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Andrews University Biology Department Anatomy and Physiology II Spring 2008

Lab 5 The Urinary System

Name _________________________ File # ________ TA Signature ____________________

Urine formation begins when glomerular filtrate enters the nephron tubules of the kidneys. The composition and volume of the glomerular filtrate then changes as water and many solutes from the filtrate are returned to the blood by reabsorbtion and as some additional waste products in the blood are secreted into the filtrate. The body channels the final product, urine, out of the kidneys through the ureters and stores it in the urinary bladder. Through the formation of urine from blood, the kidneys are the primary organs involved in the maintenance of the homeostasis of blood composition and volume and thus the composition of extracellular fluids. Look over Chapter 23 The Urinary System pp. 896-919 (Saladin 4th edition) prior to lab. Bring your textbook to lab!

Part I. Structures of the Urinary System

Learn the following structures: Figures 23.1, 23.4, and 23.8 Kidney renal capsule renal cortex renal medulla renal column renal pyramid renal papilla major calyx minor calyx renal pelvis renal artery renal vein Nephron renal corpuscle glomerulus glomerular capsule afferent arteriole efferent arteriole proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) nephron loop (loop of Henle) descending limb ascending limb distal convoluted tubule (DCT) collecting duct (CD) ureter urinary bladder urethra Exit Quiz Score____________/15 TA Signature___________________

Part II. Urinalysis

Background Body chemistry does not just depend on the volume and composition of the food we eat. Its also influenced by what the kidneys keep and do not keep by the processes of reabsorption and secretion. Urine contains a great deal of information about body function. The kidneys continuously form urine, reabsorbing glucose, amino acids, water, and salts from the filtrate of blood plasma. Factors such as diet, physical activity, body metabolism, disease, time of day, and body position can influence the chemical composition of urine. Analysis of the urine, or urinalysis, offers a means of determining the composition of the extracellular fluid (ECF) and the how the kidneys are functioning. During this part of the lab, you will conduct a series of tests on a urine sample. You will observe and determine both physical and chemical characteristics of the urine. The urine amounts that you eliminate over a 24-hour period varies widely. These amounts depend on the amount of fluid you consume and the rate of excretion through avenues other than the excretory system, such as through perspiration and solid waste formation. Urine volumes commonly range from 1 to 2 L per 24 hours. Procedure: 1. Work in groups of two. Get a urinalysis strip, a plastic test tube, a paper cup, and paper towels. Use the paper cup to collect a sample of urine. 2. Carefully pour enough of the urine into the test tube so that the all the pads on the urinalysis strip will be completely covered when you dip it into the tube. Record the color and appearance (see Physical Examination below) of the sample on the Urinalysis Data Sheet on p. 5. 3. Hold the strip by the handle and dip it into the urine specimen. Make sure the pads are all completely covered by the urine. Immediately remove the strip, holding it against the edge of the test tube so the excess urine drips back into the tube. 4. Hold the strip over the paper towels while you wait for the pads to change color (approx. 1 min.). Compare the strip pads with the color chart on the urinalysis strip bottle and record your results on the Data Sheet. 5. Discard the used strip in the biohazard bag at the front of the room. 6. Use the charts below to determine the normality or abnormality of the test results and interpret the results. (24 pts)

Physical Examination The color of urine varies widely from colorless to almost black due to normal metabolic functions, physical activity, ingested materials, or infections. It is usually amber or straw-colored. However, urine is usually darker in smaller volumes than in larger amounts. The normal yellow color is from a pigment called urochrome, a product of hemoglobin breakdown. The appearance of the urine refers to the clarity of the specimen. A sample can be clear, slightly cloudy, cloudy, or turbid. Urine normally is clear when eliminated but becomes cloudy on standing. Cloudy or turbid urine is caused by crystals, white and red blood cells, epithelial cells, bacteria, lipids, mucous, yeast, and foreign substances.

Colorless Pale yellow Dark yellow Amber/Orange

NORMAL/ABNORMAL? Normal Normal Normal Normal or Abnormal

POSSIBLE CAUSES Recent fluid intake; diuretic use Concentrated urine due to dehydration Carrots Vitamin A, C, and Bs Bilirubin due to bile duct blockage Carrots Vitamins A & C Riboflavin Bilirubin oxidized to biliverdin Pseudomonas (bacterial) infection Chlorophyll-containing foods Red blood cells/hemoglobin tissue damage Myoglobin (oxygen-carrier in muscle tissue) muscle damage (large amounts can cause kidney failure) Beets, blackberries, rhubarb anthocyanins (pink pigment) Heavy bleeding Hemoglobin oxidized to methemoglobin Myoglobin POSSIBLE CAUSES Sqamous epithelial cells, RBCs, or WBCs/cellular material Mucous Fats Excessive protein Crystallization or precipitation of salts (i.e. phosphates or carbonates, urates, calcium oxalate) Uric acid

