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CANCER Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases.

Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. It is invasive, spreading directly to surrounding tissue as well as to new sites in the body. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. Incidence As of January 2012, it is estimated that there are 13.7 million cancer survivors in the United States. This represents approximately 4% of the population. 59% of survivors are currently 65 years of age and older. Among todays survivors, the most common cancer sites represented include female breast (22%), prostate (20%), colorectal (9%) and gynecologic (8%). Of adults diagnosed with cancer today, 65% are expected to survive 5 years after diagnosis. Among children diagnosed with cancer, 77% can expect to survive at least 10 years after their diagnosis. Approximately 15% of the 13.7 million estimated cancer survivors were diagnosed 20 or more years ago. For Women: Breast cancer is the leading cancer for women in the US. Lung cancer is the second most common form of cancer and colorectal cancer is third among white women. The number 2 and 3 cancers are reversed among black and Asian/Pacific Island women. For all women, the fourth leading cancer is cancer of the uterus. For Men: Prostate cancer is the leading cancer for men in the US. It is followed by lung cancer and then colorectal cancer. The fourth most common cancer is race-dependent. It is bladder cancer for white men, cancer of the mouth and throat for black men; and stomach cancer for Asian/Pacific Island men. For Children: The most common malignancies in childhood are leukemia, followed by brain tumors, and lymphoma. RESOURCES: acspc-033876.pdf Medical-Surgical Nursing: Concepts and Clinical Application by Udan (2009) Primary Prevention 1. Dietary Recommendations against Cancer by American Cancer Society Avoid obesity Cut down on total fat intake Eat more fiber foods like raw fruits and vegetables, whole grain cereals Include foods rich in vitamin A and C in daily diet Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet like broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts Be moderate in consumption of alcoholic beverages Be moderate in the consumption of salt-cured, smoked-cured and nitrite-cured foods High intake of fats may be associated with breast, colon, and prostate cancer Low intake of fruits, vegetables, complex carbohydrates and fibers is linked with cancer of the colon, larynx, esophagus, prostate, bladder, stomach and lungs Salt-cured foods are associated with cancer of the esophagus and stomach

Excess alcohol intake is associated with cancer of the mouth, larynx, esophagus and liver when combined with smoking 2. Limiting exposure to sun and other sources of ultraviolet radiation The American Cancer Societys awareness campaign for skin cancer prevention promotes the slogan Slip! Slop! Slap! and Wrap which is a catch phrase that reminds people of the 4 key ways they can protect themselves from UV radiation: Slip on a shirt Slop on sunscreen Slap on a hat Wrap on sunglasses to protect your eyes and sensitive skin around them The Society also recommends these sun safe behaviors for all people every day: Limit the amount of time you spend in direct sun, especially when the suns rays are most intense, generally from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Wear protective clothing when youre out in the sun, includi ng long sleeves; sunglasses; and a hat that shades your face, neck, and ears. Wear sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher on all skin that isnt covered. Protect your skin even on cool or cloudy days. 3. Become Physical Active Adults: should get at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity activity each week (or a combination of these), preferably spread throughout the week. Children and teens: Get at least 1 hour of moderate or vigorous intensity activity each day, with vigorous activity on at least 3 days each week. Limit sedentary behavior such as sitting, lying down, watching TV, and other forms of screen-based entertainment. Doing some physical activity above usual activities, no matter what ones level of activity, can have many health benefits. 4. Avoid Tobacco Smoking Using any type of tobacco puts on a collision course with cancer. Smoking has been linked to various types of cancer including cancer of the lung, bladder, cervix and kidney. And chewing tobacco has been linked to cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Even if a person doesnt use tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke might increase the risk of lung cancer. Avoiding tobacco or deciding to stop using it is one of the most important health decisions a person can make. It's also an important part of cancer prevention. 5. Get immunized Cancer prevention includes protection from certain viral infections Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for certain high-risk adults such as adults who are sexually active but not in a mutually monogamous relationship, people with sexually transmitted infections, intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men, and health care or public safety workers who might be exposed to infected blood or body fluids. Human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that can lead to cervical and other genital cancers as well as squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. The HPV vaccine is available to both men and women age 26 or younger who didn't have the vaccine as adolescents. 6. Avoid risky behaviors Another effective cancer prevention tactic is to avoid risky behaviors that can lead to infections that, in turn, might increase the risk of cancer. For example: Practice safe sex. Limit the number of sexual partners, and use a condom when having sex. The more sexual partners, the more likely to contract a sexually transmitted infection

