; two charges centres / OWTTE; 6
[6]
6

28.

(i) (ii)

C2H6 < CH3CHO, < C2H5OH < CH3COOH; Award [2] if all correct, [1] if first and last correct. C2H6 CH3CHO C2H5OH CH3COOH non polar; polar; polar; polar; Award [2] for all four correct, [1] for 3 or 2 correct. boiling point depends on intermolecular forces; least energy required for van der Waals forces / maximum energy for hydrogen bonding; C2H6 van der Waals forces only; CH3CHO dipole-dipole; C2H5OH and CH3COOH hydrogen bonding; hydrogen bonding is stronger in CH3COOH / greater polarity / greater molecular mass / greater van der Waals forces;

8
[10]

29.

A
[1]

30.

B
[1]

31.

B
[1]

32.

B
[1]

33.

(a)

(i) (ii)

(relative) measure of an atoms attraction for electrons; in a bond; H + + H H


xx

xx

+ h y d ro g e n b o n d in g

H + H

N + H Suitable diagram indicating dipoles; lone pairs of electrons; hydrogen bonding; (iii) (iv) (b) (i) (ii) 107;

3 1

Accept answer in range 107 to 109 . molecule is asymmetrical / OWTTE; 109.5; NH4+ has four bonding pairs (around central atom so is a regular tetrahedron); NH3 has three bonding pairs (of electrons) and one non-bonding pair; non-bonding pairs (of electrons) exert a greater repulsive force; Accept suitable diagrams. 3
[11]

1 1

34.

A
[1]

35.

B
[1]

36.

(i)

head on overlap of (2) orbitals; along axial symmetry / along a line drawn through the 2 nuclei / OWTTE; Accept suitable diagram for 2nd mark. parallel p orbitals overlap sideways on; above and below the line drawn through the 2 nuclei / OWTTE; Accept suitable diagram for 2nd mark.

(ii)

2 1 1
[6]

(iii) 1 and 1 / and ; (iv) 1 and 2 / and ;

37.

(i)

OF2 sp3; V-shaped / bent / angular; 2 bonding + 2 non-bonding (electron pairs);

(ii)

H2CO sp2; trigonal planar; 2 areas of electron density / negative charge centres;

(iii)

C2H2 sp; linear; 2 areas of electron density / negative charge centres; Accept suitable diagrams for shapes. Allow [2] for ECF if correct explanation given for incorrect formula, e.g. C2H4. 3

[9]

38. (i) Diamond Graphite

giant molecular / macromolecular / 3-D covalent bonds and van der Waals forces

covalent bonds only; layer structure ; 2

Award [1] for both shape and bonding in each case. Accept suitable diagrams. (ii) Diamond poor / non-conductor no delocalized electrons hard rigid structure Award [1] per row. (iii) softer than diamond / harder than graphite; as C60 molecules can move over each other; conducts better than diamond / worse than graphite; as C60 has less delocalisation (of the unpaired bonding electrons) than graphite; Graphite good conductor delocalized electrons soft layers can slide

4
[10]

39.

B
[1]

40.

B
[1]

41.

D
[1]

42.

C
[1]

43.

(i) (ii)

W3+Y3 Award [1] for formula (WY) and [1] for charges (W:3+Y:3-) XZ2; Answers must be in terms of X and Z.

2 1
[3]

44.

SiCl bonds are covalent; Cl Cl Si Cl Accept lines for electron pairs. Award [1] for covalent bonds and [1] for lone pairs. Cl

[3]

45.

find number of electron pairs/charge centres in (valence shell of) central atom; electron pairs/charge centres (in valence shell) of central atom repel each other; to positions of minimum energy/repulsion / maximum stability; pairs forming a double or triple bond act as a single bond; non-bonding pairs repel more than bonding pairs / OWTTE; Do not accept repulsion between bonds or atoms. Award [1] each for any three points.

3 max

[3]

46.

(i)

SCl2 two bonding pairs, two non-bonding pairs; angular / bent / non-linear / V-shaped; Both these marks can be scored from a diagram. 90 < angle < 107; C2Cl2 two charge centres around each C; linear; Both these marks can be scored from a diagram. angle = 180; 6 3

(ii)

SCl2 is polar; C2Cl2 is non-polar; No net dipole movement for C2Cl2 but angular SCl2 has a resultant dipole OWTTE; Mark can be scored from a diagram. Allow ECF based on the answers given to (i).
[9]

10

47.

B
[1]

48.

D
[1]

T49.

A
[1]

50.

(i) Award [1] for each correct Lewis structure. PC l3 Cl P Cl PC l5 Cl Cl C l P Cl Cl P O C l3 O Cl P Cl Accept use of dots or crosses to represent electron pairs. Subtract [1] if non-bonding pair on P in PCl3 is missing. Subtract [1] if non-bonding pair(s) on Cl or O are missing. (ii) PCl3 trigonal pyramid; Accept answers in range 100 to 108; PCl5 trigonal bipyramid; 90 and 120; POCl3 tetrahedral; Accept answers in range 100 to 112; 6
11

Cl

Cl

Allow ECF if based on legitimate chemical structure.

12

(iii) PCl3 polar, polarities do not cancel / OWTTE; PCl5 non-polar, polarities cancel / OWTTE; POCl3 polar, polarities do not cancel / OWTTE; 3 Award [2] for three polarities correct, [1] for two polarities correct, and [1] for correct reason(s). Accept argument based on dipole moments.
[12]

51.

(i) (ii)

combining of atomic orbitals to form new orbitals / OWTTE; : overlap of orbitals between nuclei / end-on overlap; : overlap above and below line joining nuclei / sideways overlap; Award [1] if candidate counts bonds (8 , 1 ), or describes all three types of bonds (i.e. CH is , CC is , C=C is and ). single bonds longer than double; double bonds stronger than single; C of CH3 is sp3; other two C are sp2; Accept suitable diagrams.

6
[7]

13