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Electrically-Assisted Turbocharger Development

for Performance and Emissions

Milton Bailey, Leon Tolbert, Norberto Domingo-ORNL, and Brian Bolton, Nabil Hakim - DDC

Turbocharger transient lag inherently imposes a tradeoff between a robust engine response to transient load shifts and exhaust emissions. By itself, a well- matched turbocharger for an engine has limited flexibility in improving this transient response. Electrically-assisted turbocharging has been seen as an attractive option to improve response and lower transient emissions.

This paper presents the results of a multi-year joint CRADA between DDC and ORNL. Virtual lab diesel simulation models characterized the performance improvement potential of an electrically assisted turbocharger technology. Operating requirements to reduce transient duration between load shift time by up to 50% were determined. A turbomachine has been conceptualized with an integrated motor-generator, providing transient burst boost plus energy recovery capability. Numerous electric motor designs were considered, and a prototype motor was developed, fabricated, and is undergoing tests. Power controls have been designed and fabricated.

Electrically Assisted Turbo-Charger Development for Performance and Emissions

Summary of CRADA # 1996-2000

Detroit Diesel Corporation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Presented by Houshun Zhang, Detroit Diesel Corporation Milton Bailey, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

National Laboratory Presented by Houshun Zhang, Detroit Diesel Corporation Milton Bailey, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Outline

Motivation

Transient Engine Operation

Engine & Turbocharger Matching

Transient Engine & Turbocharger Modeling

Potential Improvements

Comparison of Results

Electric Machinery

Power Electronics

Status of Tests

• Electric Machinery • Power Electronics • Status of Tests 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

• Electric Machinery • Power Electronics • Status of Tests 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

Motivation

Turbo Critical for Power density, Fuel economy, Emission and Driveability.

Response Time during Transient Operation due to Turbine inertia.

Improve driveability

Reduce engine smoke and high PM

Turbocharger Technology is a Key to Emission Reduction.

high PM • Turbocharger Technology is a Key to Emission Reduction. 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

high PM • Turbocharger Technology is a Key to Emission Reduction. 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All

HD FTP Transient Test

Transient Engine Operation 1st Quarter

3000 2000 1000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 -1000
3000
2000
1000
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
-1000

Engine Speed, rpm

Transient Engine Operation 2nd Quarter

3000 2000 1000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 -1000
3000
2000
1000
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
-1000

Engine Speed, rpm

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 -1000 Engine Speed, rpm 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Transient Engine Operation 3rd Quarter 3000 2000 1000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 -1000
Transient Engine Operation
3rd Quarter
3000
2000
1000
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
-1000
Engine Speed, rpm
Transient Engine Operation
4th Quarter
2500
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0
-500
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1500
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-1000
Engine Speed, rpm
Engine Operation 4th Quarter 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

HD FTP Transient Test

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 FTP 3rd Quarter Operation 500 1000 1500 2000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

-500

FTP 3rd Quarter Operation 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
FTP 3rd Quarter Operation
500
1000
1500
2000
2500

Engine Speed, rpm

Quarter Operation 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Engine Speed, rpm 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Quarter Operation 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Engine Speed, rpm 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

HD FTP Transient Test Turbo Response

TRANSIENT TURBOCHARGER OPERATION

TRANSIENT TURBOCHARGER OPERATION 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 360 400 440 480 520 560
120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 360 400 440 480 520 560 600
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
360
400
440
480
520
560
600

Cycle Time (s)

40000 20000 0 360 400 440 480 520 560 600 Cycle Time (s) 999 Detroit Diesel

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

40000 20000 0 360 400 440 480 520 560 600 Cycle Time (s) 999 Detroit Diesel

Turbochargers in Emissions Perspective

0.600.60 1988 Free Floating 2002 VGT 0.250.25 1991 0.100.10 1998 1994 0.050.05 Wastegated 20072007 VGTVGT
0.600.60
1988
Free Floating
2002
VGT
0.250.25
1991
0.100.10
1998
1994
0.050.05
Wastegated
20072007
VGTVGT ++ ??
11
22
2.52.5
33
44
55
66
g/hp-hPM
PM g/hp-h
++ ?? 11 22 2.52.5 33 44 55 66 g/hp-hPM PM g/hp-h 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation.

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

NoNo xx g/hpg/hp--hh

33 44 55 66 g/hp-hPM PM g/hp-h 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. No No

Electrical Turbo Assist

Photo/Description of Prototype
Photo/Description of Prototype

Externally drive turbocharger during transient

Improve emission & performance at cost of BSFC

Potentially Use Motor for Steady State BSFC Improvement.

