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Jyh-Cherng Shieh
Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering National Taiwan University 12/21/2009 1

General Characteristics of Pipe Flow Fully Developed Laminar Flow Fully Developed Turbulent Flow Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow Pipe Flow Examples Pipe Flowrate Measurement


Internal flowssolid surface

solid surface pipes ductsnozzle

Flows completely bounded by solid surfaces are called INTERNAL FLOWS which include flows through pipes (Round cross section), ducts (NOT Round cross section), nozzles, diffusers, sudden contractions and expansions, valves, and fittings. The basic principles involved are independent of the cross-sectional shape, although the details of the flow may be dependent on it. The flow regime (laminar or turbulent) of internal flows is primarily a function of the Reynolds number. BLaminar flow: Can be solved analytically. BTurbulent flow: Rely heavily on semi-empirical theories and experimental data. Internal flow

General Characteristics of Pipe Flow

Pipe System

A pipe system include the pipes themselves (perhaps of more than one diameter), the various fittings, the flowrate control devices valves , and the pumps or turbines.

Pipe Flow vs. Open Channel Flow

pipe flowopen-channel flow

Pipe flow: Flows completely filling the pipe. (a) The pressure gradient along the pipe is main driving force. Open channel flow: Flows without completely filling the pipe. (b) The gravity alone is the driving force.
Open channel flow

Pipe flow

Laminar or Turbulent Flow 1/2

The flow of a fluid in a pipe may be Laminar ? Turbulent ? Reynolds Osborne Reynolds, a British scientist and mathematician, was the first to distinguish the difference between these classification of flow by using a simple apparatus as shown. Reynolds


Laminar or Turbulent Flow 2/2


>For small enough flowrate the dye streak will remain as a well-defined line as it flows along, with only slight blurring due to molecular diffusion of the dye into the surrounding water. >For a somewhat larger intermediate flowrate the dye fluctuates in time and space, and intermittent bursts of irregular behavior appear along the streak. >For large enough flowrate the dye streak almost immediately become blurred and spreads across the entire pipe in a random fashion.

Time Dependence of Fluid Velocity at a Point

Indication of Laminar or Turbulent Flow

The term flowrate should be replaced by Reynolds number, R e = VD / ,where V is the average velocity in the pipe. It is not only the fluid velocity that determines the character of the flow its density, viscosity, and the pipe size are of equal importance. For general engineering purpose, the flow in a round pipe

>Laminar R e < 2100 >Transitional >Turbulent R e4000


Reynolds Number 1/2

Vl Vl = Re =
Osborne Reynolds inertial force / viscous force

In honor of Osborne Reynolds (1842~1912), the British engineer who first demonstrated that this combination of variables could be used as a criterion to distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow. The Reynolds number is a measure of the ration of the inertia forces to viscous forces. If the Reynolds number is small (Re<<1), this is an indication that the viscous forces are dominant in the problem, and it may be possible to neglect the inertial effects; that is, the density of the fluid will no be an important variable.
Re << 1viscous forcesinertial force

Reynolds Number 2/2

inertial force / viscous force

Flows with very small Reynolds numbers are commonly referred to as creeping flows. Reynolds numberflowcreeping flows For large Reynolds number flow, the viscous effects are small relative to inertial effects and for these cases it may be possible to neglect the effect of viscosity and consider the problem as one involving a nonviscous fluid. Flows with large Reynolds number generally are turbulent. Flows in which the inertia forces are small compared with the viscous forces are characteristically laminar flows.
Re>>1inertial forceviscous forceviscous effect Reynolds numberturbulent flow inertial force<viscous forcelaminar flow


Example 8.1 Laminar or Turbulent Flow

z Water at a temperature of 50 flows through a pipe of diameter D = 0.73 in. (a) Determine the minimum time taken to fill a 10-oz glass (volume= 0.125ft3) with water if the flow in the pipe is to be laminar. (b) Determine the maximum time taken to fill the glass if the flow is to be turbulent. Repeat the calculation if the water temperature is 140.


Example 8.1 Solution

If the flow in the pipe is to maintain laminar, the minimum time to fill the glass will occur if the Reynolds number is the maximum allowed for laminar flow, typically Re=2100. Thus

V = 2100 / D = 0 .486 ft / s
V V = = .... = 8 .85 s t= 2 Q ( / 4 ) D V


How flowing fluid developed within pipe


Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 1/5


Any fluid flowing in a pipe had to enter the pipe at some location. The region of flow near where the fluid enters the pipe is termed the entrance region.


Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 2/5

uniform flows

The fluid typically enters the pipe with a nearly uniform velocity profile at section (1). The region of flow near where the fluid enters the pipe is termed the entrance region. As the fluid moves through the pipe, viscous effects cause it to stick to the pipe wall (the no slip boundary condition).
uniform flow No slip boundary condition

viscous effect

Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 3/5

A boundary layer in which viscous effects are important is produced along the pipe wall such that the initial velocity profile changes with distance along the pipe,x , until the fluid reaches the end of the entrance length, section (2), beyond which the velocity profile does not vary with x. The boundary layer has grown in thickness to completely pipe fill the pipe. ???
viscous effectboundary layer ZEROno slip condition NOTE: velocity profile Boundary layer


Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 4/5

BLviscous effect

Viscous effects are of considerable importance within the boundary layer. Outside the boundary layer, the viscous effects are negligible. BLPIPE.. The shape of the velocity profile in the pipe depends on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, as does the length of the entrance region, ll .
For laminar flow For turbulent flow

ll = 0.06R e D

ll 1/ 6 = 4.4R e D

Dimensionless entrance length

Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 5/5

velocity profiles

Once the fluid reaches the end of the entrance region, section (2), the flow is simpler to describe because the velocity is a function of only the distance from the pipe centerline, r, and independent of x. The flow between (2) and (3) is termed fully developed.

velocity profile

velocity profilesfunction of r


pressure distribution


Pressure Distribution along Pipe

In the entrance region of a pipe, the fluid accelerates or decelerates as it flows. There is The magnitude of the a balance between pressure, viscous, and pressure gradient is inertia (acceleration) force. constant.

p .. x

The magnitude of the pressure gradient is larger than that in the fully developed region.

p p = < 0 x l


Laminar flow Laminar flow

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

There are numerous ways to derive important results pertaining to fully developed laminar flow: DFrom F = ma applied directly to a fluid element. DFrom the Navier-Stokes equations of motion DFrom dimensional analysis methods
velocity distribution

F = ma
z Force balance ma z Laminar flowTurbulent flow z Laminar flow Laminar flow z Turbulent flow

From F=ma 1/8

Considering a fully developed axisymmetric laminar flow in a long, straight, constant diameter section of a pipe. The Fluid element is a circular cylinder of fluid of length l and radius r centered on the axis of a horizontal pipe of diameter D. fluid element


From F=ma 2/8

velocityuniformt t+tfluid element

Because the velocity is not uniform across the pipe, the initially flat end of the cylinder of fluid at time t become distorted at time t+t when the fluid element has moved to its new location along the pipe. If the flow is fully developed and steady, the distortion on each end of the fluid element is the same, and no part of the fluid experiences any acceleration as it flows. r r r V u Steady Fully developed V V = u i = 0 =0 x t
fluid element

From F=ma 3/8

Apply the Newtons second Law to the cylinder of fluid

Fx = ma x
The force balance
2 2

p 2 p1r (p p )r l(2r ) = 0 = r l

Basic balance in forces needed to drive each fluid particle along the pipe with constant velocity

Not function of r Independent of r

Not function of r

p 2 = l r

? = Cr
B.C. r=0 =0 r=D/2 = w

2 w r = D B.C.

From F=ma 4/8

The pressure drop and wall shear stress are related by 2 r p 2 4 l w = w = = p D l r D Valid for both laminar and turbulent flow.
LaminarTurbulent flow Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

Laminar du = dr


From F=ma 5/8

du Since = dr

Laminar flow
p du = r dr 2 l p 2 p 4 l r + C1 du = 2l rdr u =

Turbulent flow

With the boundary conditions: u=0 at r=D/2

pD 2 C1 = 16 l
Velocity distribution

4 l w p = D

2r 2 2r 2 1 = VC 1 D D 2 r w D 1 u(r) = 4 R pD 2 u(r) = 16 l


From F=ma 6/8

The shear stress distribution
du r p = = dr 2l

Volume flowrate r R R 4 VC Q = u d A = u ( r ) 2 rdr = ..... = 0 2 A

D 4 p Q= 128 l

Poiseuilles Law
Valid for Laminar flow only

From F=ma 7/8

Average velocity
Vaverage Q Q pD 2 = = = 2 A R 32 l

Point of maximum velocity du = 0 at r=0 dr

u = u max R 2p =U= = 2 Vaverage 4 l


From F=ma


p p l sin Making adjustment to account for nonhorizontal pipes

p p l sin
p l sin 2 = l r

>0 if the flow is uphill <0 if the flow is downhill

( p l sin )D 2 =

(p l sin )D 4 Q= 128l


Example 8.2 Laminar Pipe Flow

z An oil with a viscosity of = 0.40 Ns/m2 and density = 900 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of diameter D= 0.20m . (a) What pressure drop, p1-p2, is needed to produce a flowrate of Q=2.010-5 m3/s if the pipe is horizontal with x1=0 and x2=10 m? (b) How steep a hill, ,must the pipe be on if the oil is to flow through the pipe at the same rate as in part (a), but with p1=p2? (c) For the conditions of part (b), if p1=200 kPa, what is the pressure at section, x3=5 m, where x is measured along the pipe?


Example 8.2 Solution1/2

R e = VD / = 2 .87 < 2100
V= Q = 0 .0637 m / s A

The flow is laminar flow 128 l Q p = p1 p 2 = = ... = 20 .4 kPa 4 D If the pipe is on the hill of angle with p=0

sin =

128lQ = ... = 13.34 4 gD


Example 8.2 Solution2/2

With p1=p2 the length of the pipe, l, does not appear in the flowrate equation

p=0 for all l

p1 = p 2 = p 3 = 200 kPa


Navier Stokes equation


From the Navier-Stokes Equations 1/3

General motion of an incompressible Newtonian fluid is governed by the continuity equation and the momentum equation Navier-Stokes equation r r r V = 0 g = gk

Steady flow 0

r r p r r V r 2 + V V = + g + V t momentum


For steady, fully developed flow in a pipe, the velocity contains only an axial component, which is a function of r r only the radial coordinate V = u ( r ) i r


Equation of Motion chapter 6

Fx = ma x Fy = ma y Fz = ma z

u xx yx zx u u u + + = +u +v +w g x + x y z y z t x xy yy zy v v v v g y + + + = +u +v +w x y z x y z t w xz yz zz w w w g z + + + = +u +v +w x y z x y z t

These are the differential equations of motion for any fluid satisfying the continuum assumption.

How to solve u,v,w ?


Stress-Deformation chapter 6
The stresses must be expressed in terms of the velocity and pressure field.
Cartesian coordinates
r u 2 xx = p V + 2 x 3 r v 2 yy = p V + 2 y 3 r w 2 zz = p V + 2 z 3 v u xy = yx = x + y xz = zx yz = zy w u = + x z w v = y + z


The Navier-Stokes Equations chapter 6

Navier-Stokes equations

Under incompressible flow with constant viscosity conditions, the Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to:

2u 2u 2u u u u u p + t + u x + v y + w z = x + g x + 2 + 2 2 x y z 2v 2v 2v v v v v p + t + u x + v y + w z = y + g y + 2 + 2 2 x y z 2w 2w 2w w w w w p + + t + u x + v y + w z = z + g z + 2 2 2 x y z

From the Navier-Stokes Equations 2/3

Simplify the Navier-Stokes equation

r r 2 p + gk = V

r V = 0

Navier-Stokes equation

The flow is governed by a balance of pressure, weight, and viscous forces in the flow direction.
pressureweightviscous force


From the Navier-Stokes Equations 3/3

r r V = u( r ) i
p 1 u + g sin = r x r r r
Function of ,at most, only r

Function of, at most, only x

p p p = const. = x x l

Velocity profile u(r)=

B.C. (1) r = R , u = 0 ; (2) r = 0 , u < or r = 0 u/r=0


From Dimensional Analysis 1/3

Assume that the pressure drop in the horizontal pie, p, is a function of the average velocity of the fluid in the pipe, V, the length of the pipe, l, the pipe diameter, D, and the viscosity of the fluid, .

p = F ( V , l, D , )

Chapter 7 Dimensional analysis

D p l = V D

an unknown function of the length to diameter ratio of the pipe.


From Dimensional Analysis 2/3

Dp Cl = where C is a constant. V D 4 ( / 4 C ) pD p CV Q = AV = = 2 l l D
The value of C must be determined by theory or experiment. For a round pipe, C=32. For duct of other cross-sectional shapes, the value of C is different.

32lV For a round pipe p = D2

C = 32

Vaverage Q Q pD 2 = = = 2 A R 32 l


From Dimensional Analysis 3/3

32lV / D 2 l 64 l p = = 64 = For a round pipe 1 2 2 1 VD D Re D 2 V 2 V
32lV p = D2

l V 2 p = f D 2
D p l f= V 2 2
f is termed the friction factor, or sometimes the Darcy friction factor.

For laminar flow

64 8 w f= = Re V 2
4 l w p = D

Example 8.3 Laminar Pipe Flow Properties 1/2

z The flowrate, Q, of corn syrup through the horizontal pipe shown in Figure E8.3 is to be monitored by measuring the pressure difference between sections (1) and (2). It is proposed that Q=Kp, where the calibration constant, K, is a function of temperature, T, because of the variation of the syrups viscosity and density with temperature. These variations are given in Table E8.3. (a) Plot K(T) versus T for 60FT 160F. (b) Determine the wall shear stress and the pressure drop, p=p1-p2, for Q=0.5 ft3/s and T=100F. (c) For the conditions of part (b), determine the nest pressure force.(D2/4)p, and the nest shear force, Dlw, on the fluid within the pipe between the sections (1) and (2).

Example 8.3 Laminar Pipe Flow Properties 1/2


Example 8.3 Solution1/2

If the flow is laminar

pD4 = Kp Q= 128l

1 .60 10 5 K=

For T=100F, =3.810-3 lbs/ft2, Q=0.5ft3/s

128lQ 2 p = = ... = 119 lb / ft D4 Q R e = VD / = ... = 1380 < 2100 V = = ... = 10.2ft / s


pD 4 l w p = w = = ... = 1.24lb / ft 2 D 4l


Example 8.3 Solution2/2

The new pressure force and viscous force on the fluid within the pipe between sections (1) and (2) is

D Fp = p = ... = 5.84lb 4 D Fv = 2 l w = ... = 5.84lb 2


The values of these two forces are the same. The net force is zero; there is no acceleration.


Turbulent flow


Fully Developed Turbulent Flow

turbulent pipe flowLaminar pipe flow

Turbulent pipe flow is actually more likely to occur than laminar flow in practical situations. Turbulent flow is a very complex process. Numerous persons have devoted considerable effort in an attempting to understand the variety of baffling aspects of turbulence. Although a considerable amount if knowledge about the topics has been developed, the field of turbulent flow still remains the least understood area of fluid mechanics. turbulent pipe flow
Much remains to be learned about the nature of turbulent flow.
Turbulent flow

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow in a Pipe 1/2 Laminarturbulent flow

For any flow geometry, there is one (or more) dimensionless parameters such as with this parameter value below a particular value the flow is laminar, whereas with the parameter value larger than a certain value the flow is turbulent. Laminar flowTurbulent flow The important parameters involved and their critical values depend on the specific flow situation involved.
flow situation

For flow in pipe : 2100<Re..Re>4000 For flow along a plate Rex~5000


Consider a long section of pipe that is initially filled with a fluid at rest.


Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow in a Pipe 2/2 Re0

As the valve is opened to start the flow, the flow velocity and, hence, the Reynolds number increase from zero (no flow) to their maximum steady flow values. For the initial time period the Reynolds number is small enough for laminar flow to occur. At some time the Reynolds number reaches 2100, and the Re > 2100 flow begins its transition to turbulent conditions. Intermittent spots or burst appear..
Re>2100transition Re

Description for Turbulent Flow 1/4

Turbulent flows involve randomly fluctuating parameters. The character of many of the important properties of the flow (pressure drop, heat transfer, etc.) depends strongly on the existence and nature of the turbulent fluctuations or randomness.

A typical trace of the axial component of velocity measured at a given location in the flow, u=u(t).

turbulent status

The time-averaged, , and fluctuating, description of a parameter for tubular flow.


Description for Turbulent Flow 2/4

Turbulent flows are characterized by random, three dimensional vorticity. Turbulent flows can be described in terms of their mean values on which are superimposed the fluctuations.
turbulent flow

1 u= T

tO +T


u (x , y, z, t )dt

u' = u u
u = u + u'

Description for Turbulent Flow 3/4

The time average of the fluctuations is zero.
1 u' = T 1 ( u u )dt = (Tu Tu ) = 0
tO t O +T

The square of a fluctuation quantity is positive.

1 ( u' ) = T

t +T


(u')2 dt > 0
t O +T

Turbulence intensity

Turbulence intensity or the level of the turbulence

( u' ) 2 u

1 T =


(u') dt u

The larger the turbulence intensity, the larger the fluctuations of the velocity. Welldesigned wind tunnels have typical value of =0.01, although with extreme care, values as low as =0.0002 have been obtained. 56

Description for Turbulent Flow 4/4

In some situations, turbulent flow characteristics are advantages. In other situations, laminar flow is desirable. Turbulence: mixing of fluids. Laminar: pressure drop in pipe, aerodynamic drag on airplane.
Turbulent flow Laminar flow


Shear Stress for Laminar Flow 1/2

Laminar flow

Laminar flow is modeled as fluid particles that flow smoothly along in layers, gliding past the slightly slower or faster ones on either side. The fluid actually consists of numerous molecules darting about in an almost random fashion. The motion is not entirely random a slight bias in one direction. As the molecules dart across a given plane (plane A-A, for example), the ones moving upward have come from an area of smaller average x component of velocity than the ones moving downward, which have come from an area of large velocity.

Shear Stress for Laminar Flow 2/2

The momentum flux in the x direction across plane A-A give rise to a drag of the lower fluid on the upper fluid and an equal but opposite effect of the upper fluid on the lower fluid. The sluggish molecules moving upward across plane A-A must accelerated by the fluid above this plane. The rate of change of momentum in this process produces a shear force. Similarly, the more energetic molecules moving down across plane A-A must be slowed down by the fluid below that plane. BY combining these effects, we obtain the well-known Newton Laminar flow viscosity law Shear stress is present only if there is a du yx = gradient in u = u(y).



Shear Stress for Turbulent Flow 1/2

Turbulent flow

The turbulent flow is thought as a series of random, threedimensional eddy type motions. These eddies range in size from very small diameter to fairly large diameter. This eddy structure greatly promotes mixing within the fluid.


Laminar flow

Shear Stress for Turbulent Flow 2/2

The flow is represented by u (time-mean velocity ) plus u and v (time randomly fluctuating velocity components in the x and y direction). The shear stress on the plane A-A The shear stress is not merely

du = u ' v ' = la min ar + turbulent dy

proportional to the gradient of the time-averaged velocity, u ( y ) .

u' v'
u' v' 0

is called Reynolds stress introduced by Osborne Reynolds. Reynolds stress

As we approach wall, and is zero at the wall wall (the wall tends to suppress the fluctuations.)

Laminar flow

Structure of Turbulent Flow in a Pipe 1/2

Near the wall (the viscous sublayer), the laminar shear stress lam is dominant. laminar shear stress Away from the wall (in the outer layer) , the turbulent shear stress turb is dominant. The transition between these two regions occurs in the overlap layer.
Laminar flow Turbulent flow transition

turb > lam


Structure of Turbulent Flow in a Pipe 2/2

The relative magnitude of lam compared to turb is a complex function dependent on the specific flow involved. Typically the value of turb is 100 to 1000 times greater than lam in the outer region.


Alternative Form of Shear Stress 1/2

shear stress

turb: requiring an accurate knowledge of the fluctuations u and v, or u ' v ' The shear stress for turbulent flow is given in terms of the eddy viscosity .


du = dy

This extension of of laminar flow terminology was introduced by J. Boussubesq, a French scientist, in 1877.

A semiempirical theory was proposed by L. Prandtl to determine the value of


Alternative Form of Shear Stress 2/2

du = l dy
2 m

du turb = l dy mixing length, is not constant throughout the flow field.

2 m

There is no general, all-encompassing, useful model that can accurately predict the shear stress throughout a general incompressible, viscous turbulent flow.
modelviscous turbulent flowshear stress

Turbulent Velocity Profile 1/5

Shear stressvelocityvelocity profiles

Fully developed turbulent flow in a pipe can be broken into three region: the viscous sublayer, the overlap region, and the outer turbulent sublayer. sublayerstress Within the viscous sublayer the shear stress is dominant compared with the turbulent stress, and the random, eddying nature of the flow is essentially absent. In the outer turbulent layer the Reynolds stress is dominant, and there is considerable mixing and randomness to the flow. Within the viscous sublayer the fluid viscosity is an important parameter; the density is unimportant. In the outer layer the opposite is true. viscous sublayer
shear stress vs. velocity gradient

Turbulent Velocity Profile 2/5

velocity profiles

Considerable information concerning turbulent velocity profiles has been obtained through the use of dimensional analysis, and semiempirical theoretical efforts. layer In the viscous sublayer the velocity profile can be written in dimensionless form as * u yu + u = * = = y + Law of the wall u
Kinematic viscosity

Where y is the distance measured from the wall y=R-r.

u * = ( w / )

1/ 2

is called the friction velocity.

Is valid very near the smooth wall, for

yu * 0 5


Turbulent Velocity Profile 3/5

In the outer region the velocity should vary as the logarithm of y

u yu = 2 .5 ln + 5 .0 u y

Determined experimentally

yu for > 30

In transition region or buffer layer

U u R = 2 .5 ln u y


yu * 5-7 30

Turbulent Velocity Profile 4/5

u yu = * u

yu u = 2.5 ln + 5.0 u y


Turbulent Velocity Profile 5/5

The velocity profile for turbulent flow through a smooth pipe may also be approximated by the empirical power-law equation
u y = U R
1/ n

r = 1 R

1/ n

Where the exponent, n, varies with the Reynolds number.

The power-law profile is not applicable close to the wall.


Example 8.4 Turbulent Pipe Flow Properties

z Water at 20 (=998kg/m3 and =1.00410-6m2/s) flows through a horizontal pipe of 0.1-m diameter with a flowrate of Q=410-2m3/s and a pressure gradient of 2.59 kPa/m. (a) Determine the approximate thickness of the viscous sublayer. (b) Determine the approximate centerline velocity, Vc. (c) Determine the ration of the turbulent to laminar shear stress, turb/lam at a point midway between the centerline and the pipe wall (i.e., at r=0.025m)


Example 8.4 Solution1/3

The thickness of viscous sublayer, s , is approximately

su =5

s = 5 * u

Dp w = = ... = 64.8N / m 2 4l

u * = ( w / )

1/ 2

= ... = 0 .255 m / s

s = 5 * = ... = 1 .97 10 5 m = 0 .02 mm u

The centerline velocity can be obtained from the average velocity and the assumption of a power-law velocity profile
Q 0 .04 m 3 / s V= = = 5 .09 m / s 2 A ( 0 .1m ) / 4

R e = VD / = ... = 5 .07 10 5

Example 8.4 Solution2/3

n2 Q = AV = u dA = ... = 2 R Vc = R 2 V ( n + 1)( 2 n + 1)

u y = U R

1/ n

r = 1 R

1/ n

V 2n 2 = Vc ( n + 1)( 2 n + 1)

Vc = ... = 6 .04 m / s

2 w r D

Valid for laminar or turbulent flow


2 w r 2(64.8 N / m )(0.025m) = = D (0.1m) = lam + turb = 32.4 N / m 2

R e = VD / = ... = 5 .07 10 5


Example 8.4 Solution3/3

2 w r 2(64.8 N / m 2 )(0.025m) = = D (0.1m) = lam + turb = 32.4 N / m 2


du Vc r = = 1 dr nR R

(1 n ) / n

= 0.0266 N / m 2

turb lam 32.4 0.0266 = = = 1220 lam lam 0.0266


Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow


Energy Considerations 1/8

Page 1/8~7/8Chapter5
Considering the steady flow through the piping system, including a reducing elbow. The basic equation for conservation of energy the first law of thermodynamics
& Q net

& +W Shaft

& Q net

r r r r e d V + e V n dA in + nn V n dA = CS CV CS t r r r r & + WShaft in = e d V + e V n dA nn V n dA CS CS t CV

Energy equation

Work done by normal stresses at the CS

r r r p V2 & & + + + gz)V ndA = Q e dV + ( u net in + WShaft in CS t CV 2

V2 e=u+ + gz 2

Rate of Work done by CV

& =W & & & & W + W + W + W Shaft normal shear other
& Shaft work W : the rate of work transferred into through Shaft the CS by the shaft work ( negative for work transferred out, positive for work input required) shaft Work done by normal stresses at the CS:
r v & Wnormal = Fnormal V =

Work done by shear stresses at the CS: Other work 2

r r & Wshear = + V n dA


r r r r nn V n dA = p V n dA

Negligibly small

r r r r & & cv edV + eV ndA =Q net in + Wshaft net in pV ndA CS CS t


Energy Considerations 2/8

When the flow is steady CV edV = 0 t
The integral of
r r p V2 + + + gzV ndA u CS 2 ???
Uniformly distribution

r r p V2 p V2 p V2 & & + + + + + + + gzV ndA = + gz + gz u u m u m CS 2 2 2 out in

Only Only one one stream stream entering entering and and leaving leaving Special & simple case

r r p V2 + + u + gzV ndA CS 2 p V2 p V2 & & in u gz m u gz m + + + = + + + out 2 2 in out


Energy Considerations 3/8

If shaft work is involved.
shaft work
2 2 p p Vout Vin & u out u in + m + g (z out z in ) + 2 out in & & One-dimensional energy equation =Q + W net in shaft net in

for steady-in-the-mean flow

p + Enthalpy h = u

The energy equation is written in terms of enthalpy.

2 2 & V V out in & & h out h in + m + g (z out z in ) = Q net / in + W shaft net / in 2


Energy Considerations 4/8

2 2 & p p Vout Vin & & out u in + ( ) g z z m u + + out in = Q net in + Wshaft net in 2 out in

For steady, incompressible flowOne-dimensional energy equation

2 2 shaft work & p out pin Vout Vin & u out u in + m + + g(z out z in ) = Q net in normal stress 2

V2 + e=u + gz 2

& m

2 2 pout Vout pin Vin out u in q net in + + gz out = + + gz in u 2 2

& where q net in = Q & net in / m

For steady, incompressible, frictionless flow Bernoulli eq.
2 2 Vout Vin + + z out = p in + + z in Bernoulli equation 2 2

p out

out u in q net u



Frictionless flow


Energy Considerations 5/8

For steady, incompressible, frictional flow

out u in q net u



Frictional flow
Lossin out

p V2 Defining useful or available energy + + gz 2

2 out

out u in q net Defining loss of useful or available energy u


= loss

p out V p in V + + gz out = + + gz in loss 2 2


2 in

p2 V2 + + gz 2 2

p1 V + + gz1 2

2 1


Energy Considerations 6/8

For steady, incompressible flow with friction and shaft work
& p pin V V & & u out u in + out ( ) g z z m + + out in = Q net in + Wshatf net in 2
2 out 2 in

& m

p out V p V out u in q net in ) + + gzout = in + + gzin + w shaft net in ( u 2 2

2 2 pin Vin p out Vout + + gzout = + + gzin + w shaft net in loss 2 2

2 out

2 in

in out

pout V p V + + z out = in + + z in + h s h L 2g 2g
w shaft g
net / in

2 out

2 in

in out

Shaft head h S =

& W shaft &g m

net / in

& W shaft Q

net / in

Head loss hL =

loss g


Energy Considerations 7/8

2 2 pin Vin pout Vout + + z out = + + z in + h s h L 2g 2g

in out

For turbine h s = h T ( h T > 0 ) hT is turbine head For pump h s = h P hp is pump head in out The actual head drop across the turbine The actual head drop across the pump

h T = ( h s + h L )T


h p = (hs h L )p


p2 V p1 V + + z2 = + + z1 + h s h L 2g 2g
2 2 2 1

h L = h L major + h L min or

Energy Considerations 8/8

Total head loss , hL, is regarded as the sum of major losses, hL major, due to frictional effects in fully developed flow in constant area tubes, and minor losses, hL minor, resulting from entrance, fitting, area changes, and so on. Head lossmajor lossminor loss

h L = h L major + h L min or

Major Losses: Friction Factor

The energy equation for steady and incompressible flow with zero shaft work
p1 1V1 p 2 2 V2 g + 2 g + z1 g + 2 g + z 2 = h L
2 2

