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conditions or times of heavy precipitation should recognize it is probably not advisable to pump

conditions or times of heavy precipitation should recognize it is probably not advisable to pump tanks dry and leave them. In fact, most manufacturers require tanks be refilled to some level based on elevation of the water. This creates an interesting situation if you are servicing tanks to relieve pressure on the system during wet periods. The service provider needs to balance the potential for larger problems versus the customer’s desire to get rid of the water.

With shallower tank installations, the amount of backfill over the top is usually about a foot, which is usually not adequate by itself to provide protection. And if the tank is too deep, the soil may exceed its structural capacity to withstand that depth of burial.

We reviewed our state rules regarding tank installation to see what they say about buoyancy. Here is the requirement from 7080.2000 Part I: “Sew- age tanks placed below the level of the periodically saturated soil must employ a method to protect against flotation under periodic saturated soil conditions when the tank is empty.” This is a performance-based code item, placing the burden on the designer/installer to determine if there is a poten- tial problem and a method used to solve it. This means consulting with the product manufacturer and following their specifications and requirements is extremely important. During installation, there are several ways to provide protection against a floating tank. The first is the soil backfill itself. Backfill over the top of the tank provides a force to counter buoyant forces. If the tank is installed under

a driveway, the additional weight of the concrete or asphalt would provide additional counter force. We do not want to see tanks covered with concrete or asphalt, but there are times when this happens. Two important points to note: With shallower tank installations, the amount of backfill over the top is usually about a foot, which is usually not adequate by itself to provide protec- tion. And if the tank is too deep, the soil may exceed its structural capacity to withstand that depth of burial. This information is product-specific.

SECURE THE TANK

Two other primary methods may provide this protection. They are the use of concrete deadmen or screw anchors along with the appropriate strapping material to tie down the tank. Most manufacturers will have specific require- ments for the straps and the dimensions of the concrete deadmen and the number of straps required, as well as their placement on the product. Often concrete parking curbs or traffic barriers act as the deadmen. They can be poured in place and the installer can make them out of half pipes filled with concrete. There are also specific requirements for the screw anchors and how they are to be inserted into the soil. These requirements must be fol- lowed exactly to maintain any product warranty. If there is a deviation from the requirements, it should be made only under a specification by a profes- sional engineer, and have a conversation with the engineer about how the change was determined. The final backfill is also extremely important to provide proper sidewall support for the tank. It is important the backfill be installed in lifts and properly compacted, then completed by mounding the backfill over the top of the tank. Hopefully, this discussion helps you avoid what can be an embarrassing and expensive situation when a tank floats to the surface. Most homeowners never want to see their tank that up-close and personal. O

stateofthestate

A Sign of Things to Come?

Maryland’s onsite wastewater professionals association grapples with stiffer regulations aimed at cleaning up Chesapeake Bay

By Doug Day

A 2012 law in Maryland has changed the entire landscape of the onsite wastewater industry in the state. The number of new septic systems will be cut in half and those that are installed must use the best avail-

able technology. There are strict requirements for operating and maintaining onsite systems and every person working on them will have to be certified by both the state and the system component manufacturer. It has been a busy year for the Maryland Onsite Wastewater Profession- als Association. The Sustainable Growth and Agricultural Preservation Act of 2012 is just the latest effort in the 30-year fight to clean up the Chesa- peake Bay, the largest estuary in the country covering 4,480 square miles through Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. Nobody has been immune from the efforts to reduce nutrients and pollution getting into the water; the onsite industry, agriculture, stormwater and municipal wastewater have all been affected. The state’s goal is to elimi- nate all new nitrogen sources from onsite systems and limit new systems to only one of four zoning “tiers” in the state. “The Chesapeake Bay has been severely degraded,” says Dave Duree, president of MOWPA and the owner of Advance Systems in Taneytown, Md. “Nitrogen has fed the algae at the surface and that has cut off the sunlight from the plants below. So we’re losing our crabs, oysters, clams and the hab- itat for all the creatures in the bay. The new laws and regulations virtually eliminate all future nitrogen from onsite systems from entering the bay. Stormwater is likely the next big source to be addressed.” Duree talked with Onsite Installer about the Maryland experience.

