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# Are you smarter than a fifth grader?

1. The ratio of children to pet dogs in Brians neighborhood is 4:1. There are 11 dogs in the neighborhood; how many children live there?
44 children

2. Deana packages tiles in a factory. Tiles are packed 8 per package, and shipped in boxes containing 12 packages per box. There are 100 tiles at her station. Can she fill a shipping box?
Yes, with 4 left over.

Back to Basics
Presented by Mrs. Phyllis Prestamo Supervisor of Applied Sciences Roxbury Public Schools

## New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards - 2004

4.1 Number and Numerical Operations 4.2 Geometry & Measurement 4.3 Patterns & Algebra 4.4 Data Analysis, Probability, & Discrete Math 4.5 Mathematical Processes

## New Standards due out January 2010 February

NJ is participating along with 48 other states/territories in drafting a Common Core of K-12 Math Standards

Fundamental Premise
All students must have a solid grounding in mathematics to function effectively in todays world.
from Memo dated 7/10/09 from Willa Spicer, Deputy Commissioner & Sandra M. Alberti, Director, Office of Math and Science Education

Areas of Agreement:
Automatic recall of basic facts: Computational fluency in whole number arithmetic is vital. Computational fluency requires automatic recall of addition and multiplication facts from 0-12 and an understanding of the underlying mathematical ideas. Calculators: Calculators can have a useful role even in the lower grades, but must be used judiciously so as not to impede the acquisition of fluency with basic number facts and computational procedures. Learning Algorithms: Students should be able to fluently and accurately use basic algorithms to add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers. Fractions: Understanding the number meaning of fraction is critical. Teaching Mathematics in real-world contexts: Applied problems can motivate and introduce mathematical ideas.
from Memo dated 7/10/09 from Willa Spicer, Deputy Commissioner & Sandra M. Alberti, Director, Office of Math and Science Education

Its a Fact
Permanent learning of basic facts is stored in long term memory and can be later retrieved quickly when needed without much thought. Students who automatically know their basic facts are better able to master more complex operations and are better equipped to tackle math applications in all subjects. Research has shown (D. Klein, 2005) that progress in Mathematics in students who do not know their basic number facts often grinds to a halt by the end of elementary school. Youngsters who have not mastered whole number arithmetic by the end of 4th grade are at risk of later becoming remedial students in mathematics. (T. Loveless 2003) All children are able to master the basic facts through drill once they have constructed a strategy for a particular set of facts. Mastering of the basic facts requires frequent rehearsal and practice and should occur on a daily basis.

The Goal
The goal for mastery of the basic facts is automaticity. A student is considered to have achieved automaticity when he or she can give an answer to a basic fact in less than 3 seconds without using finger counting.

Building Understanding
Practice activities developed around how the brain makes and stores longterm memories should precede drill and should be designed to build students conceptual understanding.

Teaching Sequence
Mathematics is a discipline of connected ideas. Knowledge of a single concept or skill is often the foundation for many aspects within the discipline. New concepts cannot be formed if the prerequisite concepts and skills are not well established. Curriculum is organized into a careful sequence of clustered strategies.

## Addition & Subtraction Facts to 18

1st quarter - Count on 1, 2, 3 addition 2nd quarter - Count back 0, 1 subtraction 3rd quarter - Doubles/doubles +1, +2, +3 addition 3rd quarter - Count back 0, 1, 2 subtraction Make a 10

## Addition & Subtraction Facts to 18

Review count on 1, 2, 3 addition Review doubles/doubles +1, 2, 3 addition Review count back 1, 2, 3 subtraction Review make 10 Fact Families Skip counting x2, x5, x10

## Multiplication 0-10 & Division 1-10

Doubling = x2 1st quarter x0, x1, x2, x5 2nd quarter x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 and 1, 2, 5 3rd quarter x0-10 and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 End of year Multiplication 0-10 & division 1-10

## Multiplication 0-12 & Division 1-12

Review Multiplication 0-10 & division 1-10 2nd quarter x11 & 11 3rd quarter x12 & 12 End of Year - Multiplication 0-12 & division 1-12

## Multiplication 0-12 & Division 0-12

Review all facts 0-12

X
0

0
0

1
0

2
0

3
0

4
0

5
0

6
0

7
0

8
0

9
0

## TEN 1 FACTS 0 1 2 3 TO 4 5 MEMORIZE 6 7 8 9

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81

## 4 Stages of Teaching & Learning

Example:
Use tens multiplication strategy for the fives facts

## Introduce the strategy

Hands on activities - manipulatives are used to model a strategy

4 x 10 = 40 10 x 4 = 40

4x5= 5x4=

I know ten fours are forty, so five fours must be half of that--twenty.

## Reinforce the strategy

These activities are designed to make links between the concrete/pictorial and symbolic representations.

8 x 10 = _____ 80

## Practice the facts

At this stage students should use mental computation only and fast recall is stressed.

10 35 30

45 15 35

25 45 15

20 25 40

The player rolls a four and says four tens are forty, so four fives are twenty and covers the twenty.

## Extend the strategy

Once mastered, the strategies and skills can be applied to new contexts and new situations. Students are encouraged to go beyond.

## 90 10 x 18 = ______ 180 so 5 x 18 = _______

130 260 so 5 x 26 = _______ 10 x 26 = ______ 220 so 5 x 22 = _______ 110 10 x 22 = ______ 150 so 5 x 15 = _______ 75 10 x 15 = ______
Later students will then vary this strategy by halving and doubling other factors: e.g. 14 x 35 has the same answer as 7 x 70 which is much easier to calculate mentally.

So
What can I do to help my child?

Play Games

Use Art

100s Chart
x 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11
21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91

12
22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92

13
23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93

14
24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94

15
25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95

16
26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96

17
27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97

18
28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98

19
29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99

20
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
100

100s Chart
x 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11
21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91

12
22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92

13
23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93

14
24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94

15
25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95

16
26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96

17
27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97

18
28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98

19
29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99

20
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
100

100s Chart
x 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11
21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91

12
22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92

13
23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93

14
24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94

15
25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95

16
26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96

17
27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97

18
28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98

19
29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99

20
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
100

100s Chart
x 9 & x 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11
21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91

12
22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92

13
23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93

14
24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94

15
25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95

16
26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96

17
27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97

18
28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98

19
29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99

20
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
100

Lets Explore

References
Adding It Up: Helping children learn mathematics, National Research Council, 2001 Book on the web: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9822&page=R1 Math Fluency: Scholastic Research Foundation Paper www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=324&print=1 Trends in Math Achievement: The Importance of Basic Skills Tom Loveless, Brown Center on Educational Policy, The Brookings Institute www.brookings.edu/speeches/2003/0206education_loveless.aspx Bloom, B. (1986, Feb.) Automaticity: the hands and feet of genius. Educational Leadership, 43 (5), 70-77. Burnett, James (2008) Developing the Essential Strategies for Computation. Origo Education. www.origomath.com Klein, D. (2005). The state of math standards. Thomas B. Fordham Foundation Washington, DC www.edexcellence.net