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Optical Instruments

Objectives Conceptual: Gain an understanding of lens systems. Experimental: Construct a telescope and a microscope. Background
f1 distant object f2

eyepiece lens objective lens location of real image created by object lens

distant virtual image created by eyepiece lens

Figure 1. Lens setup for a simple refracting telescope. Refracting Telescope Figure 1 represents the operation of a simple refracting telescope. It uses a long focal length lens, the objective lens, in conjunction with an eyepiece lens. For low light observing, such as astronomical viewing, the objective lens is typically of large diameter so as to collect more light. For viewing where there is sufficient light, such as birding, this is not as important, so a smaller diameter and lighter weight objective lens can be used. We will approximate the lenses as being thin, so that we can use the thin lens equation for each lens in the system, (1) where, p = distance from object to lens, q = distance from lens to image, f = focal length of lens.
1 1 1 + = p q f

In this set up the objective lens creates a real image. Since objects being viewed with a telescope are presumed to be very far away, relative to the focal length of the objective lends, then p is very large. This means 1/p is very small and we can approximate this term in Equation 1 as zero. Equation 1 thus yields, for an object at a large distance,
1 1 1 + = big q f 1 1 0+ = q f q= f

That is, the location of the real image from the objective lens is the focal length of the objective lens, f1. To view this real image, therefore, the eyepiece lens produces a virtual image, by acting as a simple magnifying glass. Thus the eyepiece lens must be placed such that its focal length distance, f2, coincides with f1. That is, the total distance between the objective lens an eyepiece lens is, distance between the objective lens an eyepiece lens = f1 + f2. This is the starting position of the eyepiece lens. It is then adjusted for viewing a sharp virtual image.
object Real image from object lens

Virtual image from eyepiece lens

Figure 2. Lens setup for a microscope. Microscope Oddly enough, a microscope operates in the same way as the simple refracting telescope. The difference is that a microscope uses a short focal length objective lens placed near an object. Again, an eyepiece lens is used to magnify the real image formed by the objective lens. This is shown in Figure 2. Magnification In each case, the magnification of the system of two lenses is the product of the magnification of each lens, q1 q 2 M = M 1M 2 = (2) p p 1 2

Prediction Questions PQ1. The objective lens has a focal length of 10cm and the eyepiece has a focal length of 5cm. These lenses are set up to form a telescope. PQ1a. How far apart should they be placed so that this telescope functions well? PQ1b. If you were looking at a star, what would happen to what you are seeing if the two lenses were brought closer together? PQ2. If the same lenses were used to set up a microscope, how should they be arranged? Setup Refracting Telescope 1. Obtain two lenses of differing focal lengths and measure their focal lengths. To measure the focal length of each lens: Obtain a real image of a distant object with the lens. As described in the background section, we can approximate the 1/p term as zero resulting in f=q. Thus by measuring q for this setup, you find f. This is illustrated in Figure 3.
q=f

distant object

screen

lens

location of real image created by the lens

Figure 3. Setup to find the focal length of a lens. 2. Place the long focal length lens on one end of the optical bench to serve as the objective lens. The real image of the objective lens will be the object of the eyepiece lens. 3. Find the real image of a distant object (something viewed through one of the laboratory windows), and note the position of the image (distance from objective lens). 4. Place the eyepiece lens on the optical bench at a position such that the distance from the eyepiece lens to the position of the real image of the objective lens is equal to the focal length of the eyepiece lens (see Figure 4).

eyepiece objective lens lens

Figure 4. Setup for object and eyepiece lenses. Procedure Refracting Telescope 1. Adjust the eyepiece lens until the distant object can be seen through the eyepiece lens. 2. Measure the magnification of the telescope. To measure the magnification we need to compare the size of the object as viewed without the lenses to the size of the image viewed using the lenses. The image viewed through the lenses must therefore be located the same distance from the eyepiece as the actual object. We can do this by removing parallax.

