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LCM 500 – Leakage Current Monitor
LCM 500 –
Leakage
Current
Monitor
www.doble.no
www.doble.no

Presented by Michal Slodkiewicz

Overview of presentation
Overview of presentation

Motivation and background

•

IEC 60099-5 available diagnostic methods

Requirements

LCM 500 unit and attached accessories

Performing self-test of LCM 500 unit

Preparation database of surge arrester

Grounding of the LCM 500 unit

Deployment of LCM 500 accessories during

measurement on-side

Risk assessment

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Motivation and background
Motivation and background

The MOSA is a cheap and passive component, but protecting crucial apparatus

Overlooked despite of severe consequences if it fails

MOSAs can age and fail due to a variety of reasons

May offer inadequate over voltage protection, especially if the rated voltage is selected to low.

Diagnostic indicator: Resistive leakage current increases with time increasing risk of failure

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Why test Metal Oxide Surge Arresters?
Why test Metal Oxide Surge Arresters?

Utilize the lifetime of the operating MOSAs. Prevent arrester failures by replacing aged arresters before breakdown.

Avoid disturbances and costly outages of the electric power supply.

Reduce the risk for damages to other equipment, for instance transformer bushings.

Increase the safety for the utility/maintenance staff.

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Mechanism for degradation of MOSA
Mechanism for degradation of MOSA

Sealing defects

Discharging due to surface contamination

Overloading

Long term aging during normal service

Internal partial discharges

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Degradation of MOSA
Degradation of MOSA

One consequence of the degradation of the MOSA is an increase with time of the resistive component of the continuous leakage current

Increase in resistive leakage current will cause an increase in power losses and hence increased temperature in ZnO-blocks

The resistive current may exceed a critical limit where the accumulated energy in the ZnO-blocks exceeds the energy capability of the arrester. The arrester will then get thermally unstable and fail.

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Degradation of MOSA
Degradation of MOSA

An arrester failure may appear in different ways:

Arrester with porcelain housing may explode

The arrester can be causing an earth fault due to internal flashover

Aged or overloaded arresters may have reduced protection against overvoltages, i.e. it is not protecting the apparatus it is supposed to protect.

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Requirements for surveyed surge arrester 1. Metal Oxide Surge Arrester - MOSA 2. Separate grounding wire

Requirements for surveyed surge arrester

1. Metal Oxide Surge Arrester - MOSA 2. Separate grounding wire 3. Insulated base for each
1.
Metal Oxide Surge Arrester - MOSA
2.
Separate grounding wire
3.
Insulated base for each arrester

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Requirements for surveyed surge arrester Why use insulated base arresters and separate earth leads: Gives complete

Requirements for surveyed surge arrester

Why use insulated base arresters and separate earth leads:

Requirements for surveyed surge arrester Why use insulated base arresters and separate earth leads: Gives complete
Gives complete control of arrester current leading to the ground
Gives complete control of arrester current leading to the ground
•
Requirements for surveyed surge arrester Why use insulated base arresters and separate earth leads: Gives complete
•
Allows an easy on-line in service condition assessment test of the MOSA. Without insulated base you
Allows an easy on-line in service condition assessment test of the
MOSA. Without insulated base you have to take the arrester out of
service for proper condition testing.
• If a surge counter is present, the clip-on should be placed above the counter to
If a surge counter is present, the clip-on should be placed above the
counter to avoid circulating currents from the counter ground loop.

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IEC 60099-5 Part 5 Selection

and Application Recommendation

IEC 60099-5 Part 5 Selection and Application Recommendation www.doble.no

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IEC 60099-5:

Available diagnostic methods

Properties of on-site leakage current measurements:

IEC 60099-5: Available diagnostic methods Properties of on-site leakage current measurements: A HV-DC test is effective

A

HV-DC

test

is

effective but off line

and complex

Method B2 is ranked to be the best field

method

for

evaluation of ageing and deterioration of MOSA.

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IEC 60099-5: Metal Oxide Surge Arresters
IEC 60099-5: Metal Oxide Surge Arresters

If the MOSA is energized by a pure sinusoidal voltage (fundamental frequency only), the capacitive leakage current will show a fundamental component I 1c only, while the resistive leakage current will show both a fundamental component and a 3 rd harmonic component (I 3r ) due to its nonlinear properties.

The resistive components are said to be generated by the arrester itself (due to the not
The resistive components are said to be generated
by the arrester itself (due to the not linear current-
voltage characteristic) and can therefore be used as
a measure for the arrester condition.