1V12 2 V22 = 2g 2g

For fully developed flow through a constant area pipe

p1 p 2 >>> = ( z 2 z1 ) + h L g

For horizontal pipe, z2 = z1

p1 p 2 p >>> = = hL g g


From F=ma 6/8

D 4 p Q= 128 l

Poiseuilles Law
Valid for Laminar flow only


Q Q pD 2 = = = 2 A R 32 l


Major Losses: Laminar Flow

Laminar flowmajor loss

In fully developed laminar flow in a horizontal pipe, the pressure drop laminar flow l V 2
p = 128 l Q 128 l V (D / 4 ) l V D 2 = = 32 p D 4 D 4 D D = hL g p l 64 l 2 = 64 = 2/4 V l Q=V A=V D 1 VD D Re D hL f V 2 D 2g 2 64 l V 2 l V 2 l V l V2 p = f >> h L = 32 = = 64 R D 2 D D D 2 VD eD 2

p = f

Friction Factor f = p( D / l) /(V 2 / 2)

turbulent flow

f la min ar

64 = Re


Major Losses: Turbulent Flow 1/3

Turbulent flowmajor loss

In turbulent flow we cannot evaluate the pressure drop analytically; we must resort to experimental results and use dimensional analysis to correlate the experimental data. In fully developed turbulent flow the pressure drop, p , caused by friction in a horizontal constant-area pipe is known to depend on pipe diameter,D, pipe length, l, pipe roughness,e, dimensional analysis average flow velocity, V, fluid density, and fluid viscosity,.

p = F(V , D, l, , , )


Major Losses: Turbulent Flow 2/3

dimensional analysis

Applying dimensional analysis, the result were a correlation of the form VD l head p = , , 2 loss l/D 1 V D D 2

Experiments show that the nondimensional head loss is directly

proportional to l/D. Hence we can write

l p = Re, 2 1 D D 2 V


f Re, D

p l V 2 = hL p = f g D 2 Darcy-Weisbach equation l V 2 Frictional factor ? h L major f D 2g


Roughness for Pipes

frictional factor


Friction Factor by L. F. Moody

Depending on the specific circumstances involved.


About Moody Chart

Moody chart

For laminar flow, f=64/Re, which is independent of the relative roughness. Laminar flowf For very large Reynolds numbers, f=(/D), which is independent of the Reynolds numbers. For flows with very large value of Re, commonly termed completely turbulent flow (or wholly turbulent flow), the laminar sublayer is so thin (its thickness decrease with increasing Re) that the surface roughness completely dominates the character of the flow near the wall. For flows with moderate value of Re, the friction factor f=(Re,/D). Reynolds number
Reynolds numberf

Major Losses: Turbulent Flow 3/3

Moody chart

Colebrook To avoid having to use a graphical method for obtaining f for turbulent flows. Valid for the entire nonlaminar

1 2 .51 range of the Moody chart. / D = 2 .0 log + Laminar flow f 3 .7 Re f Colebrook formula
Miler suggests that a single iteration will produce a result within 1 percent if the initial estimate is calculated from

/ D 5 .74 f 0 = 0 .25 log + 0 .9 3 . 7 Re


Example 8.5 Comparison of Laminar or Turbulent pressure Drop

z Air under standard conditions flows through a 4.0-mm-diameter drawn tubing with an average velocity of V = 50 m/s. For such conditions the flow would normally be turbulent. However, if precautions are taken to eliminate disturbances to the flow (the entrance to the tube is very smooth, the air is dust free, the tube does not vibrate, etc.), it may be possible to maintain laminar flow. (a) Determine the pressure drop in a 0.1-m section of the tube if the flow is laminar. (b) Repeat the calculations if the flow is turbulent.


Example 8.5 Solution1/2

Under standard temperature and pressure conditions
=1.23kg/m3, =1.7910-5Ns/m The Reynolds number
R e = VD / = ... = 13,700 Turbulent flow

If the flow were laminar

l 1 p = f V 2 = ... = 0 .179 kPa D2


Example 8.5 Solution2/2

If the flow were turbulent

From Moody chart f=(Re,/D) =0.028

l 1 p = f V 2 = ... = 1 .076 kPa D2


Minor Losses 1/5

Pipe system

Most pipe systems consist of considerably more than straight pipes. These additional components (valves, bends, tees, and the like) add to the overall head loss of the system. Such losses are termed MINOR LOSS.
Additional componentsloss
The flow pattern through a valve

Minor Losses 2/5

The theoretical analysis to predict the details of flow pattern (through these additional components) is not, as yet, possible. head loss information The head loss information for essentially all components is given in dimensionless form and based on experimental data. The most common method used to determine these head losses or pressure drops is to specify the loss

coefficient, KL
Loss coefficienthead loss

Minor Losses 3/5

KL =

1 2 p K = V L 2 V / 2g 1 V 2 2 minor lossmajor loss 2 l eq V 2 V2 h Lmin or = K L =f Minor losses are sometimes 2g D 2g given in terms of an equivalent D length leq l eq = K L f The actual value of KL is strongly dependent on the geometry of the component considered. It may also dependent on the fluid properties. That is =

h Lmin or

K L = (geometry, Re)


Minor Losses 4/5

Reynolds number inertial effectviscous effect

For many practical applications the Reynolds number is large enough so that the flow through the component is dominated by inertial effects, with viscous effects being of secondary importance. Viscous effect In a flow that is dominated by inertia effects rather than viscous effects, it is usually found that pressure drops and head losses correlate directly with the dynamic pressure. This is the reason why the friction factor for very large Reynolds number, fully developed pipe flow is independent of the Reynolds number.
Minor lossFriction factorRe head lossdynamic pressure

Minor Losses 5/5

This is true for flow through pipe components. Thus, in most cases of practical interest the loss coefficients for components are a function of geometry only,

K L = ( geometry)
major lossRefrictional factorroughness

Minor Losses Coefficient Entrance flow 1/3

Entrance flow condition and loss coefficient
(a) Reentrant, KL = 0.8 (b) sharp-edged, KL = 0.5 (c) slightly rounded, KL = 0.2 (d) well-rounded, KL = 0.04

KL = function of rounding of the inlet edge.


Minor Losses Coefficient Entrance flow 2/3

vena contract

A vena contracta region may result because the fluid cannot turn a sharp right-angle corner. The flow is said to separate from the sharp corner. The maximum velocity velocity at section (2) is greater than that in the pipe section (3), and the pressure there is lower. (2)(3) If this high speed fluid could slow down efficiently, the kinetic energy could be converted into pressure.
kinetic energy

Minor Losses Coefficient Entrance flow 3/3


Such is not the case. Although the fluid may be accelerated very efficiently, it is very difficult to slow down (decelerate) the fluid viscous dissipationloss efficiently.(1)(2) (2)(3) The extra kinetic energy of the fluid is partially lost because of viscous dissipation, so that the pressure does not return to the ideal value.
Kinetic energy(2)(3)

Flow pattern and pressure distribution for a sharp-edged entrance


Entrance HEAD LOSS

inertial effects shear stress wall shear stress

Minor Losses Coefficient Exit flow

Exit flow condition and loss coefficient
(a) Reentrant, KL = 1.0 (b) sharp-edged, KL = 1.0 (c) slightly rounded, KL = 1.0 (d) well-rounded, KL = 1.0


Minor Losses Coefficient varied diameter


Loss coefficient for sudden contraction, expansion,typical conical diffuser.

A1 KL = 1 A 2


Minor Losses Coefficient Bend

Character of the flow in bend and the associated loss coefficient.

Carefully designed guide vanes help direct the flow with less unwanted swirl and disturbances.


Internal Structure of Valves


(a) globe valve (b) gate valve (c) swing check valve (d) stop check valve


Loss Coefficients for Pipe Components pipe componentsK


Example 8.6 Minor Loss 1/2

z Air at standard conditions is to flow through the test section [between sections (5) and (6)] of the closed-circuit wind tunnel shown if Figure E8.6 with a velocity of 200 ft/s. The flow is driven by a fan that essentially increase the static pressure by the amount p1-p9 that is needed to overcome the head losses experienced by the fluid as it flows around the circuit. Estimate the value of p1-p9 and the horsepower supplied to the fluid by the fan.