Eliminate the Parallax


Parallax an apparent shifting of the image due to the motion of the observer occurs if the image is not in same plane as the object (grid pattern). To observe the parallax, open both eyes and look through the lens at the image with one eye while looking around the edge of the lens directly at the grid pattern with the other eye. The lines of the image (solid lines in the diagram) will be superimposed on the lines of the grid pattern (dotted lines in the diagram). As you move your head up-anddown or back-and-forth, the lines of the image may appear to move relative to the lines of the grid pattern. If the lines move, its due to parallax. a. To eliminate the parallax, move the eyepiece lens until the image lines do not shift relative to the object lines when you move your head. When there is no parallax, the lines in the center of Figure 5. Measuring magnification. the lens appear to be stuck to the object lines. Note that even when there is no parallax, the lines may appear to shift or curve near the edges of the lens because of lens aberrations. b. With the parallax eliminated, the virtual image is in the plane of the grid pattern. Record the positions of the two lenses and the viewing screen in the Lab Report section. c. Estimate the magnification of this simple telescope by counting the number of squares in the grid pattern that lie along one side of one square of the image. To

do this, you must view the image through the telescope with one eye while looking directly at the grid pattern with the other eye. d. The magnification is then the ratio of the number of squares in the grid pattern per large square. Record the observed magnification as a ratio in the Lab Report. 3. Measure p1, the distance from the grid pattern to the objective lens and record the distance in your table. 4. Measure q2, the distance from the eyepiece lens to the image. Since the image is in the plane of the object, this is just the distance from the eyepiece lens to the grid pattern on the viewing screen. Record the distance in your table. Setup - Microscope 1. Measure the focal length of the lenses provided. 2. Place the objective lens in the lens holder on the optics bench. 3. Place an object to be viewed on the bench at a distance a little more than the focal length. This should create a real image on the opposite side of the lens, which will be viewed with eyepiece lens. 4. Measure the position of the object to the lens and calculate the position of the image using equation 1. This image distance is the distance of the image of the objective lens and is the position of the object for the eye piece lens. Show this calculations as Microscope objective lens setup calculations in the analysis section. 5. Place an eyepiece lens (the same as that used with the telescope) on the bench on the side opposite to the objective lens. 6. Position the eyepiece lens such that the location of the image from the objective lens is a shorter distance to the eyepiece lens than the focal length of the eyepiece lens. (See Figure 4.) 7. Adjust the position of the eyepiece until the distant object can be seen through the eyepiece lens. Procedure Microscope 1. Adjust the eyepiece lens until the object can be seen through the eyepiece lens. 2. Measure the magnification of the microscope as was done with the telescope. a. Put one eye close to the eyepiece lens. Focus the image of the object (grid pattern) by moving the objective lens forward or backward. b. As before, eliminate the parallax by moving the eyepiece lens until the image lines do not shift relative to the object lines when you move your head. c. With the parallax eliminated, the virtual image is in the plane of the grid pattern. Record the positions of the two lenses and the viewing screen in the Lab Report section.

d. Estimate the magnification of this simple microscope by counting the number of squares in the grid pattern that lie along one side of one square of the image. To do this, you must view the image through the telescope with one eye while looking directly at the grid pattern with the other eye. e. Record the observed magnification as a ratio in the Lab Report. 3. Determine p1, the distance from the grid pattern to the objective lens and record the distance. Record this in your table 4. Determine q2, the distance from the eyepiece lens to the image. Since the image is in the plane of the object, this is just the distance from the eyepiece lens to the grid pattern on the viewing screen. Record the distance in your table.

