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DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

D ISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS TRANSFORMING YOUR NEEDS INTO SOLUTIONS
D ISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS TRANSFORMING YOUR NEEDS INTO SOLUTIONS
D ISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS TRANSFORMING YOUR NEEDS INTO SOLUTIONS

TRANSFORMING YOUR NEEDS INTO SOLUTIONS

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Presentation of the Pauwels Group

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Construction of a distribution transformer

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the ferromagnetic core6

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the windings10

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the active part12

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the tank14

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finishing operations and testing18

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A comprehensive product range

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Economic choice of transformers

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Transformers and the environment

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low-noise transformers25

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leakproof tanks and environmentally sound coolants26

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recyclable materials ecyclable materials

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radical exclusion of PCBs27

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electromagnetic compatibility27

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optimized use of raw materials27

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lower consumption of primary energy sources, due to the use of transformers with low losses27

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Design, specifications and standards

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Logistics

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Quality assurance

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Sales and customer service

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After-sales service

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Protection equipment

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Contacts

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CONTENTS

and customer service 32 After-sales service 33 Protection equipment 34 Contacts 35 C ONTENTS 3

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The Pauwels Group is one of the world’s leading transformer manufacturers. Group companies operate manufacturing plants and sales offices in three continents, with a worldwide network of sales agents and customers in over 135 countries.

network of sales agents and customers in over 135 countries. From its base in Mechelen, Belgium,
network of sales agents and customers in over 135 countries. From its base in Mechelen, Belgium,

From its base in Mechelen, Belgium, Pauwels International N.V. acts as the overall holding company, defining the Group’s corporate strategy and coordinating the marketing of its entire product range. The Pauwels Group is a full-line supplier, offering a wide range of transformers consisting of:

liquid-filled distribution transformers (15 kVA to 10,000 kVA/36 kV)offering a wide range of transformers consisting of: cast resin transformers (up to 10,000 kVA/36 kV)

cast resin transformers (up to 10,000 kVA/36 kV)distribution transformers (15 kVA to 10,000 kVA/36 kV) power transformers (up to 575 MVA/500 kV) auto-transformers

power transformers (up to 575 MVA/500 kV)kVA/36 kV) cast resin transformers (up to 10,000 kVA/36 kV) auto-transformers (up to 400 MVA/500 kV)

auto-transformers (up to 400 MVA/500 kV)10,000 kVA/36 kV) power transformers (up to 575 MVA/500 kV) HVDC station transformers (up to 315

HVDC station transformers (up to 315 MVA/500 kV DC)to 575 MVA/500 kV) auto-transformers (up to 400 MVA/500 kV) This brochure provides information about Pauwels’

This brochure provides information about Pauwels’ liquid-filled distribution transformers. Our distribution transformers are usually filled with mineral oil. As an alternative, silicone liquid or synthetic organic esters may be used as insulating medium and coolant.

organic esters may be used as insulating medium and coolant. P RESENTATION of the Pauwels Group

PRESENTATION

of the Pauwels Group

The Pauwels Group’s six manufacturing plants are located in

Belgium (Mechelen and Gent)Pauwels Group’s six manufacturing plants are located in Ireland (Cavan) the United States of America (Washington,

Ireland (Cavan)plants are located in Belgium (Mechelen and Gent) the United States of America (Washington, Missouri) Canada

the United States of America (Washington, Missouri)are located in Belgium (Mechelen and Gent) Ireland (Cavan) Canada (Winnipeg, Manitoba) Indonesia (Bogor, Java) In

Canada (Winnipeg, Manitoba)(Cavan) the United States of America (Washington, Missouri) Indonesia (Bogor, Java) In Saudi Arabia, distribution

Indonesia (Bogor, Java)America (Washington, Missouri) Canada (Winnipeg, Manitoba) In Saudi Arabia, distribution transformers and compact

In Saudi Arabia, distribution transformers and compact substations are built under license from Pauwels.

Pauwels International N.V. and its subsidiary companies employ a total of over 2,300 people, producing some 30,000 transformers each year with a total output of more than 35,000 MVA. Pauwels International has a consolidated annual turnover of some 350 million euros, over half of which represents exports from Europe. More than 500,000 Pauwels transformers have been produced since the company’s formation in 1947.

Pauwels Trafo Service S.A. (Charleroi, Belgium) provides transformer installation, repair and maintenance services.

transformer installation, repair and maintenance services. Main factory and headquarters of the Pauwels Group in

Main factory and headquarters of the Pauwels Group in Mechelen, Belgium (49,500 m 2 )

Pauwels Contracting N.V. (Mechelen, Belgium) special- izes in building conventional, mobile and modular substations, and its core activities also include transmission line projects.

Distribution transformers are manufactured in

Mechelen, Belgium (100 kVA to 10,000 kVA/36 kV)line projects. Distribution transformers are manufactured in Cavan, Ireland (15 kVA to 630 kVA/36 kV) W

Cavan, Ireland (15 kVA to 630 kVA/36 kV)in Mechelen, Belgium (100 kVA to 10,000 kVA/36 kV) W ashington, USA (45 kVA to 10,000

Washington, USA (45 kVA to 10,000 kVA/69 kV) ashington, USA (45 kVA to 10,000 kVA/69 kV)

Winding area in Pauwels Trafo Ireland

Ireland (15 kVA to 630 kVA/36 kV) W ashington, USA (45 kVA to 10,000 kVA/69 kV)

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The construction of a transformer comprises two active components: the ferromagnetic core and the windings.
The construction of a transformer comprises two
active components: the ferromagnetic core and the
windings. Within the transformer industry, the core
and windings together are normally referred to as the
“active part”. The passive part of a transformer is the
cooling system, consisting of the tank and
the cooling liquid (mineral oil, silicone liquid or
synthetic organic esters).

The reactive power dissipation can be lowered by limiting flux disturbances and minimizing air gaps in the joints between the core legs and the yokes. This is achieved by overlapping the core sheets while stack- ing them (see page 9 under “Cutting and stacking of the core sheets”).

of a distribution transformer
of a distribution transformer

The ferromagnetic core

CONSTRUCTION

Evolution of the quality of magnetic steel

The heart of the matter: the ferromagnetic core

The cut of the core sheets and the material of the ferromagnetic core are optimized according to the desired no-load characteristics and the specified noise level. Extensive rationalization of the shape and the clamping devices enables us to produce a core with minimum losses and dimensions. This methodology optimizes the consumption of both materials and energy, bringing benefits to the user, the environment and the manufacturer.

The core has to be constructed in such a way as to limit the energy losses caused by eddy currents and hysteresis to a minimum. This is achieved by the use of silicon steel, a special soft steel with a 3.5% silicon content, which is characterized by low hysteresis losses and high resistivity. The core consists of a series of laminations made from very thin sheets of steel insulated on both sides by an oxide layer (see opposite under “Material”).

Material

The core is constructed using thin sheets of cold-rolled grain-oriented magnetic silicon steel insulated on both sides. Conventional grain- oriented steel (CGO steel) is used for transformers with normal no-load loss characteristics, while transformers with reduced no-load losses are built using higher-quality HiB steel (usually laser treated). These steel sheets are 0.30 mm, 0.27 mm or 0.23 mm thick.

Extremely low no-load losses can be achieved only by using wound cores made of amorphous metal. This has highly specific properties (very thin sheets just 0.025 mm thick are used) and therefore it requires a specially adapted design.

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properties (very thin sheets just 0.025 mm thick are used) and therefore it requires a specially
properties (very thin sheets just 0.025 mm thick are used) and therefore it requires a specially

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The core: main characteristics: The 45° cut of the core sheets guarantees optimum flow of

The core:

main characteristics:

The 45° cut of the core sheets guarantees optimum flow of magnetic flux. sheets guarantees optimum flow of magnetic flux.

The oval shape allows optimization of the core section. optimization of the core section.

Low sound levels can be achieved using the step-lap stacking pattern.The oval shape allows optimization of the core section. The type of magnetic steel is chosen

The type of magnetic steel is chosen according to the desired loss level. the desired loss level.

The simple supporting structures and clamping devices of the core contribute to the compactness of the design. structures and clamping devices of the core contribute to the compactness of the design.

of the core contribute to the compactness of the design. Cutting and stacking of the core

Cutting and stacking of the core sheets

Minimum magnetic flux distortion in the transition areas between yokes and core legs is achieved by optimizing the cut of the core sheets and the stacking pattern.

the cut of the core sheets and the stacking pattern. T ypical oval-shaped core cross section

Typical oval-shaped core cross section

First of all, the core sheets are cut at an angle of 45°, thus allowing maximum flow of magnetic flux in the rolling direction. This is extremely important because losses in grain- oriented magnetic steel are smallest in the direction of rolling. Then the sheets are stacked in an overlap pattern of either single or multiple overlaps. The multiple overlap or step-lap method offers additional benefits in terms of lower no-load losses and noise levels. Because they involve a rather more complicated production technology, step-lap cores are preferably made on fully automatic cutting and stacking machines.

Once the sheets are stacked, the core is compressed and glued to form a firmly-bonded whole. This also helps to reduce noise levels.

The ferromagnetic core

CONSTRUCTION

of a distribution transformer

Shape of core section

The vast majority of the distribution transformers built by Pauwels have an oval-shaped core section, formed by combining the traditional stepped and fully filled round shape with a square mid-section. This gives great flexibility in the height to which the steel sheets can be stacked, thus allowing the ideal core section to be made for any design, while maintaining the use of standard materials and dimensions. Using this method combines the benefits of a rectangular core section (simplicity of production) with those of a round core section (excellent short-circuit withstand capability of the windings).

short-circuit withstand capability of the windings). Clamping devices By using simple profiled-steel yoke

Clamping devices

By using simple profiled-steel yoke clamping systems and a number of metal tensioning bands, Pauwels has eliminated the need for either clamping bolts in the yokes (which would distort the magnetic flux) or tie rods between the upper and lower yokes (which would require the tank to be larger).

Fully automatic cutting and stacking machine

the upper and lower yokes (which would require the tank to be larger). Fully automatic cutting

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10 Windings C ONSTRUCTION of a distribution transformer LOW HIGH RADIAL REPELLENT FORCES ACTING ON HV

Windings

CONSTRUCTION

of a distribution transformer

LOW HIGH

RADIAL REPELLENT FORCES ACTING ON HV AND LV WINDINGS HV LV CORE High voltage windings
RADIAL REPELLENT FORCES ACTING ON HV AND LV WINDINGS
HV
LV
CORE
High voltage windings
RECTANGULAR
ROUND
OVAL

High voltage windings are almost exclusively of layered construction. The copper or aluminium conductors are made of one or more round or square wires, either with an insulating enamel coating or wrapped in insulating paper. Each design is drawn up in accordance with the specific characteristics of the conductor material to be used.

Low voltage windings

Low voltage windings are usually made of copper or aluminium sheet

conductor (foil). The benefit of this is that any high voltage ampere-turn asymmetry which might occur is compensated automatically by

an

appropriate internal current distribution in the low voltage foil.

This reduces the axial stresses produced by short-circuits to a minimum (down to 10% of those for conventional windings), thus enabling the axial support construction to be greatly simplified.

The sheets and connectors welded onto them are made of electrolytically pure copper or aluminium with a rigorously guaranteed conductivity. Designs are adapted to the thermal, electrical and chemical characteristics of each type of conductor, thus ensuring that both versions are of equivalent quality, whether made of copper or aluminium.

The maximum voltage between each turn is only a few tens of volts. This allows the insulation needed between the turns (foils) to be limited to 1 or 2 sheets of fine kraft paper only a few hundredths of a millimetre thick.

According to the design specification, this insulation may be coated with

a thermo-hardening epoxy adhesive which cures and bonds during the drying process.

Supplementary benefits of foil windings are:

Greater simplicity in fitting cooling ducts. cooling ducts.

More even heat distribution through the windings.windings are: Greater simplicity in fitting cooling ducts. Semi-automatic winding techniques can be used. Foil

Semi-automatic winding techniques can be used. techniques can be used.

Foil windings may be wound either on a winding mandrel or, preferably, directly onto the core leg. This ensures minimum play between core and

winding, for optimum rigidity.

The structures forming the “main gap”, i.e. the insulating space separating the low and high voltage windings, are fitted directly onto the low voltage

foil winding, thus forming a part of it. These processes all enhance the transformer’s short-circuit withstand capability.