Installer: There has been a lot of change in Maryland in the last year. What role has MOWPA played? Duree: MOWPA has provided the industry point of view to the legisla- ture and other parties participating in the process. As a nonprofit organiza- tion, we do not lobby. We are a resource to the Maryland Department of Environment, homebuilders associations, and the Chesapeake Bay Foun- dation. We’re also providing forums and educational resources to help the industry meet the requirements of the new regulations, which includes installers and those manufacturing, operating and maintaining the systems. It is a big responsibility. MOWPA is working with MDE to train profes- sionals in appropriate O&M practices based on the 270-page manual from the Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment. In our

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Treatment. In our 20 | ONSITE INSTALLER August 2013 Contact Dave Duree at 443/398-6185 or dduree@earthlink.net.

Contact Dave Duree at 443/398-6185 or dduree@earthlink.net.

first three two-day classes in 2013, we had about 65 graduates. There were 25 registered for our March class; we were expecting about 20. So we can’t project the total number of graduates this year. We don’t know how many more classes we’ll do, but we’re prepared to meet the demand.

Installer: How has the onsite industry responded to the changes? Duree: There are those who are resigned to the inevitable and adjust- ing, and others who are frustrated and

angry because the practices they are accustomed to will be radically altered. MOWPA will assist in adjusting to the changes. That is the most realistic and effective way to make a living in our business.

Installer: What is the impact of the regulations restricting the use of onsite systems? Duree: It will result in a 50 percent reduction in the number of new sys- tems each year; from around 10,000 a year to about 5,000 statewide. The installation side will clearly be smaller, but each installation will be a bigger job because of the requirement for best available technology. However, there will be more work in operating and maintenance because each system is required to be maintained in perpetuity, including regular pumping. MOWPA is training pumpers in the proper methods for pumping those com- plicated systems. Some have media filters so if you put the hose in the wrong place you can damage the media.

Installer: What is next in the regulatory pipeline? Duree: The legislation requires the establishment of an offset program for any residual nitrogen. Most of the states in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are behind on meeting their TMDL goals. The challenge is that we have to continue to grow, which adds nutrients, while at the same time reducing nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous. Those are conflicting responsibili- ties. An offset program for wastewater systems, stormwater and agriculture

machinematters

Engine Oil

Which to use: conventional mineral, semi-synthetic or fully synthetic?

By Eric Brothers

E ngine lubricating oil comes in many viscosities (weights) and a variety of base oils. While you should always follow the engine manufacturer’s recommendations for specification category (such as API CJ-4 or Cater-

pillar ECF-3), that still leaves a wide choice of oils across a range of prices.

One of the decisions to be made is whether to use a conventional mineral oil or upgrade to a more expensive semi-synthetic blend or fully synthetic oil.

What exactly is a synthetic oil? “A fully synthetic oil is nothing more than a mineral oil that you’ve taken apart and put back together in a controlled way,” explains Jami Melani, the field engineering/heavy-duty technical services manager for BP/Castrol (BP Lubricants USA). Melani said hydrocarbon molecules as they come out of the ground are imperfect. “There are empty spaces on the carbon atoms where ideally there’s a hydrogen atom attached.” An empty space creates a place for oxygen to attach to the molecule, and oxidation is not what you want; we’ll address that in greater detail later. “In a synthetic oil, each carbon atom has as many hydrogen atoms as there are spaces, so oxygen doesn’t attach easily to the molecule,” Melani notes.

“Synthetic and synthetic blend motor oils can be of benefit in extremely cold as well as extremely hot environments. For construction equipment operating in cold weather, synthetics will ease starting and reduce wear at start-up because synthetics have superior cold cranking and cold flow characteristics.”

Shawn Ewing

Some oils are identified as semi-synthetic. Shawn Ewing, technical coordinator, commercial products for Phillips 66, says, “Synthetic blend – or ‘semi-synthetic’ – engine oils are a combination of mineral-base oil and synthetic oil, blended to achieve a balance of performance characteristics close to those of a full synthetic, but with a price point that remains closer to a mineral formulation.” Whether they are mineral, semi- or full-synthetic, the base oils are then blended with additives to create products for specific types of applications,

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types of applications, 26 | ONSITE INSTALLER August 2013 Synthetic and synthetic blend oils are compatible