Analysis - Telescope 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Show all calculations. Calculate q1, using the value of p1 and the focal length, f1, of the objective lens in the Thin Lens Formula. Calculate p2 using the value of q2 and the focal length, f2, of the eyepiece lens in the Thin Lens Formula. Calculate the magnification using the magnification formula. Calculate the percent difference between the observed (estimated) magnification and the calculated magnification: %diff = Analysis - Microscope 1. Show all calculations. 2. Calculate q1 using the value of p1and the focal length, f1, of the objective lens in the Thin Lens Formula. 3. Calculate p2 using the value of p2 and the focal length, f2, of the eyepiece lens in the Thin Lens Formula. 4. Calculate the magnification using the magnification formula (equation 2). 5. Calculate the percent difference between the observed (estimated) magnification and the calculated magnification: observed calculated %diff = 100% calculated observed calculated 100% calculated

Analysis Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. For the telescope, is the image inverted or erect? For the telescope, is the image real or virtual? For the microscope, is the image inverted or erect? For the microscope, is the image real or virtual?

Data Table
Complete the data table. Measured Focal Length Lens 1: ______________m Measured Focal Length Lens 2: ______________m
Simple Telescope Position of Objective Lens Position of Eyepiece Lens Position of Viewing Screen Observed Magnification Simple Microscope Position of Objective Lens Position of Eyepiece Lens Position of Viewing Screen Observed Magnification

d01 di2 di1 d02


Calculated Magnification Percent Difference

d01 di2 di1 d02


Calculated Magnification Percent Difference

Report Requirements: 1. Objective 2. Theory (one paragraph, in your own words). Include ray diagrams and a few sentences at the end on how this theory is applicable to the lab done. 3. Measuring Instruments table: Measuring instruments and their least count (as applicable) 4. Data and Analysis Tables: - Data and calculations table for telescope and microscope 5. Analysis: - Show calculations as asked in the setup and analysis sections. - Show calculations for magnification. - Show calculations for the magnification percentage difference - Answer analysis questions. Please ensure that your sketches are neat and legible and drawn using a ruler. - Attach the hand written prediction questions from the lab with your report 6. Conclusion: Follow the Conclusion Format described in the beginning of the lab manual. Discuss the results of all the studies in terms of the objectives and background. Summarize your experiment ensuring that you cover all the points mentioned in the Conclusion requirements description at the start of the manual. Make sure you comment on how your set up for the optimum measurements compared with the original focal lengths found for your lenses. References Simanek, D.E., A Laboratory Manual For Physics, Vol 3, Sound, Light, Atomic and Nuclear

Instructors Notes
These are data for two lenses with f=100mm and 200mm.

Data Table (sample)


Simple Telescope Position of Objective Lens Position of Eyepiece Lens Position of Viewing Screen Observed Magnification 37.5 cm 0.7 cm 110 cm 5:1 72.5 cm 109.3 cm 27.62 cm 9.18 cm 4.54:1 9.3% Simple Microscope Position of Objective Lens Position of Eyepiece Lens Position of Viewing Screen Observed Magnification 87.5 cm 54.9 cm 110 cm 3:1 22.5 cm 55.1 cm 18.0 cm 14.6 cm 3.02:1 0.6%

d01 di2 di1 d02


Calculated Magnification Percent Difference

d01 di2 di1 d02


Calculated Magnification Percent Difference

Example of Calculations
5. Calculate di1 using the value of d01 and the focal length, f, of the objective lens (200 1 1 1 + . Record mm or 20.0 cm for the telescope) in the Thin Lens Formula: = f d0 d i the calculation. d f 72.5cm 20.0cm 1450cm2 1 1 1 = + ,di = 0 = = = 27.619 = 27.62cm f d0 d i d0 f 72.5cm 20.0cm 52.5cm 6. Calculate the magnification using the magnification formula: d d M = M1M 2 = i1 i 2 d01 d 02 d d 27.62cm 109.3cm M = M1M 2 = i1 i 2 = = 0.38 11.9 = 4.5 d01 d 02 72.5cm 9.18cm

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A. Questions

7. 8. 9.

For the telescope, is the image inverted or erect? The image is inverted for the telescope. For the telescope, is the image real or virtual? The image is virtual for the telescope. For the microscope, is the image inverted or erect? The image is inverted for the microscope.

10.

For the microscope, is the image real or virtual?

The image is virtual for the microscope.