The insulation between the layers consists of pre-coated kraft paper, applied either in sheet form or wound in a continuous narrow strip, a technique which allows optimum adjustment of the insulation thickness to the electrical gradient at each layer position.

The special diamond pattern of epoxy adhesive coated onto the kraft paper cures during the drying process, bonding the windings into a single structure.

The high voltage winding is wound directly onto the low voltage winding, over the structures forming the main gap, giving maximum mechanical strength, rigidity and compactness.

This mechanical strength is of the utmost importance since, in the event of short-circuit, the windings have to sustain very high radial repellent forces. The mechanical effect of these forces is minimal in round windings, since these windings inherently have the ideal form to withstand radial stresses. The mechanical effect is much greater in rectangular windings. In order to combine the advantages of a rectangular core section (simplicity of production) with the benefits of round windings (excellent short-circuit withstand capability), Pauwels has developed the unique concept of oval-shaped cores and windings (see drawing above).

The main benefits of layered windings are:

They form a simple winding, which allows continuous or semi-automatic winding. which allows continuous or semi-automatic winding.

The impulse voltage distribution throughout the winding is predictable and controlled.which allows continuous or semi-automatic winding. Axial cooling ducts are simple to build and fit. Any

Axial cooling ducts are simple to build and fit.throughout the winding is predictable and controlled. Any taps required can be brought out anywhere in

Any taps required can be brought out anywhere in the winding through the layers. brought out anywhere in the winding through the layers.

ducts are simple to build and fit. Any taps required can be brought out anywhere in

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Assembling

cores

and

windings

to

build

an

active part

Assembly of cores and windings to build an active part may be carried out in either of the following two ways:

part may be carried out in either of the following two ways: Bushings are mounted on
part may be carried out in either of the following two ways: Bushings are mounted on
part may be carried out in either of the following two ways: Bushings are mounted on

Bushings are mounted on the cover, which is then fixed onto the assembled active part. The next step consists of connecting the windings to the bushings. The connection methods are durable and selected so as to ensure a solid, low-resistance connection between the linked conducting materials, including junctions between aluminium and copper components.

Transformers are often fitted with an off-circuit tap changer. This switch allows the increase or decrease of a certain number of turns while the transformer is disconnected from the circuit. Small variations in the nominal supply voltage can be accomodated by adjusting the tap changer to keep the output voltage at the required value.

The off-circuit tap changer is always fitted on the high voltage side of the transformer, since this is where the current is smallest. A second tap change switch is incorporated in transformers with dual high voltages in order to change the high voltage. Tap changers and tap switches are controlled either by cable or by a drive shaft.

The voltage ratio of the active part is then tested, and the assembly is dried for a specified time in a forced-air oven to remove the moisture from the insulating materials. This time depends on the quantity of insulating materials, which in turn depends on the transformer’s rating and voltages.

If the windings have been wound on a mandrel, the E-shaped cores and the windings are transported from their various construction locations to the assembly area. The windings are pushed over the core legs and wedged up to fill the spaces between the core and winding as much as possible. The magnetic circuit is then completed by interleaving the laminations of the upper yoke with the laminations of the core legs.

If the windings have been wound directly onto the core legs, the three core legs
If the windings have been wound
directly onto the core legs, the
three core legs are positioned on a
tilting table.
The upper and lower yokes are
then fitted highly accurately in the
same way as described above.

Active part

CONSTRUCTION

of a distribution transformer

fitted highly accurately in the same way as described above. Active part C ONSTRUCTION of a

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Functions of the transformer tank:

It forms a container for the cooling liquid.Functions of the transformer tank: It acts as a heat exchange surface for the dissipation of

It acts as a heat exchange surface for the dissipation of heat losses. dissipation of heat losses.

It is a protective, earthed safety shell.a heat exchange surface for the dissipation of heat losses. It provides shielding against electromagnetic field

It provides shielding against electromagnetic field leakage caused by current-carrying conductors.of heat losses. It is a protective, earthed safety shell. The tank Corrugated fin wall panels

The tank

leakage caused by current-carrying conductors. The tank Corrugated fin wall panels C ONSTRUCTION 14 Construction The

Corrugated fin wall panels

CONSTRUCTION

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The tank Corrugated fin wall panels C ONSTRUCTION 14 Construction The vast majority of distribution transformer

Construction

The vast majority of distribution transformer tanks are constructed with cooling fins. There is only a very limited demand for panel radiator types. As with radiators, the purpose of cooling fins is to increase the available contact surface for the cooling air. However, in hermetically sealed designs the cooling fin design also enables a degree of flexibility which is needed to accommodate the expansion and contraction of the liquid as it heats and cools, due to load and ambient temperature. This allows the tank to be totally filled (and hermetically sealed), with the clear benefit of prolonging the transformer’s service life expectancy and reducing maintenance.

In exceptional cases, e.g. small ratings and severe dimensional limitations, the fins become so small that they are no longer flexible enough, necessitating

of a distribution transformer

the use of a gas cushion to allow the expansion of the liquid. This gas cushion allows the internal pressure to be maintained within the acceptable limits permitted by tank flexibility. Occasionally, some customers specify that a conservator must be fitted on top of the transformer tank. This follows older rigid tank design practice.

This cylindrical conservator acts as an expansion tank for the cooling liquid when it expands as the windings heat up. The conservator is often fitted with a gauge glass, an air vent and an air dryer in an effort to ensure that only dry air can come into contact with the cooling liquid, and only at atmospheric pressure. If the air dryer is not properly maintained, it can lose its effectiveness and allow damp air to come in contact with the cooling liquid.

allow damp air to come in contact with the cooling liquid. Hermetically sealed transformers offer indisputable

Hermetically sealed transformers offer indisputable advantages compared with transformers fitted with a conservator, including:

The insulating liquid cannot come into contact with the air, thus guaranteeing preservation of its dielectric integrity. thus guaranteeing preservation of its dielectric integrity.

Reduced maintenance, e.g. no checking required of the air dryer, no need to monitor the liquid for water ingress, etc. no need to monitor the liquid for water ingress, etc.

They are cheaper to buy.no need to monitor the liquid for water ingress, etc. They occupy a smaller space, leaving

They occupy a smaller space, leaving more room for connections in compact installations.the liquid for water ingress, etc. They are cheaper to buy. The protection equipment is often

The protection equipment is often simpler than that fitted on transformers with a conservator.leaving more room for connections in compact installations. The reliability of hermetically sealed tanks is illustrated

The reliability of hermetically sealed tanks is illustrated not merely by the tens of thousands of transformers currently operating worldwide, but also by the stringent fatigue and overpressure tests carried out on transformers of this type. Hermetically sealed tanks have been subjected to 11,000 expansion-contraction cycles, which simulate the mechanical load on a tank over a service life of 30 years (at an average of 1 cycle per day).

The construction of these tanks is extremely simple. The bottom, top frame, corrugated fin wall panels and plain wall panels are mounted on specially designed rotating welding tables and welded together. Small production batch sizes resulting from the wide range of transformer designs produced do not yet allow this process to be carried out by fully automated welding equipment. The skill and craftsmanship of highly experienced welders and leak tests during production ensure leak-free finished tanks.

Cooling

Heat is generated inside a transformer by the effects described by Joule’s law, hysteresis losses and eddy currents (see chapter “Economic choice of transformers”). This causes a rise in the temperature of the windings and core. The temperature will reach equilibrium when the quantity of heat generated per second is equal to the quantity of heat removed per second.

The operating temperature of liquid-filled transformers is limited to around 100°C. While a higher operating temperature can reduce the size, weight and cost of a transformer for a given power rating, it shortens its service life expectancy by accelerating the ageing of the insulating materials. Cooling is optimized in accordance with the maximum permissible temperature and the total quantity of heat to be dissipated, which depends on the transformer’s loss level.

temperature and the total quantity of heat to be dissipated, which depends on the transformer’s loss

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Finishing of powder-coated tanks Flooding State-of-the-art painting line A state-of-the-art painting line,
Finishing of powder-coated tanks
Flooding
State-of-the-art painting line
A state-of-the-art painting line, incorporating zinc phosphating, electrically
applied liquid paint and powder coating has been installed in the Irish
factory. This system is one of the most up-to-date developments in the
field of finishing and the quality obtained is comparable with that required
by today’s automotive industry for modern car bodies.
Tests by independent laboratories have shown that transformer tanks
treated in this way can easily withstand the 2,000 hours hot salt spray
scribed test carried out in accordance with the ASTM B117 and
DIN 50021 standards.
Standard tanks are equipped with:

Powder coating line

Standard tanks are equipped with: Powder coating line securing lugs on the top frame of the
Standard tanks are equipped with: Powder coating line securing lugs on the top frame of the
Standard tanks are equipped with: Powder coating line securing lugs on the top frame of the
Standard tanks are equipped with: Powder coating line securing lugs on the top frame of the
Standard tanks are equipped with: Powder coating line securing lugs on the top frame of the

securing lugs on the top frame of the tank to secure the transformer during transport on the top frame of the tank to secure the transformer during transport

lifting lugs on the cover to lift the complete transformer and/or the active part on the cover to lift the complete transformer and/or the active part

underbase welded to the bottom of the tank with bi-directional rollers (roller base) welded to the bottom of the tank with bi-directional rollers (roller base)

filling hole on the cover (can also be used to mount an overpressure valve) on the cover (can also be used to mount an overpressure valve)

earthing terminals on tank cover and underbase or tank bottom on tank cover and underbase or tank bottom

thermometer pocket welded to the tank cover and filled with cooling liquid welded to the tank cover and filled with cooling liquid

drain valve at the bottom of the tank (can also be used to take oil samples) at the bottom of the tank (can also be used to take oil samples)

This standard package can be expanded to include other monitoring and protection instruments (see chapter “Protection equipment”).

1 Lifting lugs 8 Off-circuit tap changer 2 Drain valve 9 HV bushings 3 Thermometer
1 Lifting lugs
8 Off-circuit tap changer
2 Drain valve
9 HV bushings
3 Thermometer pocket
10 Securing lugs
4 Earthing terminals
11 Rating plate
5 LV neutral bushing
12 Underbase with rollers
6 LV bushings
(roller base)
7 Filling hole
10
11
2
4
12
1 4 3 5 6 7 2
1
4
3
5
6
7
2
8
8
9
9
7 Filling hole 10 11 2 4 12 1 4 3 5 6 7 2 8

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Surface treatment and painting

After welding, the tank is shot-blasted to remove any surface impurities, leaving a clean prepared surface for maximum adhesion of the paint coating. Air-drying paint is then applied by spraying or flooding. An alternative painting technique is electrostatic powder coating, which is used for tank covers and cable boxes and also for complete tanks in some factories. Where powder coating is employed, further chemical processes are needed before the powder coating is applied.

Several coats of paint are applied, to a total thickness of at least 100 microns, thus guaranteeing adequate protection against corrosion for a transformer installed indoors or outdoors. Tanks may be galvanized if requested by the customer. This is often specified for transformers which are constantly exposed to the elements, as with pole-mounted or platform-mounted transformers. Galvanizing is also recommended for transformers used in polluted industrial areas.

The tank

CONSTRUCTION

State-of-the-art painting line in the Irish factory

of a distribution transformer

industrial areas. The tank C ONSTRUCTION State-of-the-art painting line in the Irish factory of a distribution
T esting In the test bay, each transformer is subjected to a number of routine

Testing

In the test bay, each transformer is subjected to a number of routine measurements and tests.

Fitting of protection equipment

Once routine testing is completed, the protection instruments and other accessories are fitted and the transformer is subjected to a final global inspection. Subsequently, the rating plate (stating all the data required by the norm or standard) is fixed to the tank with a bracket. The transformer is now ready for packing and transportation.

Packing and transport

For transport by road, timbers are attached to the two U-shaped profiles forming the roller base, thus enabling the transformer to be secured to the load floor of the truck. A similar procedure is followed for container transport. When specifically requested by the customer, and mainly for transport by sea, the transformers are placed in strong wooden crates or boxes.

Routine measurements and tests

Measurement of voltage ratios.wooden crates or boxes. Routine measurements and tests V ector group test. Measurement of high voltage

Vector group test. ector group test.

Measurement of high voltage and low voltage winding re sistances. and low voltage winding resistances.

Dielectric test of high voltage and low voltage winding(s) (1 minute at rated withstand voltage and nominal frequency). This test and low voltage winding(s) (1 minute at rated withstand voltage and nominal frequency). This test is also known as the “applied overvoltage test” and is intended to check the insulation of one winding from all other transformer components.

Double voltage test (1 minute at double voltage and double frequency) induced via the low voltage winding. This is also known as the “induced overvoltage frequency) induced via the low voltage winding. This is also known as the “induced overvoltage test” and is designed to check the insulation within each winding (turn to turn and layer to layer).

Measurement of no-load losses and no-load current. losses and no-load current.

Measurement of load losses and impedance voltage with the off-circuit tap changer in the nominal position. the off-circuit tap changer in the nominal position.

Measurement of the resi stances of the insulating system between high voltage, low voltage and tank (Megger test). resistances of the insulating system between high voltage, low voltage and tank (Megger test).

Finishing operations and testing

CONSTRUCTION

of a distribution transformer

and testing C ONSTRUCTION of a distribution transformer Mounting the active part in the tank Once

Mounting the active part in the tank

Once the active part has been dried in the forced air oven, it is given a final comprehensive quality inspection and placed into the tank. The top cover is then either bolted or welded onto the tank, as specified by the customer. Both sealing methods are equally effective, although welding the cover makes it easier to guarantee the seal is leakproof.

Filling

The transformers are placed in a vacuum chamber and filled with pre-treated liquid (filtered, dried and degassed) under deep vacuum. This ensures optimum impregnation of the insulation materials by the cooling liquid, giving the insulation structure maximum dielectric strength. Most transformers are filled with a high quality mineral oil which complies fully with the requirements of IEC standard 60296. In some cases, transformers are filled with silicone liquid (complying with the requirements of IEC standard 60836) or synthetic organic esters (complying with IEC 61099). The liquid acts both as a coolant and as an insulating medium.

Some customers specify the brand and type of liquid to be used for filling the transformer. Pauwels carries stocks of several brands and types of oil, which are then piped from the storage tanks through separate circuits to the vacuum chamber. After a specified stabilization period, the transformer is taken to the test bay.

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circuits to the vacuum chamber. After a specified stabilization period, the transformer is taken to the
circuits to the vacuum chamber. After a specified stabilization period, the transformer is taken to the

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In addition to standard transformer types for distribution applications, Pauwels also builds special transformers for
In addition to standard transformer types for distribution applications, Pauwels also builds special transformers for
In addition to standard transformer types for distribution applications, Pauwels also builds special transformers for
In addition to standard transformer types for distribution applications, Pauwels also builds special transformers for
In addition to standard transformer types for distribution applications, Pauwels also builds special transformers for
In addition to standard transformer types for distribution applications, Pauwels also builds special transformers for
In addition to standard transformer types for distribution applications, Pauwels also builds special transformers for

In addition to standard transformer types for distribution applications, Pauwels also builds special transformers for industrial applications. These non-standard types are the result of extensive product development based on constant monitoring and evaluation of changing customer needs in the various market segments. In some cases, special customer requirements have also led to the development of a new product with its own characteristics. Our special distribution transformers have special mechanical and/or electrical characteristics. In the majority of cases, these particular transformer types are designed in such a way that they can be built using standard production techniques, thus requiring only a minimum of modifications in the production process.

A comprehensive

PRODUCT RANGE

Special transformer types

The Pauwels product range includes the following special distribution transformers, although this list is not exhaustive:

single-phase transformers (used mainly in the US, Ireland and the UK)transformers, although this list is not exhaustive: dual voltage transformers amorphous metal distribution

dual voltage transformerstransformers (used mainly in the US, Ireland and the UK) amorphous metal distribution transformers (AMDT) steep-wave

amorphous metal distribution transformers (AMDT)in the US, Ireland and the UK) dual voltage transformers steep-wave transformers compact substations three-winding

steep-wave transformersamorphous metal distribution transformers (AMDT) compact substations three-winding transformers

compact substationsdistribution transformers (AMDT) steep-wave transformers three-winding transformers auto-transformers converter

three-winding transformers(AMDT) steep-wave transformers compact substations auto-transformers converter transformers generator

auto-transformerstransformers compact substations three-winding transformers converter transformers generator transformers earthing

converter transformerssubstations three-winding transformers auto-transformers generator transformers earthing transformers substations

generator transformerstransformers auto-transformers converter transformers earthing transformers substations with cable boxes and

earthing transformersconverter transformers generator transformers substations with cable boxes and connectors for Ring Main

substations with cable boxes and connectors for Ring Main Units (RMUs)transformers generator transformers earthing transformers phase shifters mono and tri-mono transformers transformers

phase shifterswith cable boxes and connectors for Ring Main Units (RMUs) mono and tri-mono transformers transformers with

mono and tri-mono transformersand connectors for Ring Main Units (RMUs) phase shifters transformers with special cable boxes (filled with

transformers with special cable boxes (filled with air or oil)Units (RMUs) phase shifters mono and tri-mono transformers transformers with forced cooling (by means of fans)

transformers with forced cooling (by means of fans)with special cable boxes (filled with air or oil) transformers with integrated protecting (fuses) and

transformers with integrated protecting (fuses) and disconnecting equipment (such as the intrinsic safe transformer “TPC” for France)or oil) transformers with forced cooling (by means of fans) SLIM ® transformers (very compact high

SLIM ® transformers (very compact high temperature transformers) ® transformers (very compact high temperature transformers)

Big DT (DT design concept up to 12 MVA)transformers (very compact high temperature transformers) Detailed information about our standard and special

Detailed information about our standard and special distribution transformers is available upon request.

up to 12 MVA) Detailed information about our standard and special distribution transformers is available upon

21

Despite the fact that transformers are highly efficient electrical devices, inevitably some energy is lost during their long service life. This energy loss arises from the combination of no-load losses and load losses. These losses convert to heat which has to be removed during operation. ECONOMIC CHOICE

1. No-load losses (P 0 ), also called iron losses (P Fe ) No-load losses
1. No-load losses (P 0 ), also called iron losses (P Fe )
No-load losses occur in the core material due to hysteresis and eddy
currents, and are present almost continuously while the transformer is
connected to the electricity supply (i.e. 8,760 hours per year).
The hysteresis losses are proportional to the product of the frequency
and the amplitude of induction to the power of x, where x varies between
1.6 and 3.5 when induction is increasing: P h ~ f.B x .
Eddy current losses are proportional to the square of the product of
the frequency, the amplitude of induction and the thickness (d) of the mag-
netic steel: P f ~ (f.B.d) 2
2. Load losses (P K ), also called copper losses (P Cu )
Load losses occur in the windings, the connecting conductors and the
tank. They are caused by the effects of Joule’s law (Ohmic losses), eddy
currents and flux leakages. Ohmic losses are equal to the product of the
square of the current and the resistance of the conductor: P j = R.I 2
These losses are proportional to the square of the load, thus a load of 50%
of the rated load produces load losses equal to approximately 25% of the
rated full-load loss values.
Within certain limits, a manufacturer can increase or reduce no-load and/or
load losses by varying the current density, the induction level of the
magnetic steel, the choice of material for the conductors and the core, etc.
Lower losses always involve the use of a larger quantity of material and/or
higher-cost materials, thus raising the price of the transformer. However, its
energy consumption, and therefore running costs, will be lower. In order to
make an economically valid comparison of transformers with different loss
levels, a value reflecting the cost of the energy losses has to be introduced.
This value, expressed in monetary units per watt, allows financial
evaluation (or capitalization) of the losses and is therefore called
“capitalization value”. The capitalization values for no-load losses (CP 0 ) are

considerably higher than those for load losses (CP k ), which is logical

because no-load losses occur continuously.

22

is logical because no-load losses occur continuously. 22 of transformers The T otal Owning Cost (T.O.C.)

of transformers

The Total Owning Cost (T.O.C.) of a transformer may be expressed by the following formula:

T. O.C. = purchase price + (P 0* CP 0 ) + (P k* CP k )

Installation and maintenance costs may need to be added to this formula. Of course the transformer with

the lowest T.O.C. is the best economic choice in the long term. When a customer’s price inquiry gives

capitalization values, the optimum level of losses is calculated in the design department using specially developed

software. A further advantage of lower no-load losses is the fact that the level of noise generated is usually

significantly lower, due to the lower flux density.

Thus it is often economically justifiable to replace older transformers with high loss levels by the new generation

of low-loss transformers, since their lower losses ensure a significant return on investment after only a few years.

If the no-load energy losses are capitalized at a very high level, then amorphous metal core transformers

become an attractive alternative. The no-load losses of this type of transformer are some 75% lower than those

of an equivalent transformer with a conventional magnetic steel core.

To tal Owning Cost (T.O.C.) = purchase price + (P 0* CP 0 ) + (P k* CP k )

T.O.C.

P

P

CP

CP

0

k

0

k

=

=

=

=

=

Total Owning Cost

guaranteed no-load losses (Watt)

guaranteed load losses (Watt)

capitalization value for no-load losses stated by the customer (euro/Watt)

capitalization value for load losses stated by the customer (euro/Watt)

Evaluation of two distribution transformers, each with a nominal rating of 630 kVA but with different loss levels:

Tr. 1

630 kVA

P 0 =

870 Watt

 

P k = 5,750 Watt

CP 0 = 4.25 euro/Watt

Tr. 2

630 kVA

P 0 = 1,150 Watt

P k = 8,400 Watt

CP k = 1.15 euro/Watt

 

P

0

P

k

 

price

P

0* CP 0 euro

k* CP k euro

P

T.O.C.

Watt

Watt

 

euro

euro

Tr. 1

870

5,750

   

7,550

 

3,698

6,613

17,861

Tr. 2

1,150

8,400

7,000

4,888

9,660

21,548

This table clearly illustrates that the lowest purchase price does not necessarily reflect the best economic alternative.

table clearly illustrates that the lowest purchase price does not necessarily reflect the best economic alternative.

23

A growing importance is attached to the negative aspects of technology on people and the
A growing importance is attached to
the negative aspects of technology on
people and the environment in modern
society. The potentially disturbing or
hazardous aspects of transformers
include:
Noise pollution.
Land pollution, due to escaping oil caused by
leaks or explosions.
The use of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) -
very toxic chemicals - in cooling liquids.
Electromagnetic fields: the effects of such fields
on human beings and instruments are not yet
fully understood.
Energy losses in transformers. Even though
transformers are generally highly efficient,
as explained earlier, some energy is lost in the
transforming process. This energy also has to
be generated somewhere and this generation
process has its own consequences, including
a rise in emissions of harmful combustion gases.
Visual pollution to the environment caused by
the siting of transformers and substations
without due consideration to the impact
on the landscape.

Transformers and

THE ENVIRONMENT

impact on the landscape. T ransformers and THE ENVIRONMENT Low-noise transformers In many countries, there are

Low-noise transformers

In many countries, there are strict limits on the noise levels which may be generated by trans- formers in both urban and rural locations. The primary source of the noise produced is the alternating magnetization of the core steel, while the current- carrying windings contribute only a limited amount. Pauwels uses a

windings contribute only a limited amount. Pauwels uses a variety of techniques to limit noise levels

variety of techniques to limit noise levels drastically, the most important being to reduce the induction in the core, producing an appropriate core shape (e.g. the step-lap method), a special clamping construction and the use of low-resonance tanks, etc.

This enables Pauwels to build transformers with extremely low noise levels, down to within what we refer to as “whispering level”. Building transformers with noise levels below 30 dBA (sound pressure at a distance of 1 m) is an illustration of this. Pauwels has also carried out pioneering work in the field of measurement of transformer-generated noise. Engineers from our Research and Development department have refined the noise intensity method (introduced by Brüel and Kjær in the early eighties) and applied it to transformer noise measurement. This method now has official recognition and is described in the IEC 60551 standard.

The noise intensity method allows more accurate measurement by eliminating disturbances due to the near-field effect (*) and other nearby sources, and also enables the noise generated by the transformer to be measured when the ambient noise level is far in excess of the transformer noise. This clearly makes the noise measurement and evaluation process much simpler, while also allowing frequency analysis. Besides frequency analyses, Pauwels laboratories can also carry out vibration and resonance analyses.