Synthetic and synthetic blend oils are compatible with mineral-based oils, so machine owners can switch to a synthetic type without damaging the engine. (Photo courtesy of Shell Lubricants)

such as engine oil, compressor oil, gear oil or hydraulic oil. Synthetic engine oils are multi-viscosity, a characteristic achieved with polymers. “Think of them like noodles – as the oil gets hotter, the polymers get longer and thicker,” Melani said. “When it’s cold, the oil is 15-weight, but as the oil heats up to operating temperature, the polymers make it flow like it’s 40-weight. So you get a thinner oil at cold temperatures to flow better and lubricate the surfaces, and when it gets hotter, the oil is thicker to offer the film strength and protection. That’s just the opposite of what occurs naturally: oil is thick when cold and thin when hot.” Since synthetic base oils cost more, what are the benefits of using them in work trucks and earth-moving machinery? There are several reasons to choose a semi-synthetic or full-synthetic oil. “Synthetic and synthetic blend motor oils can be of benefit in extremely cold as well as extremely hot environments,” notes Ewing. “For construction equipment operating in cold weather, synthetics will ease starting and reduce wear at start-up because synthetics have superior cold cranking and cold flow characteristics.” Synthetic oils generally have a lower cold viscosity rating, 5W-40 or 10W- 40, compared to the common 15W-40 mineral oil, says Stede Granger, OEM technical services manager for Shell Lubricants. Shell also has introduced a full-synthetic heavy-duty diesel engine oil with viscosity rating 0W-40 for extreme cold conditions in Canada and Alaska.

Extreme heat and high operating temperatures can accelerate oil oxidation. “Oil exposed to air and heat combines with oxygen to form acids, insolu- ble sludge, and varnish,” Phillips 66’s Ewing explains. “The oxidation process leads to a vicious circle of increasing the viscosity of the oil which increases fluid friction and heat which accelerates the rate of oxidation.” “Synthetic oils have better oxidation protection and better resistance to thermal breakdown at higher temperatures,” Shell’s Granger notes. “If you are expecting higher than normal operating temperatures, a synthetic oil is desirable.”

Another benefit of using synthetic base oils is the possibility of extending the drain interval. As Ewing explains, “Since oxidation byproducts and contaminants are the most common reasons for an oil to reach its condemning limit upon oil analy- sis, the superior oxidation resistance of synthetic and synthetic blend engine oils is a key factor in their ability to extend service life.” Lowering maintenance costs overall is the main benefit of extended drain intervals, according to BP/Castrol’s Melani. “Although the synthetics cost more per gallon, you gain from running the oil longer between drains.” Side benefits include more uptime, less oil to handle, less clerical ordering, less downstream waste, fewer filters and fewer technician labor hours.

Opinions vary about how much longer drain intervals can be extended by using synthetic oils. “Synthetics can offer longer lubricant life in most situations,” says Ewing. The number of hours or miles increased depends on the type of service and application. However, Ewing warns, “Not all situations allow an oil drain extension just because of a switch to synthetic oil.” He cites as an example extremely dusty environments where if air filtration is compromised, dirt can enter the crankcase and cause engine wear. In this case, synthetic fluids become just as dirty as conventional motor oils. “One of the reasons you drain engine oil is because of contamination from the combustion process,” says Shell’s Granger. “In a diesel, one of those con- taminants is fuel soot. At some point, you get so much soot, no matter how good the oil is, you have to drain it.” Nevertheless, in some circumstances, the run time between drains can be extended 50 percent or more by using a semi- or full-synthetic oil. “We encourage customers to be responsible, step up the interval in incre- ments, and rely on used oil analysis to verify that they are extending drains safely and responsibly without any damage to the equipment,” says Melani. Is it okay to mix mineral and synthetic-base oils, or should the previous type be flushed out of the crankcase? The experts agree there should be no compatibility issues if the engine has been operating properly with no mechan- ical problems. “Synthetic and synthetic blend engine oils are blended to be compatible with conventional engine oils as well as being compatible with seals and gaskets,” says Ewing. The quest for better fuel economy for on-highway vehicles will likely carry over to off-road equipment, says Granger. The trend is for engine manufactur- ers to allow lower viscosity oil to help save fuel. “Going from 15W-40 mineral oil to a 10W-30 semi-synthetic, you pick up a little better fuel economy from thinner oil,” Melani notes. “It’s hard to mea- sure, but intuitively, you know it takes less power to pump thinner oil through the engine.” Full-synthetic oil is more expensive, so Melani says to consider: “What conditions does the oil have to address? Which oil will do the best job in that situation? Can I use a less expensive mineral oil and change it more often?” Granger advises, “The choice is what really fits for the customer, what the equipment is, how old it is and in what environment it operates.” O

rulesandregs

Iowa County Grapples With Poor Septic Inspection Compliance

By Doug Day and Scottie Dayton

A bout 1,000 people in Muscatine County can expect to hear from zoning officials this year because they are not having their septic systems that discharge into state waterways sampled or inspected as

required. Only about 20 homeowners are in compliance with state rules that are being adopted at the county level. A free class is available for home- owners to become certified to take their own samples, or they can pay someone who is certified. The county is looking at various ways to increase compliance.