Example 8.6 Minor Loss 2/2


Example 8.6 Solution1/3

The maximum velocity within the wind tunnel occurs in the test section (smallest area). Thus, the maximum Mach number of the flow is Ma5=V5/c5
V5 = 200ft / s c 5 = ( KRT5 )1 / 2 = 1117ft / s

The energy equation between points (1) and (9)

p 9 V9 2 p1 V12 + + z1 = + + z 9 + h L19 2g 2g

h L19

p1 p 9 =

The total head loss from (1) to (9).


Example 8.6 Solution2/3

The energy across the fan, from (9) to (1)
Hp is the actual head rise supplied p 9 V9 2 p1 V12 + + z9 + hp = + + z1 by the pump (fan) to the air. 2g 2g

p1 p 9 hp = = h L19
The actual power supplied to the air (horsepower, Pa) is obtained from the fan head by

Pa = Qh p = A 5 V5 h p = A 5 V5 h L19

Example 8.6 Solution3/3

The total head loss

h L19 = h Lcorner 7 + h Lcorner 8 + h Lcorner 2 + h Lcorner 3 + h Ldif + h L noz + h Lscr

V2 V2 h Lcorner = K L = 0. 2 2g 2g K L noz = 0.2 K Lscr = 4.0 h Ldif = K Ldif V2 V2 = 0 .6 2g 2g

p1 p 9 = h L19 = (0.765lb / ft 2 )(560ft ) = ... = 0.298psi Pa = ... = 34300ft lb / s = 62.3hp


Noncircular Ducts 1/4


The empirical correlations for pipe flow may be used for computations involving noncircular ducts, provided their cross sections are not too exaggerated. The correlation for turbulent pipe flow are extended for use with noncircular geometries by introducing the hydraulic diameter, defined as A 4A Dh P
Where A is crosssectional area, and P is wetted perimeter.



Noncircular Ducts 2/4

For a circular duct
4A Dh =D P

For a rectangular duct of width b and height h

4A 4bh 2h Dh = = P 2( b + h ) 1 + ar ar = h / b

The hydraulic diameter concept can be applied in the approximate range <ar<4. So the correlations for pipe flow give acceptably accurate results for rectangular ducts.


Noncircular Ducts 3/4

The friction factor can be written as f = C/Reh, where the constant C depends on the particular shape of the duct, and Reh is the Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter. Hydraulic diameterReynolds number The hydraulic diameter is also used in the definition of the friction factor, h L = f (l / D h )( V 2 / 2g) , and the relative roughness /Dh.
hydraulic diameterfriction factor

h L major

l V2 f D 2g


Noncircular Ducts 4/4

For Laminar flow, the value of C = fReh have been obtained from theory and/or experiment for various shapes. For turbulent flow in ducts of noncircular cross section, calculations are carried out by using the Moody chart data for round pipes with the diameter replaced by the hydraulic diameter and the Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter.
Moody chart

The Moody chart, developed for round pipes, can also be used for noncircular ducts.

Friction Factor for Laminar Flow in Noncircular Ducts

f = C/Reh


Example 8.7 Noncircular Duct

z Air at temperature of 120F and standard pressure flows from a furnace through an 8-in.-diameter pipe with an average velocity of 10ft/s. It then passes through a transition section and into a square duct whose side is of length a. The pipe and duct surfaces are smooth (=0). Determine the duct size, a, if the head loss per foot is to be the same for the pipe and the duct.


Example 8.7 Solution1/3

The head loss per foot for the pipe

h L f V2 = l D 2g
For given pressure and temperature =1.8910-4ft2/s

VD Re = = 35300

hL f Vs2 = = 0.0512 For the square duct l D h 2g

Dh = 4A =a P Vs = Q 3.49 = 2 A a


Example 8.7 Solution2/3

hL f Vs2 f (3.49 / a 2 ) 2 = = 0.0512 = a = 1.30f 1 / 5 (1) D h 2g a 2(32.2) l
The Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter

Vs D h (3.49 / a 2 )a 1.89 104 = = Re h = 4 1.89 10 a


Have three unknown (a,f, and Reh) and three equation Eqs. 1, 2, and either in graphical form the Moody chart or the Colebrook equation
Find a

Example 8.7 Solution3/3

Use the Moody chart
Assume the friction factor for the duct is the same as for the pipe. That is, assume f=0.022. From Eq. 1 we obtain a=0.606 ft. From Eq. 2 we have Reh=3.05104 From Moody chart we find f=0.023, which does not quite agree the assumed value of f. Try again, using the latest calculated value of f=0.023 as our guess. The final result is f=0.023, Reh=3.05104, and a=0.611ft.

Pipe Flow Examples 1/2

Single-path pipe system

The energy equation, relating the conditions at any two points 1 and 2 for a single-path pipe system
p1 1V12 p 2 2 V2 2 g + 2 g + z1 g + 2 g + z 2 = h L =

L major

+ h L min or

by judicious choice of points 1 and 2 we can analyze not only the entire pipe system, but also just a certain section of it that we may be interested in.
Major loss

h Lmajor

l V f D 2g

Minor loss

h Lmin or

V = KL 2g

Pipe Flow Examples 2/2

Single pipe whose length may be interrupted by various components. Multiple pipes in different configuration Parallel Series Network


Single-Path Systems 1/2

Pipe flow problems can be categorized by what parameters are given and what is to be calculated.


Single-Path Systems 2/2

Given pipe (L and D), and flow rate, and Q, find pressure drop p Given p, D, and Q, find L. Given p, L, and D, find Q. Given p, L, and Q, find D.



Given L , D, and Q, find p

The energy equation

p1 1V12 p2 2 V2 2 + = h L = h Lmajor + h L min or + z1 + + z2 g 2g 2g g

The flow rate leads to the Reynolds number and hence the friction factor for the flow. QD Reynolds number f Tabulated data can be used for minor loss coefficients and equivalent lengths. Minor loss coefficients Leq The energy equation can then be used to directly to obtain the pressure drop.


Given p, D, and Q, find L

The energy equation
p1 1V12 p2 2 V2 2 + + + z2 = h L = h Lmajor + h L min or + z1 g 2g 2g g

The flow rate leads to the Reynolds number and hence the friction factor for the flow. QD Reynolds numberf Tabulated data can be used for minor loss coefficients and equivalent lengths. Minor loss coefficients Leq The energy equation can then be rearranged and solved directly for the pipe length.
Pipe length

Example 8.8 Type I Determine Pressure Drop

z Water at 60F flows from the basement to the second floor through the 0.75-in. (0.0625-ft)-diameter copper pipe (a drawn tubing) at a rate of Q = 12.0 gal/min = 0.0267 ft3/s and exits through a faucet of diameter 0.50 in. as shown in Figure E8.8. Determine the pressure at point (1) if: (a) all losses are neglected, (b) the only losses included are major losses, or (c) all losses are included.


Example 8.8 Solution1/4

Q V1 = = ... = 8.70ft / s A1 = 2.34 105 lb s / ft 2 = 1.94slug / ft 3 Re = VD / = 45000
pipe flow

The flow is turbulent

The energy equation 2 2 p1 1V1 p2 2 V2 + + z1 = + + z2 + hL g 2g g 2g

1 2 2

p1 = z 2 + ( V2 V ) + h L hL
z1 = 0, z 2 = 20ft , p2 = 0(free jet ) V2 = Q / A 2 = ... = 19.6ft / s
Head loss is different for each of the three cases.