Reference table dB(A)

20

rustling of leaves

70

traffic noise

30

whispering

100

heavy machine shop

40

library

120

rock concert

60

normal conversation

130

pain threshold

(*) Very close to a sound source, the air acts as a mass-spring system which stores the energy. The energy circulates without propagating and the region in which it circulates is called the “near-field”. Only sound intensity measurements for sound power determination can be made here.

is called the “near-field”. Only sound intensity measurements for sound power determination can b e made

25

Transformer filled with synthetic organic esters in accordance with the IEC 61099 standard a to
Transformer filled with
synthetic organic esters
in accordance with the
IEC 61099 standard
a
to
C

Land pollution: the importance of leakproof tanks and environmentally sound coolants

An escape of coolant from the tank can cause land pollution and possibly lead to the danger of fire when a spark or flame is present at the same time. The “Wassergefährdungsklasse” or “WGK” (water pollution class) of

liquid provides a measure of the threat posed by the liquid to

underground and surface water. This classification is based on the

biodegradability of the liquid. Most mineral oils and all silicone liquids are in category 1, while esters are more biodegradable and classified as category 0. A WGK of 0 is normally specified only when the transformer is

be located in the vicinity of a water extraction area. Fire regulations and

fire insurance policy conditions often also lead to the choice of these somewhat more expensive coolants. Their higher flash points and ignition temperatures enable the transformer to be operated without excessively stringent stipulations in respect of sprinkler installations or drip pans to catch leakages, thus yielding significant reductions in installation costs.

The ingenuity of our designers, the craftsmanship of our welders, the robustness of the materials we use and the multiple quality control procedures carried out to check for leaks during the production process all combine to ensure the long-term leak-free quality of our tanks.

Recyclable materials

One of the central themes of the Pauwels corporate policy is the quest to reduce raw material consumption to a minimum. Waste materials from the production process are collected and carefully sorted for sale as scrap for recycling. A similar policy is followed by the specialist companies breaking old transformers for scrap. Today’s Pauwels transformers are designed to facilitate the highest possible degree of recycling. Over 90% of the materials used can be recovered by simple procedures. Special attention is paid to environmental impact even in the choice of the smallest components, as illustrated clearly by the use of asbestos-free gaskets, for example.

Transformers and

THE ENVIRONMENT

26

gaskets, for example. T ransformers and THE ENVIRONMENT 26 Radical exclusion of PCBs Electromagnetic compatibility

Radical exclusion of PCBs

Electromagnetic compatibility

Optimized use of raw materials

✖
compatibility Optimized use of raw materials ✖ Pauwels operates a consistent, stringent PCB
compatibility Optimized use of raw materials ✖ Pauwels operates a consistent, stringent PCB
compatibility Optimized use of raw materials ✖ Pauwels operates a consistent, stringent PCB
compatibility Optimized use of raw materials ✖ Pauwels operates a consistent, stringent PCB
compatibility Optimized use of raw materials ✖ Pauwels operates a consistent, stringent PCB
compatibility Optimized use of raw materials ✖ Pauwels operates a consistent, stringent PCB

Pauwels operates a consistent, stringent PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) monitoring policy: the test certificate delivered with each Pauwels transformer certifies that its PCB content is less than 1 ppm (part per million). Oil deliveries or transformers returned for overhaul or servicing are never accepted before an oil sample analysis has provided conclusive proof that the liquid is PCB-free.

Pauwels’ customer service department acts as an intermediary for the collection and treatment of transformers filled or contaminated with harmful PCBs by introducing the owner to officially accredited specialist waste disposal companies.

All current-carrying conductors and machines create an electromagnetic field which can have an interfering effect on sensitive (e.g. electronic) equipment. Therefore all products must be made with the highest possible electromagnetic compatibility (EMC): they must not produce a disruptive field or be affected by other fields in their vicinity. Pauwels liquid-filled transformers are ideal in this respect: their tank acts as a natural electromagnetic screen, reducing the effect of external fields to negligible values.

Extensive optimization has enabled Pauwels to succeed in building very compact transformers. Today’s 1,000 kVA model is the size of the 630 kVA transformer of just a few years ago, for example. This optimization and rationalization have simultaneously yielded significant savings in raw materials (copper, aluminium, magnetic steel, metal, etc.) and coolants.

Lower consumption of primary energy sources, due to the use of transformers with low losses

Pauwels also contributes to a cleaner and safer environment by offering low-loss transformers. Electricity utilities using low-loss transformers will clearly need to generate less electricity to satisfy the same energy demand. Generating less electricity involves lower consumption of primary energy sources (coal, gas and oil), thus reducing emissions of the harmful combustion gases which cause phenomena such as acid rain and depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer.

of the harmful combustion gases which cause phenomena such as acid rain and depletion of the

Evolution of the weight of a 400 kVA transformer

such as acid rain and depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer. Evolution of the weight of
such as acid rain and depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer. Evolution of the weight of

27

28

DESIGN

specifications and standards

28 D ESIGN specifications and standards L OGISTICS The complex chain of processes, from initial offer

LOGISTICS The complex chain of processes,

from initial offer through to final

delivery, is managed by the logistics

department. In view of the strongly

international character of the Pauwels Group’s business, this requires flawless organization and extensive experience.

Pauwels transformers are designed to meet all the most recent national

and international standards such as IEC, ANSI/IEEE, CEN/CENELEC, BS,

DIN/VDE, NEMA and CSA, etc. Within the distribution transformers

product group, the product development department is responsible for

managing and updating the internal standards database. Engineers from

this department play an active role in a wide range of engineering

standards committees and international working groups, where they are

able to keep up-to-date with the latest developments in technical

standards.

design drawings stock control reservations purchasing planning factory delivery of materials distribution drawings
design drawings
stock control
reservations
purchasing
planning
factory
delivery of materials
distribution
drawings & planning
test bay
of drawings
production
final control
customer info
order status
production final control customer info order status Pauwels has designed standard transformer models for a large

Pauwels has designed standard transformer models for a large number of

markets, each fully meeting or even exceeding the national standards and

requirements of each market. Other transformers are standardized to the

specifications of individual major customers such as electricity utilities,

large contractors and heavy industrial companies. All other transformers

are designed individually to meet the customer’s specific requirements.