Illinois

The suburban Chicago village of Richmond is turning to septic haulers to help pay off a $7 million loan from the state’s Environmental Protection Agency. The village budget for fiscal 2013, which began on May 1, included expenditures to install equipment for a septage receiving station at its new, under-used wastewater treatment plant.

Indiana

A seller’s disclosure form to be used when selling a home with a septic

system will remain voluntary for at least the rest of 2013 in Allen County. Developed in 2012, the form was intended to inform homebuyers of the existence of a septic system and recommends an inspection before closing on the purchase. But in a 12-month period that included 282 sales of such homes, only 20 inspections were done. The Department of Health will reconsider the decision next year and discuss if the disclosure should be mandatory.

Hawaii

A bill to assess fees to homeowners with cesspools and septic tanks was

killed before it could reach the floor of the Hawaii legislature. The money raised from the fee would have funded Health Department programs to make sure that water quality wasn’t being impaired by cesspools and septic tanks. Some lawmakers saw it as unworkable for many of the rural areas of the state’s islands that have no access to public sewers; there are 59,000 cesspools and septic systems on Hawaii Island alone. The bill was stopped when a dozen lawmakers voted to put a hold on the bill, which kills it for this session, according to The Maui News. O

“Rules and Regs” is a monthly feature in Onsite Installer . We welcome information about state or local regulations of potential broad interest to onsite contractors. Send ideas to editor@onsiteinstaller.com.

casestudies

Large Scale and Commercial Treatment Systems

By Craig Mandli

Large-scale onsite system serves a Tennessee subdivision

Problem: Diamond Crest Homes, a subdivision located on the outskirts of Murfreesboro, Tenn., called for 199 homes on a large property. There was no municipal sewer to connect to for disposal.

Solution: The developers contacted Clarus Environmental, a division of Zoeller Company, with the challenge. Working with the local health department and engineers, a 55-foot by 212-foot by 42-inch media filter with drip disposal was designed and installed to accommo- date the subdivision. Each home is equipped with a STEP system that feeds a pressure main and is then transported to the media filter. From there, pumps take over and dose the media filter with 20 percent of the treated effluent draining into the disposal tanks.

of the treated effluent draining into the disposal tanks. Result: The treated effluent is disinfected through

Result: The treated effluent is disinfected through a series of UV treatment devices before heading to the 10-acre drip field. The drip field is zoned and alternates for equal dispersal. Operators report no issues with the system. 800/928-7867; www.clarusenvironmental.com.

Sequencing batch reactor system allows for expansion of Indiana meeting facility

Problem: Located near Batesville, Ind., Walhill Farm offers facilities for parties and business functions in a country setting. The 141-acre working farm includes a banquet facility in a renovated horse barn that seats 800 people, a restaurant and a butcher shop. The conversion came in 2012, and the butcher shop was added, requiring a new onsite wastewater treatment system.

Solution: Kevin Chaffee, P.E. of Earthtek Environmental was hired to design the sys- tem. Since the wastewater strength from the butcher shop was expected to exceed domes- tic concentrations, it had to be treated prior to soil disposal. A package sequencing batch reactor called the Sabre (Sequencing Activated sludge Batch Reactor) was used to pretreat the wastewater. It is designed to be installed in a conventional septic tank, and can be adapted for almost any application. The system consists of fine-bubble aeration, simplex or duplex decant pumps installed in the tank clear zone, and a digital control panel with integral air pump.

zone, and a digital control panel with integral air pump. Result: The system reduced BOD concentrations

Result: The system reduced BOD concentrations from a design level of 800 mg/L to 15.6 mg/L, TSS from 400 mg/L to 11.7 mg/L, and effluent ammonia to 0.078 mg/L. 812/528-8784; www.packageplants.com.

Denitrification units allow popular Montana steakhouse to expand

Problem: Lou Caissey, owner of the Grub Stake, a steakhouse in Helena, Mont., wanted to expand the restaurant to serve a growing clientele. His goal was to maximize seating area while working within the constraints of a small lot served by an existing onsite system.