ORNL - 1994 Sketch

Use Motor for Steady State BSFC Improvement. ORNL - 1994 Sketch 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Technical Approach - Virtual Lab

Baseline Engine

Evaluate Concept with Electrically Assisted Turbo

Engine Evaluate Concept with Electrically Assisted Turbo Experience plays a big role Design Recommendations NO Meet

Experience plays a big role

Electrically Assisted Turbo Experience plays a big role Design Recommendations NO Meet Targets? YES Evaluate
Electrically Assisted Turbo Experience plays a big role Design Recommendations NO Meet Targets? YES Evaluate
Electrically Assisted Turbo Experience plays a big role Design Recommendations NO Meet Targets? YES Evaluate

Design Recommendations

Turbo Experience plays a big role Design Recommendations NO Meet Targets? YES Evaluate Virtual Engine Build

NO

Meet Targets?
Meet
Targets?
plays a big role Design Recommendations NO Meet Targets? YES Evaluate Virtual Engine Build Hardware 999
plays a big role Design Recommendations NO Meet Targets? YES Evaluate Virtual Engine Build Hardware 999

YES

Evaluate Virtual Engine

Build Hardware

NO Meet Targets? YES Evaluate Virtual Engine Build Hardware 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

NO Meet Targets? YES Evaluate Virtual Engine Build Hardware 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Baseline Engine During Transient Run

Turbo Speed vs. Time Simulation Data Simulation within 1% of Testing Data Time [s]
Turbo Speed vs. Time Simulation Data Simulation within 1% of Testing Data Time [s]
Turbo Speed vs. Time Simulation Data Simulation within 1% of Testing Data
Turbo Speed vs. Time
Simulation
Data
Simulation within 1% of Testing
Data

Time [s]

Simulation Data Simulation within 1% of Testing Data Time [s] 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Simulation Data Simulation within 1% of Testing Data Time [s] 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

Simulated Baseline Transient Turbocharger Operation

Objective:

up to 50% reduction in turbo spool-up time

What is the Motor Requirement?

in turbo spool-up time • What is the Motor Requirement? 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Baseline Engine

14 120000 12 100000 10 80000 8 60000 6 40000 4 20000 2 0 0
14
120000
12
100000
10
80000
8
60000
6
40000
4
20000
2
0
0
Turbo Net Power (KW)
Turbo Speed (RPM)

01234

Elasped Time (SEC)

10 80000 8 60000 6 40000 4 20000 2 0 0 Turbo Net Power (KW) Turbo

Ramp Acceleration Time for Two Typical Motors

Ramp Acceleration Time for Two Typical Motors 3.5 CONSTANT TORQUE 3.0 CONSTANT POWER 2.5 2.0 1.5
3.5 CONSTANT TORQUE 3.0 CONSTANT POWER 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 5 10
3.5
CONSTANT TORQUE
3.0
CONSTANT POWER
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
5
10
15
Acceleration Time (s)

Motor Shaft Power (kw)

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

0.0 0 5 10 15 Acceleration Time (s) Motor Shaft Power (kw) 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation.

Technology Comparisons Using Virtual Lab

1800 RPM Load-Acceptance Test

Engine Data 10 HP 15 HP 20 HP
Engine Data
10
HP
15
HP
20
HP

01234

Elasped Time (s)

Data 10 HP 15 HP 20 HP 01234 Elasped Time (s) 10 HP Power Assist Gives

10 HP Power Assist Gives 17% Reduction of Response

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Elasped Time (s) 10 HP Power Assist Gives 17% Reduction of Response 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation.

Electric Motor Design Goals : 10hp constant 20k-100k rpm

Motor/alternator options considered included

Permanent magnet vs switched reluctance

Axial gap vs radial gap

Permanent magnet, radial gap, two-pole design selected, 1997.

High power density and efficiency

Low polar moment of inertia

Shaft diameter can be larger

Facilitates design for high speed

Disadvantage is larger stator diameter

design for high speed – Disadvantage is larger stator diameter 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

design for high speed – Disadvantage is larger stator diameter 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights

Electric motor major components

Electric motor major components 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Electric motor major components 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Electric motor major components 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Preliminary motor performance results

Preliminary motor performance results 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Radial-Gap PM Turbomotor Power
Preliminary motor performance results 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Radial-Gap PM Turbomotor Power

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Radial-Gap PM Turbomotor Power Test Data

9 8 7 6 5 low high 4 3 2 1 0 0 10000 20000
9
8
7
6
5
low
high
4
3
2
1
0
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
Input Power, kw

Speed,rpm

9 8 7 6 5 low high 4 3 2 1 0 0 10000 20000 30000

Concluding Remarks

Electric Assisted Turbo is One of Promising Technologies to Achieve Fast Response.

Motor & sensorless controller conceived, designed and developed.

Demonstration hardware has been built and early validation achieved.

Design enhancements have been identified which should lead to a more robust design.

have been identified which should lead to a more robust design. 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

have been identified which should lead to a more robust design. 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All

Acknowledgements

ORNL additional team members - Norberto Domingo, Leon Tolbert, Wayland Blake, Bill Allington, Gui-Jia Su

Detroit Diesel Corporation additional team members - Tim Prochnau, Craig Savonen, Nabil Hakim

Sponsor - DOE/NE, Dr. Bill VanDyke

Craig Savonen, Nabil Hakim • Sponsor - DOE/NE, Dr. Bill VanDyke 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All

999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Craig Savonen, Nabil Hakim • Sponsor - DOE/NE, Dr. Bill VanDyke 999 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All