Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

Class-XII Biomolecules

Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 1




Lifeless substances, present in cells of living bodies in a very complex but highly organized
form, are known as Biomolecules. e.g. Carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins,
hormones, nucleic acids and ATP.
Living organism organs Tissues Cells Organelles Biomlecules
Biochemical reactions take place in dilute solutions at P
H
=7 and at body temperature ( 37
0
C ) and 1atm.
Endergonic Reactions whose AG > 0 Exergonic Reactions whose AG < 0
Carbohydrates
The carbohydrates may be defined as optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or
the compounds which produce such units on hydrolysis
Classification of Carbohydrates
[1] Monosaccharide: A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolysed further to give simpler unit
of polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone is called a monosaccharide. Examples are glucose,
fructose, ribose, etc.
[2]Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates that yield two to ten monosaccharide units, on hydrolysis,
arecalled oligosaccharides.
They are further classified as disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, etc., depending
upon the number of monosaccharide, they provide on hydrolysis. e.g. Sucrose(Disaccharide)
on hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose whereas maltose(Disaccharide)
gives two molecules of glucose only.
[3]Polysaccharides :- Carbohydrates which yield a large number of monosaccharide units on
hydrolysis are called polysaccharides. e.g. starch
[4] Reducing sugar:- All those carbohydrates which reduce Fehling's solution and Tollens'
reagent are referred to as Reducing sugars. All monosaccharides whether aldose or ketose
are reducing sugars. On the other hand, sugars in which, the reducing groups of
monosaccharides i.e., aldehydic or ketonic groups are free, are called reducing sugars.
e.g. maltose and lactose ( Although these are disaccharides )
[5] Non-reducing sugar: Carbohydrates in which aldehydic or ketonic groups are bonded, can
not reduce Fehling's solution and Tollens' reagent, are known as non-reducing sugar. e.g.
sucrose..( disaccharides) and all poly saccharides.
[6] Sugars: - These are crystalline substances which are sweet and water soluble. e.g.
monosaccharides and oligosaccharides i.e. glucose, fructose and cane sugar.
[7] Non- sugars: - These are amorphous substances which are tasteless and water insoluble.
e.g. Polysaccharides i.e. starch,cellulose, etc.
Carbon atoms General term Aldehyde Ketone
3 Triose Aldotriose Ketotriose
4 Tetrose Aldotetrose Ketotetrose
5 Pentose Aldopentose Ketopentose
6 Hexose (Glucose ) Aldohexose ( Fructose) Ketohexose
7 Heptose Aldoheptose Ketoheptose
Preparation of Glucose
[1] From sucrose (Cane sugar): If sucrose is boiled with dilute HCl or H
2
SO
4
in alcoholic solution,
glucose and fructose are obtained in equal amounts.
C
12
H
22
O
11
+
O H
2
H
+
C
6
H
12
O
6
Sucrose
Glucose Fructose
C
6
H
12
O
6
+
[2] From starch: Commercially glucose is obtained by hydrolysis of starch by boiling it with
dilute H
2
SO
4
at 393 K under pressure.
(C
6
H
10
O
5
)n
n H
2
O
n C
6
H
12
O
6
Starch / Cellulose
393 K , 2 - 3 atm.
+
H
+
Glucose


Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 2
Structure of Glucose
[1] Its molecular formula was found to be C
6
H
12
O
6
.
[2] On prolonged heating with HI, it forms n-hexane, suggesting that all the six carbon atoms
are linked in a straight chain
HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
CHO
HI
C H
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
A
n-Hexane
Glucose
[3] Glucose reacts with hydroxylamine to form an oxime and adds a molecule of hydrogen
cyanide to give cyanohydrins. These reactions confirm the presence of a carbonyl group
(>C = 0) in glucose.
HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
C
H
O HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
CH N OH
NH
2
OH
Glucose
Oxime
HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
C
O
H
HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
CH CN
O H
Glucose
HCN
Cyanohydrin
[4] Glucose gets oxidised to six carbon carboxylic acid (gluconic acid) on reaction with a
mild oxidising agent like bromine water. This indicates that the carbonyl group is
present as an aldehydic group.
HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
CHO
Glucose
HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
COOH
Br
2
Water
Gluconic acid
[5] Acetylation of glucose with acetic anhydride gives glucose pentaacetate which confirms
the presence of five -OH groups.Since it exists as a stable compound, five -OH groups
pentaacetate should be attached to different carbon atoms.
HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
CHO
Glucose
Acetic anhydride
CH
2
CH
O
C
CH
3
O
O C
C H
3
O
CHO
4
Glucose pentaacetate [6]. On oxidation with nitric acid, glucose as well as gluconic acid
both yield a dicarboxylic acid, saccharic acid . This indicates
the presence of a primary alcoholic (-OH) group in glucose
HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
CHO HOH
2
C (CHOH)
4
COOH
HOOC (CHOH)
4
COOH
Oxidation Oxidation
Glucose
Saccharic acid Gluconic acid
[7] For assigning the configuration of monosaccharides, if -OH on
the lowest asymmetric carbon,is on the right side it is assigned
D-configuration. For this comparison, the structure is written in
a way that most oxidised carbon is at the top. ( if -OH group
attached to left side of last chiral carbon, L- configuration.) .
The dextrorotation of glucose is + 52.5
C
C
C
C
C
H
2
C
OH
O
H OH
O H H
H OH
H OH
H
D-(+)-Glucose
[8] Open chain structure of glucose could not explain the following :-
(a) Glucose does not give 2,4-DNP test, Schiff's test and it does not form the hydrogen
sulphite addition product with NaHSO
3
.
(b) The pentaacetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine indicating the absence
of free -CHO group.
(c) Glucose is found to exist in two different crystalline forms which are named as o - and
| -form.
C
C
C
C
C
H
2
C
OH
O
H OH
O H H
H OH
H OH
H C
C
C
C
C
H
2
C
OH
H OH
O H H
H OH
H
H
O
OH
C
C
C
C
C
H
2
C
OH
H OH
O H H
H OH
H
O H
O
H
o-D-(+)-Glucose
|-D-(+)-Glucose

Anomers:-
A pair of optical isomers which differ in
the configuration only around first
carbon are called anomers.
e.g. o and | form of glucose (anomers)
exist in equilibrium with open chain
structure.

Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 3
H
2
C
C
H
2
C
O
OH
OH
O H
OH
OH
H
H
H
D-( - )-Fructose
Fructose
Fructose has the molecular formula C
6
H
12
O
6
and contains
a ketonic functional group at carbon number 2 and six carbons in straight
chain as in the case of glucose. It belongs to D-series and is a laevorotatory
compound. It is appropriately written as D-(-)-fructose.
The laevorotation of fructose is -92.4.
Haworth Projection Formulae
According to Haworth, carbohydrates exist
in a six member ring called Pyranose structure
(derived from pyran) Or exist as five member
ring known as Furanose (derived from furan).
D
-
(