Solution: Caissey decided to retrofit with new septic tanks and dual Eliminite 620 C advanced denitrification units. The Montana Department of Environmental Quality allowed doubling the application rate to the sub-surface soil absorption system if Eliminite advanced treatment units were utilized to remove BOD, TSS and nitrogen prior to discharge.

utilized to remove BOD, TSS and nitrogen prior to discharge. Result: The contractor was able to

Result: The contractor was able to coordinate the project so that the restaurant was not shut down during the retrofit. Installation of the new septic tanks and Eliminite treatment units was completed in four days, and the owner achieved his goal of working with the small lot and using the existing drainfield. 888/406-2289; www.eliminite.com.

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Geosynthetic aggregate bundles provide solution for Arch Coal-Viper Mine

Problem: The Arch Coal-Viper Mine in Williamsville, Ill., needed to expand its workforce and build a new changing facility with restrooms and showers. The existing small and out- dated wastewater treatment system was unable to handle the anticipated daily flow of 3,600 gpd. Tie-in to the local sewer at a cost of more than $300,000 was too expensive and did not meet the goal of on-site treatment of all waste from mine operations. Seasonal high groundwa- ter levels, poor soils and limited space were also challenges.

levels, poor soils and limited space were also challenges. Solution: Mine owners turned to Rick Maguire

Solution: Mine owners turned to Rick Maguire of Maguire Backhoe Company in Virden, Ill., for a solution. Maguire suggested installing a new subsurface system including a 5,000-gallon concrete tank, a 5,000-gallon single-compartment dose tank, duplex pumps and a shallow drainfield incorporating 4,200 feet of EZflow by Infiltrator geosynthetic aggregate bundles. Pressure dosing in alternating zones allows the beds to rest between dosings and reduces biomat development. The system is installed in a 20-foot-high, 600-foot-long berm of clay-loam soil left over from the orig- inal mine excavation. No aggregate was used. An Aquaworx IPC Controller enables ongoing system monitoring and management.

Results: The large pressurized system cost half of what it would have to extend sewer lines to the site. 800/221-4436; www.infiltratorsystems.com.

New Hampshire town installs passive treatment system

Problem: The Town of Newbury, N.H., needed to expand its Blodgett Landing Municipal Treatment Plant due to a growing community and higher treatment standards, including deni- trification. With a small budget and limited space, the town had to find a product to handle 50,000 gpd and meet all of these requirements. Also required was a product that would be easy to maintain with minimal upfront and ongoing costs.

Solution: The town decided to upgrade its system to a series of passive Enviro-Septic treat- ment beds from Presby Environmental designed for 50,000 gpd. The addition of recirculation pumps allowed the town to achieve denitrification and treatment.

allowed the town to achieve denitrification and treatment. Result: The system was able to treat the

Result: The system was able to treat the town’s effluent to the following levels: TSS is 6, BOD is 5, TKN is less than 0.05, and E. coli is less than 1. According to Plant Manager Tim Mulder, “The upfront cost saving with minimal ongoing cost and maintenance is exceptional. We are very pleased.” 800/473-5298; www.presbyenvironmental.com.

Disinfection needs solved at Malibu restaurant

Problem: Located on the oceanfront in Malibu, Calif., Duke’s is a popular restaurant, dedi- cated to Duke Kahanamoku, the father of surfing. Wastewater from the restaurant averages 6,000 gpd, and must be treated on site and directly discharged to the sensitive beach envi- ronment. The existing wastewater treatment system was outdated and was causing numerous water quality and discharge violations.

Solution: Carlile-Macy was selected to provide an upgraded treatment system in 2011. They chose an upflow sludge blanket filtration system, USBF, and Salcor UV disinfection, consist- ing of four 3G units in two parallel tracks. The design was approved by the CA Regional Water Quality Board and City of Malibu, and construction of the new plant was completed in April 2012.

construction of the new plant was completed in April 2012. Result: The system immediately produced high-quality

Result: The system immediately produced high-quality effluent, which has met the stringent disinfection requirement of CA Title 22. Results have been consistent for the first 15 months of operation. Effluent total coliform count has been non-detectable, and the dissolved oxygen concentration has aver- aged 6 mg/L. The discharge has reduced coliform levels in the groundwater lens under the site and adjacent beach from more than 1600 mpn to less than 2 mpn. The UV units are inspected weekly for possible fouling of the Teflon barrier and no fouling has occurred. 760/731-0745.

(continued)

associationnews

By Scottie Dayton

MISSOURI

New association board members named

Paul Ganey, Michael Bowers, and Rick Helms were elected to the Mis- souri Smallflows Organization board of directors at the group’s annual con- ference. Officers are Nancy Leighton, president; Sean Bauer, vice-president; Seth Coggin, P.E., secretary; and Rick Helms, treasurer.