2 1

Example 8.8 Solution2/4

(a) If all losses are neglected (hL=0)
p1 = z 2 + ( V2 V ) = ... = 1547lb / ft 2 = 10.7psi
1 2 2 2 1

(b) If the only losses included are the major losses, the head loss is
l V12 hL = f D 2g
Moody chartf Moody chart

= 0.000005 / D = 8 10 5 Re = 45000
p1 = z 2 + 1 1 ) + f 2 ( V2 V
2 2 2 1


l( = 60ft ) V = ... = 3062lb / ft 2 = 21.3psi D 2


Example 8.8 Solution3/4

(c) If major and minor losses are included
2 2 l V V 2 2 1 + + K L p1 = z 2 + 1 ( V V ) f 2 1 2 D 2g 2

V2 p1 = 21.3psi + K L 2

Minor loss

2 ( 8 . 70 ft / s ) = 21.3psi + (1.94slugs / ft 3 ) [10 + 4(1.5) + 2] 2

p1 = 21.3psi + 9.17psi = 30.5psi


Example 8.8 Solution4/4


Example 8.9 Type I, Determine Head Loss

z Crude oil at 140F with =53.7 lb/ft3 and = 810-5 lbs/ft2 (about four times the viscosity of water) is pumped across Alaska through the Alaska pipeline, a 799-mile-along, 4-ft-diameter steel pipe, at a maximum rate of Q = 2.4 million barrel/day = 117ft3/s, or V=Q/A=9.31 ft/s. Determine the horsepower needed for the pumps that drive this large system.


Example 8.9 Solution1/2

The energy equation between points (1) and (2)

p 2 V2 p1 V1 + + z1 + h P = + + z2 + h L 2g 2g

hP is the head provided to the oil by the pump.

Assume that z1=z2, p1=p2=V1=V2=0 (large, open tank) Minor losses are negligible because of the large length-todiameter ratio of the relatively straight, uninterrupted pipe.

l V2 hL = hP = f = ... = 17700ft D 2g

Minor loss Horse powerhead loss

f=0.0124 from Moody chart /D=(0.00015ft)/(4ft), Re=..


Example 8.9 Solution2/2

The actual power supplied to the fluid.

1hp Pa = Qh P = ... = 202000hp 550ft lb / s



Given p, L, and D, find Q 1/2


These types of problems required either manual iteration or use of a computer application. The unknown flow rate or velocity is needed before the Reynolds number and hence the friction factor can be found.
flowrateReynolds number frictional factorf

Repeat the iteration process f V Re f until convergence


Given p, L, and D, find Q 2/2

First, we make a guess for f and solve the energy equation for V in terms of known quantities and the guessed friction factor f. Then we can compute a Reynolds number and hence obtain a new value for f. Repeat the iteration process f V Re f until convergence
fenergy equationvelocityReynolds numberfff


Given p, L, and Q, find D 1/2


These types of problems required either manual iteration or use of a computer application. The unknown diameter is needed before the Reynolds number and relative roughness, and hence the friction factor can be found.
DQvelocityReynolds number


Given p, L, and Q, find D 2/2

First, we make a guess for f and solve the energy equation for D in terms of known quantities and the guessed fenergy equationD friction factor f. Then we can compute a Reynolds number and hence obtain a new value for f. Repeat the iteration process f D Re and /D f until convergence


Example 8.10 Type III, Determine Flowrate

z According to an appliance manufacturer, the 4-in-diameter galvanized iron vent on a clothes dryer is not to contain more than 20 ft of pipe and four 90 elbows. Under these conditions determine the air flowrate if the pressure within the dryer is 0.20 inches of water. Assume a temperature of 100 and standard pressure.
4-in20 ft pipe90elbows 0.2 inches of waterflowrate


Example 8.10 Solution1/2

energy equation

Application of the energy equation between the inside of the dryer, point (1), and the exit of the vent pipe, point (2) gives
p1 V1 p 2 V2 V2 l V2 + + z1 = + + z2 + f + KL 2g D 2g 2g 2g
2 2

Assume that z1=z2, p2=0, V1=0

p1 H 2O 1ft 3 2 = 0.2in p1 = (0.2in.) (62.4lb / ft ) = 1.04lb / ft 12in.

With =0.0709lb/ft3, V2=V, and =1.7910-4 ft2/s.

945 = (7.5 + 60f )V

(1) fvelocity

f is dependent on Re, which is dependent on V, and unknown.

Example 8.10 Solution2/2

VD Re = = ... = 1860V
VReynolds number

We have three relationships (Eq. 1, 2, and the /D=0.0015 curve of the Moody chart) from which we can solve for the three unknowns f, Re, and V. This is done easily by iterative scheme as follows. Assume f=0.022V=10.4ft/s (Eq. 1)Re=19,300 (Eq.2)f=0.029 Assume f=0.029 V=10.1ft/sRe=18,800 f=0.029

Q = AV = ... = 0.881ft /s

Example 8.11 Type III, Determine Flowrate

z The turbine shown in Figure E8.11 extracts 50 hp from the water flowing through it. The 1-ft-diameter, 300-ft-long pipe is assumed to have a friction factor of 0.02. Minor losses are negligible. Determine the flowrate through the pipe and turbine.
Friction factor f minor loess


50 hp

Example 8.11 Solution1/2

energy equation

The energy equation can be applied between the surface of the lake and the outlet of the pipe as
p V p1 V1 + + z1 = 2 + 2 + z 2 + h L + h T 2g 2g
2 2

Where p1=V1= p2=z2=0, z1=90ft, and V2=V, the fluid velocity in the pipe

l V2 hL = f = 0.0932V 2ft D 2g

hT =

Pa 561 = ... = ft Q V

0.107V 90V + 561 = 0

There are two real, positive roots: V=6.58 ft/s or V=24.9 ft/s. The third root is negative (V=-31.4ft/s) and has no physical meaning for this flow.

Example 8.11 Solution2/2

Two acceptable flowrates are

2 Q = D V = ... = 5.17ft 3 / s 4 2 Q = D V = ... = 19.6ft 3 / s 4


Example 8.12 Type IV Without Minor Losses, Determine Diameter

z Air at standard temperature and pressure flows through a horizontal, galvanized iron pipe (=0.0005 ft) at a rate of 2.0ft3/s. Determine the minimum pipe diameter if the pressure drop is to be no more than 0.50 psi per 100 ft of pipe.


Example 8.12 Solution1/2

Assume the flow to be incompressible with =0.00238 slugs/ft3 and =3.7410-7 lbs/ft2. If the pipe were too long, the pressure drop from one end to the other, p1-p2, would not be small relative to the pressure at the beginning, and compressible flow considerations would be required. With z1=z2, V1=V2 , The energy equation becomes
l V 2 p1 = p 2 + f D g

2 ( 100 ft ) V p1 p 2 = (0.5)(144)lb / ft 2 = f (0.00238slugs / ft 3 ) D 2g

Q 2.55 V= = 2 A D

D = 0.404f



Example 8.12 Solution2/2

VD 1.62 10 4 Re = = ... = D 0.0005 = D D
(3) (2)

We have four equations (Eq. 1, 2, 3, and either the Moody chart or the Colebrook equation) and four unknowns (f, D, /D, and Re) from which the solution can be obtained by trial-and-error methods.