)
-
F
r
u
c
t
o
s
e
O
O
[ Pyran ]
[ Furan ]
C
C
C
C
C
H
2
C
OH
H OH
O H H
H OH
H
H
O
OH
| o -D- (+)-Glucopyranose ]
4
5
O
3 2
1
H
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
OH
OH
H
2
C
6
OH
| | -D- (+)-Glucopyranose ]
C
C
C
C
C
H
2
C
OH
H OH
O H H
H OH
H
O H
O
H
4
5
O
3 2
1
OH
H
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
OH
H
2
C
6
OH
Fischer projection
Haworth Projection
C
C
C
C
H
2
C
OH
O H H
H OH
H
HOH
2
C
O
OH
Fischer projection Haworth Projection
C
C
C
C
H
2
C
OH
O H H
H OH
H
O H
O
CH
2
OH
| o -D- ()-Fructofuranose ]
| | -D- ()-Fructofuranose ]
O
5 2
4 3
OH
OH
OH
H
H
H
H
2
C
6
OH
CH
2
1
OH
O
5 2
4 3
CH
2
1
O H
OH
H
H
H
H
2
C
6
OH
OH
OH
Invert sugar :-
Sucrose is dextrorotatory but after hydrolysis gives dextrorotatory glucose and laevorotatory
fructose. Since the laevorotation of fructose (-92.4) is more than dextrorotation of glucose
(+ 52.5), the mixture is laevorotatory. Thus, hydrolysis of sucrose brings about a change in
the sign of rotation, from dextro (+) to laevo (-) and the product is named as invert sugar.
Sucrose which on hydrolysis gives equimolar mixture of D-(+)-glucose and D-(-) fructose.
C
12
H
22
O
11
+
O H
2
H
+
C
6
H
12
O
6
Sucrose
Glucose Fructose
C
6
H
12
O
6
+
Glycosidic linkage :-
A linkage between two monosaccharide units through oxygen atom is called glycosidic linkage.
In sucrose glycosidic linkage between C
1
of
o-glucose and C
2
of |-fructose. Since the
reducing groups of glucose and fructose are
involved in glycosidic bond formation,
sucrose is a non reducing sugar.
O
5
2
4 3
OH
OH H
H
H
CH
2
OH
6
CH
2
O H
4
5
O
3 2
1
H
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
OH
H
2
C
6
OH
O
[ Sucrose ]
Gly cosidic linkage
o-D-(+)-Glucose
|-D-()-Fructose
[ Maltose ]
4
5
O
3 2
1
H
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
OH
H
2
C
6
OH
4
5
O
3 2
1
H
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
OH
H
2
C
6
OH
O
o-D-(+)-Glucose o-D-(+)-Glucose
Gl ycosi di c l i nkage
Maltose is composed of two o-D-glucose units
in which C
1
of one glucose (I) is linked to C
4
of another glucose unit (II). The free aldehyde
group can be produced at C
1
of second
glucose in solution and it shows reducing
properties so it is a reducing sugar.
[ Sucrose ]
[ Maltose ]
Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 4
4
5
O
3 2
1 H
H
OH
H
H
OH
OH
H
H
2
C
6
OH
O
4
5
O
3 2
1
OH
H
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
H
2
C
6
OH
[ Lactose ]
|-D-(+)-Glucose
|-D-(+)-Galactose
Gly cosidic linkage
Lactose is commonly known as milk sugar
since this disaccharide is found in milk.
It is composed of |-D-galactose and |-D-glucose.
The linkage is between C
1
of galactose and
C
4
of glucose. Hence it is also a reducing sugar.
[ Lactose ]
Starch :- Starch is the storage polysaccharide of plants. High content of starch is found in
cereals, roots, tubers and some vegetables. It is a polymer of o-glucose and consists of two
components-Amylose and amylopectin
Amylose :- Amylose is water soluble component which constitutes about 15-20% of starch.
Chemically amylose is a long unbranched chain with 200-1000 o-D-(+)-glucose units held
by C
1
- C
4
glycosidic linkage.
Amylopectin :- Amylopectin is insoluble in water and constitutes about 80-85% of starch. It is
a branched chain polymer of o-D-glucose units in which chain is formed by C
1
-C
4
glycosidic
linkage whereas branching occurs by C
1
-C
6
glycosidic linkage.
Glycogen:- The carbohydrates are stored in animal body as glycogen. It is also known as animal
starch because its structure is similar to amylopectin and is rather more highly
branched. It is present in liver, muscles and brain. When the body needs glucose,
enzymes break the glycogen down to glucose.
Cellulose: Cellulose occurs exclusively in plants and it is the most abundant organic substance
in plant kingdom. It is a predominant constituent of cell wall of plant cells. Cellulose
is a straight chain polysaccharide composed only of |-D-glucose units which are
joined by glycosidic linkage between C
1
of one glucose unit and C
4
of the next
glucose unit.
Importance of Carbohydrates
[1] Carbohydrates are used as storage molecules as starch in plants and glycogen in animals.
[2] Cell wall of bacteria and plants is made up of cellulose.
[3] Carbohydrates are found in biosystem in combination with many proteins and lipids.
Glucose or sucrose are soluble in water but cyclohexane or benzene are insoluble in water. Explain.
Glucose contains five and sucrose contains eight -OH groups. These -OH groups form
H-bonds with water.Due to this extensive inter molecular H-bonding
Amino acids
Amino acids contain amino (-NH
2
) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups.
Depending upon the relative position of amino group with respect to
carboxyl group, the amino acids can be classified as o, |, , o and so on.
[1] Amino acids are usually colourless, crystalline solids.
[2] These are water-soluble, high melting solids { due to the presence of both acidic (carboxyl
group) and basic (amino group) groups in the same molecule.}
[3] Except glycine, all other naturally occurring o-amino acids are optically active, since the
o-carbon atom is asymmetric.
[4] Most naturally occurring amino acids have L-configuration.
[5] Amino acids show amphoteric behaviour as they react both with acids and bases.
[6] The amino acids, which can be synthesised in the body, are known as non-essential amino
acids.e.g. Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic acid
[7] The amino acids, which cannot be synthesised in the body and must be obtained through
diet, are known as essential amino acids. e.g. Valine, Leucine, Lysine,Phenylalanine.
[8] o-amino acids are obtained on hydrolysis of proteins.
[9] Tyrosine obtained from cheese and glycine is so named since it has sweet taste
[10] In aqueous solution, the carboxyl group can
lose a proton and amino group can accept a
proton, giving rise to a dipolar ion
known as zwitter ion.
N H
2
H
COOH
R
|o amino acid ]
R CH C
O
O H
NH
2
R CH C
O
O
NH
3
+

[ Zwitter ion ]

Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 5
Peptides
[1] Peptides are the compounds formed when two or more molecules of o -amino acids
combine with the loss of molecules of water and they link with the help of bonds called
peptide bonds (-CO-NH-)
[2] Chemically, peptide linkage is an amide formed between -COOH group and -NH
2
group
[3] Actually, there is a loss of OH part from carboxyl group and H atom from amino group
and a molecule of water thus eliminated.
[4] There is a free amino group at one end of the molecule known as N-terminal and a free
carboxyl group at other end called C-terminal end.
[5] By convention, a peptide is named starting from N-terminal amino acid to be followed by
other amino acids and ending with C-terminal amino acid.
[6] While writing the structure of a peptide or polypeptide , the N-terminal end is written on
the left while C-terminal end on the right.
N H
2
CH
2
C
O
OH NH CH
CH
3
COOH H
+
N H
2
CH
2
C
O
NH CH
CH
3
COOH
Glycine
Alanine
Glycylalanine [ Gly-Ala ]
Peptide linkage
Depending upon the number of amino acids present, the peptides have been classified as:
[a] Oligopeptide: contain 2 to 9 amino acids
[b] Polypeptide : Contain 10 to 100 amino acids.
[c] Proteins : Contain more than 100 amino acids.
But insulin, which is a protein, contains 51 amino acids.
Structure of protein:
Primary structure: The sequence of amino acids in a protein (poly peptide chain) is known as
the primary structure of proteins. The peptide bonds form the back bone and the side chain
of amino acids project out side the peptide back bone. Any change in the sequence of amino
acids creates a different protein.
Secondary structure: This structure of protein refers to the shape in which a long polypeptide
chain can exist. There are two types of secondary structures:-
[1] oHelix in which a polypeptide chain forms all possible hydrogen bonds by twisting into
a right handed screw (helix) with the -NH group of each amino acid residue hydrogen
bonded to the C= O of an adjacent turn of the helix.
[2] | Pleated sheet structure in which all peptide chains are stretched out to nearly
maximum extension and then laid side by side which are held together by intermolecular
hydrogen bonds. The structure resembles the pleated folds of drapery and therefore is
known as |-pleated sheet.
Tertiary structure : The tertiary structure of proteins represents overall folding of the
polypeptide chains i.e., further folding of the secondary structure.
The 2 and 3 structures of proteins are stabilized by hydrogen bonds, disulphide linkages,
van der Waals and electrostatic forces of attraction.
Quaternary structure : Some of the proteins are composed of two or more polypeptide chains
referred to as sub-units. The spatial arrangement of these subunits with respect to each other
is known as quaternary structure.
Types of protein:
On the basis of molecular shape proteins are classified as:-
Fibrous proteins When the polypeptide chains run parallel and are held together by hydrogen
and disulphide bonds, then fibre- like structure are formed. Such proteins are generally
insoluble in water. Some common examples are keratin (present in hair, wool, and silk) and
myosin (present in muscles), etc.
Globular proteins This structure results when the chains of polypeptides coil around to give a
spherical shape. These are usually soluble in water.
Insulin and albumins are the common examples of globular proteins.
Denaturation of Proteins:
When a protein in its native form, is subjected to physical change like change in temperature
or chemical change like change in p
H
, the hydrogen bonds are disturbed. Due to this, globules
unfold and helix gets uncoiled and protein loses its biological activity. This is called
denaturation of protein. During denaturation 2 and 3 structures are destroyed
but 1 structure remains intact.

Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 6
[1] The coagulation of egg on boiling: Here tertiary structure of protein is changed and forms a
disorganized polypeptide chain.
[2] Curdling of milk which is caused due to the formation of lactic acid by the bacteria present in milk.
The melting points and solubility in water of amino acids are generally higher than those of the
corresponding halo acids. Explain.
The amino acids exit as zwitter ions. Due to this dipolar salt like character they have strong
dipole-dipole attraction or electrostatic attraction. Therefore, their melting points are higher
than halo acids which do not have salt like character. Further, due to salt like character, they
interact strongly with H
2
O. As a result, solubility in water of amino acids is higher than that
of the corresponding halo acids which do not have salt like character.
Where does the water present in the egg go after boiling the egg?
When the egg is boiled, the proteins undergo denaturation and the water present in the egg
gets absorbed/adsorbed in the denatured proteins through H- bonding.
Enzyme Source Enzymatic reaction
Invertase Yeast Sucrose Glucose and fructose
Zymase Yeast Glucose Ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
Diastase Malt Starch Maltose
Maltase Yeast Maltose Glucose
Urease Soyabean Urea Ammonia and carbon dioxide
Pepsin Stomach Proteins Amino acids
Enzymes: Biocatalysts are called
enzymes. Almost all the enzymes are
globular proteins.
Enzymes are very specific for a
particular reaction and for a particular
substrate.The enzymes which catalyse
the oxidation of one substrate with
simultaneous reduction of another
substrate are named as oxidoreductase
enzymes.Enzymes are needed only in
small quantities for the progress of a
reaction. Enzymes are said to reduce
the magnitude of activation energy.
Step 1: Binding of enzyme to substrate to form an activated complex. E + S ES*
Step 2: Decomposition of the activated complex to form product. ES* E + P
Vitamins: [ vital + amine ]
Organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts to perform specific biological
functions for normal maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism are called
vitamins. Vitamins are designated by alphabets A, B, C, D, etc. Some of them are further
named as sub-groups e.g. B
1
, B
2
, B
6
, B
12
, etc. Excess of vitamins is harmful
Classification of Vitamins:
(i) Fat soluble vitamins: Vitamins which are soluble in fat and oils but insoluble in water . These
are vitamins A, D, E and K. They are stored in liver and adipose (fat storing) tissues.
(ii) Water soluble vitamins: 'B' group vitamins and vitamin 'C' are soluble in water so they are
grouped together. Water soluble vitamins must be supplied regularly in diet because
they are readily excreted in urine and cannot be stored (except vitamin B
12
) in our body.
Vitamins
Name of
Sources Deficiency diseases
Vitamin A
Fish liver oil, carrots, butter and milk Xerophthalmia (hardening of cornea of eye), Night blindness
Vitamin - B
1
(Thiamine)
Yeast,milk,greenvegetables and cereals Beri beri (loss of appetite, retarded growth)
Vitamin B
2

(Riboflavin)
Milk, egg white, liver, kidney
Cheilosis (fissuring at corners of mouth and lips),
digestive disorders and burning sensation of the skin
Vitamin B
6