Quality logistics management produces fast delivery times, punctual and complete delivery, and correct and rapid

handling of administrative procedures. Careful construction of the Group’s computer network and information

systems has built a superbly efficient information flow system connecting all the various departments of the

Pauwels organization. The group operates a Just-In-Time material flow system, optimized using specialized

computer software, automated warehousing systems and firm contracts with accredited suppliers.

This approach has enabled Pauwels to achieve extensive automation

in the design and construction areas, leading directly to an ability to

offer attractive prices and fast delivery. The high degree of customer

satisfaction and the numerous accreditations achieved after stringent

approval procedures illustrate the success of the Pauwels product

development strategy.

Pauwels supplies transformers to customers in over 135 countries around the world. This requires the assistance

of specialist transporters with wide experience in multi-mode transportation. In addition to the complexities

specific to long-distance destinations, complicated logistical problems can arise when transformers have to be

installed in locations where access is difficult.

logistical problems can arise when transformers have to be installed in locations where access is difficult.
logistical problems can arise when transformers have to be installed in locations where access is difficult.

29

The high reputation of Pauwels transformers is a product of the comprehensive attention to quality.

Commitment to quality runs throughout the company: Research and Development, Design, Production, Quality Control, Logistics and Administrative Services. The Human Resources department maintains an ongoing programme of quality consciousness and quality enhancement training for all the company’s employees.

enhancement training for all the company’s employees. Operating a certified quality system to ISO 9001 standards

Operating a certified quality system to ISO 9001 standards is merely a precondition for achieving consistent quality. Within the Pauwels organization, quality control is carried out at each design and production phase through a self-assessment system.

Each workstation has a description of the tasks to be carried out and the accompanying quality control procedures. A component is passed on to the next workstation only after the worker concerned has carried out the specified quality control procedures and approved the component. Any material or component failing a quality test is rejected immediately.

Thus each worker checks his (her) own production and regards the next workstation as his (her) customer. The quality department monitors all quality control documents and carries out additional inspections at strategic points in the production process. This allows immediate action to be taken and any modifications to be made as required.

Materials purchased from approved suppliers are subject to goods inwards checking which can vary from simple identification to comprehensive testing in the physical chemistry laboratory. All raw material and component suppliers must meet ISO standards.

material and component suppliers must meet ISO standards. Each transformer is subjected to the full range

Each transformer is subjected to the full range of specified tests before release to the customer. Testing to IEC or ANSI specifications includes all routine tests and measurements and may be complemented by type and/or special tests. These supplementary tests are carried out either on the customer’s request or as part of an internal sampling procedure to ensure continuous quality monitoring.

All testing is performed within the company with the exception of dynamic short-circuit tests, which are contracted out to accredited external laboratories such as KEMA, LABORELEC, EDF, CESI, FGH and other independent testing institutions. Many customers have carried out quality audits and inspections in the various Pauwels facilities and repeat them regularly to assure themselves of a consistently high quality level.

In addition to the national and international standards, e.g. IEC, ISO, etc., some customers also use their own measuring and testing schemes which often involve tests in independent laboratories.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

certified to ISO 9001 and based on self-assessment

SALES AND CUSTOMER SERVICE

Sales

The Pauwels Group sales organization is structured to ensure the shortest possible lines of communication between customers and Group companies. This goal is achieved by working through a network of small, efficient sales offices and specialist representatives with an expert knowledge of local conditions and of the customer’s requirements.

Sales offices operate in France, Italy, the USA, Colombia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Nigeria and Zimbabwe.

AFTER-SALES

service
service
Arab Emirates, Nigeria and Zimbabwe. A FTER - SALES service Customer service Inquiries and orders are
Arab Emirates, Nigeria and Zimbabwe. A FTER - SALES service Customer service Inquiries and orders are

Customer service

Inquiries and orders are handled by multidisciplinary customer service teams, where technical, commercial and administrative skills are blended exactly as needed to deliver what each different customer type demands:

the right product at the right time at the right price.

Each customer service team is therefore specialized in processing inquiries and orders with very specific characteristics in terms of customer requirements and/or transformer types. This results in a high degree of overall customer responsiveness illustrated by timely return of fully detailed quotations, high delivery reliability with orders and fast information exchange throughout the contract period ensuring well informed customers. The customer service teams work closely together with the Logistics Department (Purchasing, Planning, Transport and Invoicing) and the After-Sales Department in order to guarantee the highest possible levels of customer satisfaction.

Production facilities Subsidiary companies Regional offices Agents & sales contacts 32
Production facilities
Subsidiary companies
Regional offices
Agents & sales contacts
32

The Pauwels organization offers an extensive range of support services to customers after delivery of their transformers, including:

a 24-hour helpline, with teams on permanent standby to carry out all possible urgent r epairs, etc. repairs, etc.

maintenance and repairs to transformers either on-site or in our well-equipped workshops on-site or in our well-equipped workshops

oil samplingeither on-site or in our well-equipped workshops - to assess the insulating condition of the liquid

- to assess the insulating condition of the liquid

- to analyze dissolved gases

- to determine PCB content

drying, degassing and filtration of the coolant- to analyze dissolved gases - to determine PCB content oil cleansing to remove PCBs supply

oil cleansing to remove PCBsPCB content drying, degassing and filtration of the coolant supply of spare parts provision of replacement

supply of spare partsand filtration of the coolant oil cleansing to remove PCBs provision of replacement transformers modifications such

provision of replacement transformerscoolant oil cleansing to remove PCBs supply of spare parts modifications such as: - connections (e.g.

modifications such as:supply of spare parts provision of replacement transformers - connections (e.g. bottom entry or top entry

- connections (e.g. bottom entry or top entry cables)

- replacement or conversion of accessories such as Buchholz relays, liquid level indicator gauges, pressure relays, etc.

overhaul and replacement of the off-circuit tap changer tap changer

increasing transformer power capacity by converting to forced cooling (installation of fans, etc.) converting to forced cooling (installation of fans, etc.)

training for customers’ maintenance staffconverting to forced cooling (installation of fans, etc.) advice to customers on how to operate and

advice to customers on how to operate and maintain their transformers maintain their transformers

training for customers’ maintenance staff advice to customers on how to operate and maintain their transformers

33