NOWRA

Conference agenda taking shape

The agenda for the National Onsite Wastewater Recycling Association annual conference is shaping up. “We have confirmation that Britton Dotson, director of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, will introduce the state’s newly revised onsite regulations,” says NOWRA executive director Eric Casey. “That is significant, because the conference is one of the first places where [the regulations] will be discussed.” Members will meet Nov. 17-20 at the Millennium Maxwell House Hotel in Nashville, Tenn.

As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Decentralized Partnership, NOWRA is contributing to a paper focusing on the onsite industry’s role in job creation and economic development in local communities. For example, Dauphin Equipment in Mobile, Ala., works with the state and other groups to install large commercial cluster systems in communities with poor sanitation. Once they had proper wastewater treatment, businesses began relocating to these locations. “All over southern Alabama, decentralized systems have revitalized communities,” says Casey. “The contribution our industry makes to the economy is an important message to take to local and national policymakers when looking for additional funding and support. Too few realize that our industry represents a quarter of the nation’s infrastructure.”

TRAINING AND EDUCATION

Alabama

Licensing classes are the joint effort of the Alabama Onsite Wastewater Association and University of West Alabama. Courses are at UWA Livingston campus unless stated otherwise:

Sept. 12-13 – Continuing Education, Rogersville

Sept. 19-20 – Pumper

Oct. 2-4 – Advanced Installer I

Oct. 24-25 – Continuing Education, Mobile

The first day of Continuing Education classes is for installers and the second day is for pumpers and portable restroom operators. Call the training center at 205/652-3803 or visit http://aowatc.uwa.edu.

Arizona

The University of Arizona Onsite Wastewater Education Program has a Soil and Site Evaluation for Onsite Wastewater Systems class Oct. 28-29 at Camp Verde. Contact Kitt Farrell-Poe at 520/621-7221, kittfp@ag.arizona. edu, or http://ag.arizona.edu/waterquality/onsite.

California

The California Onsite Wastewater Association is offering these classes:

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Onsite Installer™ invites your state association to post notices and news items in this column. Send contributions to editor@onsiteinstaller.com.

Oct. 2-3 – NAWT Operation and Maintenance Level 1, Napa

Oct. 17 – System Controls, Sonora

Call Kit Rosefield at 530/513-6658 or visit www.cowa.org.

Iowa

The Iowa Onsite Waste Water Association has these courses:

Sept. 17 – Operation and Maintenance, Ainsworth

Oct. 9 – Basic System Design and Installation, Charles City

Contact Alice Vinsand at 515/225-1051, execdir@iowwa.com, or visit

www.iowwa.com.

Minnesota

The University of Minnesota Onsite Sewage Treatment Program has these classes:

Sept. 5 – Sampling Onsite Systems, Waterville

Sept. 12 – Soils Continuing Education, Bemidji

Oct. 3 – Soils Continuing Education, Brainerd

Oct. 22-25 – Intermediate Onsite System Design and Inspection, Brainerd Call Nick Haig at 800/322-8642 (612/625-9797) or visit http://septic. umn.edu.

Missouri

The Missouri Smallflows Organization has these CEU courses:

Sept. 18-19 – Operations & Maintenance, Cape Girardeau

Sept. 24 – Aerated Treatment Units, Springfield

Sept. 25 – Selling Systems, Springfield

Oct. 9-10 – High-Strength Waste, Maryland Heights

Oct. 30 – Earthen Structures, Camdenton

Oct. 31 – Hydraulics, Camdenton

Call Tammy Trantham at 417/739-4100 or visit www.mosmallflows.org.

New England

The New England Onsite Wastewater Training Center at the University of Rhode Island in Kingston has these courses:

Sept. 5 – Conventional Onsite Wastewater Treatment Basics for Installers

Sept. 12 – Functional Inspections

Sept. 19 – Innovative and Alternative Technologies

Sept. 26 – Conventional Onsite Wastewater System Inspection

Sept. 27 – Conventional Onsite Wastewater System Inspection Field Training

Oct. 1 – Technology Vendor Field Demo

Oct. 3 – Bottomless Sand Filter Design and Installation

Oct. 31 – Rhode Island Designer Examination Prep

Call 401/874-5950 or visit www.uri.edu/ce/wq. For soil courses, call

Mark Stolt at 401/874-2915 or e-mail mstolt@uri.edu.

North Carolina

The North Carolina Septic Tank Association has these classes:

Sept. 9 – Installer/Inspector, Swansboro

Oct. 14 – Installer/Inspector, Mooresville