(Pyridoxine)
Yeast, milk, egg yolk, cereals and grams Convulsions
Vitamin B
12
Meat, fish, egg and curd Pernicious anaemia (RBC deficient in haemoglobin)
Vitamin C
(Ascorbic acid)
Citrus fruits, amla and green leafy
vegetables
Scurvy (bleeding gums)
The enzyme-catalysed reactions proceed in two steps.
Vitamin-D Exposure to sunlight, fish and egg yolk
Rickets (bone deformities in children) and osteomalacia
(soft bones and joint pain in adults)
Vitamin- E
Vegetable oils like wheat germ oil,
sunflower oil, etc
Increased fragility of RBCs and muscular Weakness
Vitamin- K Green leafy vegetables
Green leafy vegetables
Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 7
Nucleic acids: Nucleic acids are long chain polymers of nucleotides, so they are also called
polynucleotide.Nucleic acids are biomolecules which are found in the nuclei of all living cells in
form of nucleoproteins or chromosomes ( protein containing nucleic acids as the prosthetic group).
These are mainly of two types, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Nucleoside = Base + Pentose sugar
Base is attached to 1' position of sugar
Nucleotides= Nucleoside + Phosphate = Base + Pentose sugar + Phosphate
Phosphate group is attached to 5' position of sugar moiety
Bases are Purine (Guanine -G, Adenine-A ) or
Pyrimidine ( Cytosine -C, Thymine - T, Uracil - U)
Sugar moiety is |-D-2-deoxyribose or |-D-ribose.
Nucleotides are joined together by phosphodiester
linkage between 5' and 3' carbon atoms of the pentose sugar
O
4 1
3 2
H
H
OH
OH
H
H
H
2
C
5
OH
OH
O
4 1
3 2
H
H
OH
H
H
H
H
2
C
5
OH
OH
|-D-ribose
|-D-2-deoxyribose
Simplified version of nucleic acid chain is:
Sugar
Base
Phosphate Sugar
Base
Phosphate Sugar
Base
n
Primary structure of nucleic acid: The sequence of nucleotides in the chain of a nucleic acid is called its
primary structure
Secondary structure of nucleic acid: In secondary structure of DNA Two nucleic acid chains are wound
about each other and held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases.
In secondary structure of RNA, helices are present which are only single stranded.
In DNA molecules, the sugar moiety is |-D-2-deoxyribose
DNA contains four bases viz. adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T).
The two strands in DNA are complementary to each other because the hydrogen bonds are formed
between specific pairs of bases. Adenine forms hydrogen bonds with thymine [ A=T ] whereas cytosine
forms hydrogen bonds with guanine [ C=G ]
In RNA molecules, the sugar moiety is |-D-ribose.
RNA contains four bases viz. adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and uracil (U).
RNA, helices are only single stranded. Sometimes they fold back on themselves to form a double helix
structure. RNA molecules are of three types and are named as messenger RNA (m-RNA), ribosomal RNA
(r-RNA) and transfer RNA (t-RNA). and they perform different functions
DNA Fingerprinting
A sequence of bases on DNA is also unique for a person and information regarding this is called DNA
fingerprinting. It is same for every cell and cannot be altered by any known treatment. DNA
fingerprinting is now used
(i) In forensic laboratories for identification of criminals.
(ii) To determine paternity of an individual.
(iii)To identify the dead bodies in any accident by comparing the DNA's of parents or children.
(iv) To identify racial groups to rewrite biological evolution.
Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids
[1] DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and regarded as the reserve of genetic information.
[2] DNA is responsible for maintaining the identity of different species of organisms over
millions of years.
[3] A DNA molecule is capable of self duplication during cell division and identical DNA
strands are transferred to daughter cells.
[4] The proteins are synthesised by various RNA molecules in the cell but the message for the
synthesis of a particular protein is present in DNA.
Why cannot vitamin C be stored in our body?
Because vitamin-C is water soluble,therefore,they are readily excreted in urine and cannot be stored in
our body.
What products would be formed when a nucleotide from DNA containing thymine is hydrolysed?
Besides thymine, the two products are |-D-2-deoxyribose and Phosphoric acid.
When RNA is hydrolysed, there is no relationship among the quantities of different bases obtained. What
does this fact suggest about the structure of RNA?
A DNA molecule has two strands in which the four complementary bases pair each other i.e.. (G,C) and
(A,T). Therefore when a DNA molecule is hydrolysed ,The molar amount of cytosine is always equal to
that of guanine and that of adenine is always equal to that of thymine.
Since in RNA there is no relationship between the quantities of four
bases (C,G,A and U ) obtained, therefore, the base-pairing principle is not followed. Therefore, unlike
DNA,RNA has a single strand.

Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 8





























Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 9





























Class-XII Biomolecules
Jayanta kumar sahu PGT : Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Page - 10