such as HIV or HPV. People who have HIV or AIDS have a higher risk of cancer of the anus, liver and lung. HPV is most often associated with cervical cancer, but it might also increase the risk of cancer of the anus, penis, throat, vulva and vagina. Don't share needles. Sharing needles with an infected drug user can lead to HIV, as well as hepatitis B and hepatitis C which can increase the risk of liver cancer. 7. Get regular medical care Regular self-exams and screenings for various types of cancers such as cancer of the skin, colon, prostate, cervix and breast can increase your chances of discovering cancer early, when treatment is most likely to be successful. Summary of ACS Recommendations for early detection of Cancer in Asymptomatic People 1. Cancer-related check up Recommended every 3 years for people aged 20-40 years and every year for people age 40 and older 2. Breast Women who are 40 years and older should have an annual mammogram, an annual clinical breast exam (CBE) performed by a health care provider and should perform monthly breast self-examination (BSE) Women aged 20-39 should have CBE every three years and should perform monthly BSE 3. Colon and Rectum Men and women aged 50 years or older should follow one one of the following examination schedules: Fecal Occult Blood Tests every year Sigmoidoscopy every 5 years Colonoscopy every 10 years Double-contrast barium enema every 5 to 10 years Digital Rectal Exam done at the same time as sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy or double contrast barium enema 4. Prostate Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test and Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) annually from age 50 5. Uterus a. Cervix all women who are or have been sexually active or who are 40 and older should have an annual Pap test and pelvic examination after 3 or more consecutive satisfactory examinations with normal findings, the Pap test may be performed less frequently test for human papilloma virus (HPV) is recommended two vaccines (called Gardasil and Cervarix) are approved to prevent cervical cancer but they do not treat the disease the price of HPV vaccine does not come cheap either, ranging from P5,000 to P7,000 a shot in 2008. Three shots are required to get complete protection from HPV with the vaccine 1. Gardasil is approved for: Females ages 9-26 to protect against cervical cancer and to prevent genital warts Males ages 9 - 26 to prevent genital warts 2. Cervarix is approved for: Females age 10 - 26 to help protect against cervical cancer * Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series:

The vaccine is given in three shots over a 6-month period. (The second and third doses are given 2 and 6 months after the first dose.) * Girls and women ages 13 - 26: Those who have not received the HPV vaccine in the past should get a series of three vaccines. Those who have not completed the full vaccine series should catch up on missed doses. (Note: Some experts do not recommend that women between ages 19 and 26 receive catch-up doses of this vaccine. Talk with your provider if you are in this age group.) * Boys and men ages 9 - 26: May receive Gardasil to reduce the chance of becoming infected with genital and anal warts. The vaccine is not yet being recommended for all boys and men up to age 26. The vaccine can prevent genital warts in men and decrease the risk for cancer of the penis and anus. REMEMBER: Pregnant women should not receive this vaccine. However, there have been no problems found in women who received the vaccine during pregnancy, before they knew they were pregnant. b. Endometrium Women at high risk for cancer of the uterus should have a sample of endometrial tissue examined when menopause begins RESOURCES cancerprevention/acs-guidelines-on-nutrition-and-physical-activity-for-cancer-preventionguidelines Medical-Surgical Nursing: Concepts and Clinical Application by Udan (2009)