Repeat the iteration process f D Re and /D f until convergence

(1) (2) (3)

Example 8.13 Type IV With Minor Losses, Determine Diameter

z Water at 60F (=1.2110-5 ft2/s) is to flow from reservoir A to reservoir B through a pipe of length 1700 ft and roughness 0.0005 ft at a rate of Q= 26 ft3/s as shown in Figure E8.13. The system contains a sharp-edged entrance and four flanged 45 elbow. Determine the pipe diameter needed.


Example 8.13 Solution1/2

The energy equation can be applied between two points on the surfaces of the reservoirs (p1=V1= p2=z2=V2=0)
p1 V1 p 2 V2 + + z1 = + + z2 + h L 2g 2g V2 l z1 = f K + L 2g D
2 2

Q 33.1 V= = 2 A D

KLent=0.5, KLelbow=0.2, and KLexit=1

V2 1700 44ft = f + [ 4 ( 0 . 2 ) + 0 . 5 + 1 ] 2 2(32.2ft / s ) D

f = 0.00152 D5 0.00135D

Example 8.13 Solution2/2

VD 2.74 106 = ... = Re = D 0.0005 = (3) D D

We have four equations (Eq. 1, 2, 3, and either the Moody chart or the Colebrook equation) and four unknowns (f, D, /D, and Re) from which the solution can be obtained by trial-and-error methods.

Repeat the iteration process D D f Re and /D f until convergence

(1) (2) (3)

Multiple-Path Systems

Series and Parallel Pipe System

Q1 = Q2 = Q3 h LA B = h L1 + h L 2 + h L 3

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

h L1 = h L 2 = h L 3


Multiple-Path Systems
Multiple Pipe Loop System

Q1 = Q2 + Q3
2 2 p B VB p A VA + + zA = + + z B + h L1 + h L 2 (1 2 ) 2g 2g 2 2 p A VA p B VB + + zA = + + z B + h L1 + h L 3 (1 3) 2g 2g h L 2 = h L3


Multiple-Path Systems
Three-Reservoir System
If valve (1) was closed, reservoir B reservoir C If valve (2) was closed, reservoir A reservoir C If valve (3) was closed, reservoir A reservoir B Q With all valves open . 1 = Q2 + Q3

2 2 p A VA p B VB + + zA = + + z B + h L1 + h L 2 (A B) 2g 2g 2 2 p B VB pC VC + + zB = + + z C + h L 2 + h L 3 (B C ) 2g 2g


Example 8.14 Three reservoir, Multiple Pipe System

z Three reservoirs are connected by three pipes as are shown in Figure E8.14. For simplicity we assume that the diameter of each pipe is 1 ft, the frictional factor for each is 0.02, and because of the large length-to-diameter ratio, minor losses are negligible. Determine the flowrate into or out of each reservoir.


Example 8.14 Solution1/4

The continuity equation requires that
Flows out of Q1 + Q2 = Q3 V1 + V2 = V3 (1) reservoir B The diameters are the same for each pipe The energy equation for the fluid that flows from A to C in pipes (1) and (3) can be written as
2 2 l 1 V12 l 3 V32 p A VA pC VC + + zA = + + z C + f1 + f3 2g 2g D1 2g D 3 2g

By using the fact that pA=VA= pC=VC=zC=0

l 1 V12 l 3 V32 + f3 z A = f1 D1 2g D 3 2g

322 = V12 + 0.4V22 (2)


Example 8.14 Solution2/4

Similarly the energy equation for fluid following from B to C
2 2 l 2 V22 l 3 V32 p B VB pC VC + + zB = + + zC + f2 + f3 2g 2g D 2 2g D 3 2g

l 2 V22 l 3 V32 + f3 zB = f2 D 2 2g D 3 2g

64.4 = 0.5V22 + 0.4V32 (3)

No solution to Eqs. 1, 2, and 3 with real, positive values of V1, V2, and V3. Thus, our original assumption of flow out of

reservoir B must be incorrect.


Example 8.14 Solution3/4

The continuity equation requires that
Flows into reservoir B
Q1 = Q2 + Q3 V1 = V2 + V3 (4)

The energy equation between points A and B and A and C

l 1 V12 l 2 V22 + f2 z A = z B + f1 D1 2g D 2 2g l 1 V12 l 3 V32 + f3 z A = z C + f1 D1 2g D 3 2g

258 = V12 + 0.5V22 322 = V12 + 0.4V32

(5) (6)


V1 = 15.9ft / s V2 = 2.88ft / s

Example 8.14 Solution4/4

The corresponding flowates are
Q1 = A1V1 = 12.5ft 3 / s from A Q 2 = A 2 V2 = 2.26ft 3 / s int o B Q3 = Q1 Q2 = 10.2ft 3 / s int o C


Pipe Flowrate


The theoretical flow rate may be related to the pressure differential between section 1 and 2 by applying the continuity and Bernoulli equations. Then empirical correction factors may be applied to obtain the actual flow rate.
Basic equation
r r dV + V dA = 0 CV CS t 2 2 p 2 V2 p1 V1 + + gz 1 = + + gz 2 2 2

Pipe Flowrate Meters2/2

V2 p1 p 2 = 2

Orifice Meter Nozzle Meter Venturi Meter

A 2 2 1 A 1

V2 =

2 ( p1 p 2 ) 1 ( A 2 / A1 )2

Theoretical mass flow rate

Q ideal = V2 A 2 = A 2

2(p 1 p 2 ) (1 (D 2 /D 1 ) 4 )

Q ideal

Q actual ??


Pipe Flowrate Meters

Orifice Meter

Q actual = C o Q ideal = C o A o
A 0 = d 2 / 4

2 ( p1 p 2 ) (1 4 )
Orifice meter discharge coefficient

Area of the hole in the orifice plate

C o = C o ( = d / D , Re = VD / )

Pipe Flowrate Meters

Nozzle Meter

Q actual = C n Q ideal = C n A n

2 ( p1 p 2 ) (1 4 )

A n = d 2 / 4 Area of the hole

C n = C n ( = d / D , Re = VD / ) Nozzle meter discharge coefficient


Pipe Flowrate Meters

Venturi Meter

Q actual = C V Q ideal = C V A T
A T = d 2 / 4

2 ( p1 p 2 ) (1 4 )

Area of the throat

C V = C V ( = d / D , Re = VD / ) The Venturi discharge coefficient


Linear Flow Measurement

Float-type Variable-area Flow Meters
The ball or float is carried upward in the tapered clear tube by the flowing fluid until the drag force and float weight are in equilibrium. Float meters often called rotameters.

Rotameter-type flow meter


Linear Flow Measurement

Turbine Flow Meter
A small, freely rotating propeller or turbine within the turbine meter rotates with an angular velocity that is function of the average fluid velocity in the pipe. This angular velocity is picked up magnetically and calibrated to provide a very accurate measure of the flowrate through the meter.

Turbine-type flow meter


Volume Flow Meters 1/2

Measuring the amount (volume or mass) of fluid that has passed through a pipe during a given time period, rather than the instantaneous flowrate. Nutating disk flow meters is widely used to measurement the net amount of water used in domestic and commercial water systems as well as the amount of gasoline delivered to your gas tank.

Nutating disk flow meter


Volume Flow Meters 2/2

Bellow-type flow meter is a quantity-measuring device used for gas flow measurement. It contains a set of bellows that alternately fill and empty as a result of the pressure of gas and the motion of a set of inlet and outlet valves.

Bellows-type flow meter.

(a) Back case emptying, back diaphragm filling. (b) Front diaphragm filling, front case emptying. (c) Back case filling, back diaphragm emptying. (d) Front diaphragm emptying, front case filling.