Yellow-green Green/Blue-green Pink/Red

Normal or Abnormal Normal or Abnormal Normal or Abnormal



Clear Levels of Turbidity: Slightly cloudy Cloudy Turbid

NORMAL/ABNORMAL? Normal Normal or Abnormal

Physical/Chemical Examination with a Urinalysis Strip Note: Specific gravity is a physical property, but reflects the chemical composition of urine. Specific gravity is a ratio of the density of a solution (g/mL) to that of water. Values of urine are higher than that of water because urine is only 95% water with various excreted solutes that increase its density. A 1.5 L urine sample contains about 35 g of nitrogenous end products of metabolism and 25 g of ions/electrolytes. Urea is the most abundant nitrogenous waste product of metabolism, along with uric acid, ammonia, and creatinine. Excreted ions include ammonium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, phosphate, and sulfate. Glucose is normally excreted in trace amounts of less than 1 g/day.
TEST Leukocytes Nitrite pH NORMAL Negative Negative 4.5 8.0 ABNORMAL Any positive result Any positive result Acidic (below 4.5) POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABNORMAL RESULTS - Urinary tract infection - Bacteria in the urine (i.e. gram-negative bacilli) - Urinary tract or kidney inflammation - Diabetes - Diarrhea - Starvation - Urinary tract infection treatment - Respiratory or metabolic acidosis Below 1.002g/ml Excessive vomiting Kidney failure Defects in renal tubular secretion and reabsorption of bicarbonate Urinary tract infection Respiratory or metabolic alkalosis Kidney inflammation (can be from bacterial infection) Glomerular damage Lupus erythematosus Long-term high blood pressure Diabetes mellitus (high blood glucose levels) Impaired ability to reabsorb glucose (can be caused by kidney disease - renal glycosuria) Uncontrolled diabetes High insulin levels Starvation, fasting, anorexia, high-protein or low carbohydrate diets Increased metabolism disorders (hyperthyroidism) Fever, acute or severe illness, severe burns Liver disease/overburdening of the liver Excessive RBC breakdown (i.e. from reabsoprion of a large hematoma) Biliary obstruction (i.e. gallstones, tumors) Trauma to liver or gall bladder Urinary tract infection/inflammation Kidney or bladder stones Trauma to the kidney or urinary tract or fractured pelvis Bladder or kidney cancer Dehydration (not enough fluid intake, diarrhea, vomiting, excessive sweating) Glucose in the urine Excessive fluid intake Diabetes insipidus Renal failure Kidney infection (involving the nephrons)

Alkaline (above 8.0)



Above 8mg/dl

Glucose Ketones

Negative Negative

Any positive result Any positive result

Urobilinogen Bilirubin Blood/ Hemoglobin

Less than 1mg/dl Negative Negative

More than 1mg/dl Any positive result Any positive result

Specific Gravity


Above 1.028g/ml

Urinalysis Data Sheet

Physical Examination CONSTITUENT

Physical/Chemical Examination with Urinalysis Strip

CONSTITUENT Leukocytes Nitrate pH Protein Glucose Ketones Urobilinogen Bilirubin Blood/Hemoglobin Specific Gravity RESULTS INTERPRETATION
(normal / abnormal & possible reason why)

Part III. Microscopic Examination of Urine Sediment

Microscopic examination of the urine sediment may reveal the presence of various cells, crystals, bacteria, and renal casts. The presence of large numbers of cells such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, or epithelial cells in the urine is indicative of renal disease. Although a few crystals are present in normal urine, their presence in large numbers may suggest a tendency to form kidney stones, and a large number of uric acid crystals occur in gout. Renal casts are formed from cells and sticky protein within the renal tubules. They are cylindrical in shape, taking the form of the tubules in which they were cast. The sides are parallel and the ends are usually round. Although a small number of casts are found in normal urine, an increase in cast numbers is one of the best indicators of renal disease, and can also indicate congestive heart failure or dehydration. Casts are relatively fragile and may dissolve, especially in alkaline or dilute urine. The casts may be noncellular, or they may be cellular and contain leukocytes, erythrocytes, or epithelial cells. Procedure : Look at the websites and pictures of urine sediument on the lab labtops. Draw and label an example of each type of component (cells, crystals, bacteria, and renal casts). (4 pts)

Component type:

Component type:

Component type:

Component type: