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Reading Comprehension Brain Drain

Develop your reading skills. Read the following text and do the comprehension questions

Reassessing the Impacts of Brain Drain on Developing Countries

Brain drain, which is the action of having highly skilled and educated people leaving their country to work abroad, has become one of the developing countries concern. Brain drain is also referred to as human capital flight. More and more third world science and technology educated people are heading for more prosperous countries seeking higher wages and better working conditions. This has of course serious concequences on the sending countries.

While many people believe that immigration is a personal choice that must be understood and respected, others look at the phenomenon from a different perspective. What makes those educated people leave their countries should be seriously considered and a distinction between push and pull factors must be made. The push factors include low wages and lack of satisfactory working and living conditions. Social unrest, political conflicts and wars may also be determining causes. The pull factors, however, include intellectual freedom and substantial funds for research.

Brain drain has negative impact on the sending countries economic prospects and competetiveness. It reduces the number of dynamic and creative people who can contribute to the development of their country. Likewise, with more entrepreneurs taking their investments abroad, developing countries are missing an opportunity of wealth creation. This has also negative consequences on tax revenue and employment.

Most of the measures taken so far have not had any success in alleviating the

effects of brain drain. A more global view must take into consideration the provision of adequate working and living conditions in the sending countries. An other option should involve encouraging the expatriates to contribute their skill to the development of their countries without necesarily physically relocating.

Comprehension:

Another term for brain drain is: a. capital flight b. human capital flight To address the problem of brain drain we should understand: a. the causes. b. the effects. Brain drain has terrible concequences on the economic development of : a. sending countries b. recieving countries To limit the negative impact of brain drain, expatriates should a. come back to their homecountries for good. b. try to help their home countries while staying their.

This is a list of vocabulary items related to brain drain

Brain:

a. The portion of the head which is the primary center for the regulation and control of bodily activities, receiving and interpreting sensory impulses, and transmitting information to the muscles and body organs. It is also the seat of consciousness, thought, memory, and emotion.

b. Intellectual ability; mind: a dull brain; a quick brain. c. Intellectual power; intelligence. Often used in the plural: "he has brains and good looks." d. A highly intelligent person."He's such a brain"

Brain drain:

A large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge, normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity, political instability, or health risks.

Human capital flight:

Another terminology for brain drain. It is a parallel of capital flight which refers to the same movement of financial capital. It describes the emigration of "scientists and technologists" to North America and Europe from different developing countries.

Brain training:

Preparing highly skilled people needed for a counrty's development. Brain training is related to an economic cost since training is sponsored by the government.

Brain gain:

Brain gain occurs when there is a large-scale immigration (as opposed to emigration) of technically qualified persons. We can talk of highly skilled people coming to Canada as brain gain as opposed to brain drain which refers to the act of leaving their home country.

Brain exchange:

When the highly skilled people leave a country they are replaced by others coming from other countries. This exchange usually happens between developed countries.

Brainless:

Stupid. "A brainless idiot."

Brainy:

Clever. "She's a brainy child."

Emigration:

When somone leaves a country permanently and go to live in another one: "Millions of Germans emigrated from Europe to America in the nineteenth century." The person who emigrates is an emigrant.

Immigration:

When someone comes to live in a different country. There are strict limits on immigration (into the country) The person who immigrates is an immigrant.

Highly-qualified:

Highly skilled, technically qualified people.

Developing country:

A poor or non industrial country that is seeking to develop its resources by industrialization. It has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score.

Developed country:

Acountry advanced in industrial capability, technological sophistication, and economic productivity. Modern terms synonymous with the term developed country include: "industrialized countries, more developed countries (MDC) more economically developed countries(MEDC), advanced country or postindustrial country."

Reading material on brain drain. http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/vocabulary-lesson-braindrain.php

Comprehension:
Another term for brain drain is: a. capital flight b. human capital flight To address the problem of brain drain we should understand:

a. the causes. b. the effects. Brain drain has terrible concequences on the economic development of : a. sending countries b. recieving countries To limit the negative impact of brain drain, expatriates should a. come back to their homecountries for good. b. try to help their home countries while staying their.Comprehension:

Another term for brain drain is: a. capital flight b. human capital flight To address the problem of brain drain we should understand: a. the causes. b. the effects. Brain drain has terrible concequences on the economic development of : a. sending countries b. recieving countries To limit the negative impact of brain drain, expatriates should a. come back to their homecountries for good. b. try to help their home countries while staying their.

Comprehension:

Another term for brain drain is: human capital flight - b

To address the problem of brain drain we should understand: the causes. - a Brain drain has terrible concequences on the economic development of : sending countries - a To limit the negative impact of brain drain, expatriates should try to help their home countries while staying their. - b