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IEC 60099-5: Metal Oxide Surge Arresters  If harmonics are present in the operating voltage, this
IEC 60099-5: Metal Oxide Surge Arresters  If harmonics are present in the operating voltage, this

IEC 60099-5: Metal Oxide Surge Arresters

 If harmonics are present in the operating voltage, this will generate a significant 3 rd
If harmonics are present in the operating voltage, this will
generate a significant 3 rd harmonic component in the capacitive
leakage current in the arrester.
This capacitive 3rd harmonic component will be “added” to
3rd harmonic component resistive component and create a
measuring error.
the
The LCM 500 uses a compensation method where the capacitive
component generated by the operating voltage is eliminated.

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Typical Voltage - Current Characteristics
Typical Voltage - Current Characteristics
Typical Voltage - Current Characteristics The resistive current component:  is typically 5-20% of the total

The resistive current component:

  • is typically 5-20% of the total leakage current under normal operating conditions

  • is a sensitive indicator of changes in the voltage-current characteristic

  • depends on the voltage and temperature

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Equivalent Circuit of ZnO -Varistors
Equivalent Circuit of ZnO -Varistors
I t I c U
I
t
I
c
U
Equivalent Circuit of ZnO -Varistors I t I c U I r 10-600  A 200-3000
Equivalent Circuit of ZnO -Varistors I t I c U I r 10-600  A 200-3000
  • I r

10-600A

200-3000 µA

  • I r =I t -I c

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Leakage Current Measurements
Leakage Current Measurements
Leakage Current Measurements Measurement of the total leakage current example: I c1 = 100 I c2

Measurement of the total leakage current example:

Ic1= 100

Ic2=100

I

Ir1=10 Ir2=20 I1tot = 100,5 I2total = 102 δ1 δ2 Φ Usyst
Ir1=10
Ir2=20
I1tot = 100,5
I2total = 102
δ1
δ2
Φ
Usyst
I tot increases with only 1,5% when the resistive vector is doubled This small change in
I tot increases with only 1,5%
when the resistive vector is
doubled
This small change in I tot is not
measurable at a mA–meter

U

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Recalculation of leakage current
Recalculation of leakage current

By using arrester system data and measuring the ambient temperature and operating voltage at the same time as the

condition monitoring is performed, it is possible to recalculate

the leakage current data to a common reference of:

20 °C and U/Ur=0.7

The resistive leakage current values will then be approximately the same independent of the test conditions

by taking account of the ambient temperature and operating voltage, measurements performed under different conditions can be directly compared, and the measured values will be a reliable indicator of the arrester condition.

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Temperature and system voltage influence
Temperature and
system voltage influence

Influence of ambient temperature and system voltage

on resistive leakage current.

Temperature and system voltage influence Influence of ambient temperature and system voltage on resistive leakage current.

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LCM 500-Leakage Current Monitor 4 1 3 1. LCM500 unit 2. Current Probe 2 3. Field
LCM 500-Leakage Current Monitor
4
1
3
1.
LCM500 unit
2.
Current Probe
2
3.
Field Probe
5
4.
12V DC cable
5.
Field Rod adapter
6.
Power supply cable
6
7
7.
Antenna
8.
Grounding cable
9.
Current loop wire
9
11
10
8
10.USB A+B cabel
11.Field test cable

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LCM 500-Leakage Current Monitor
LCM 500-Leakage Current Monitor
Optional Accessory
Optional Accessory
LCM 500-Leakage Current Monitor Optional Accessory Field Probe Rod – delivered in separate transport case. Rod
Field Probe Rod – delivered in separate transport case. Rod is divided on 3 pieces for
Field Probe Rod – delivered in separate transport
case. Rod is divided on 3 pieces for 1m each piece.
Cannot be used as a Hot Stick!

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LCM 500 Front Panel
LCM 500 Front Panel
Self test Communication ports Light diodes Mains power supply External DC power sypply Power switch Turning
Self test
Communication ports
Light diodes
Mains power
supply
External DC
power sypply
Power switch
Turning knob
“Select” button

Antenna input

Four pushbuttons

LCD display

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LCM 500 Self-test outputs
LCM 500 Self-test outputs
Self-test outputs - perform function test of internal system
Self-test outputs - perform function test of internal system
LCM 500 Self-test outputs Self-test outputs - perform function test of internal system  FIELD Simulated
  • FIELD

Simulated field

probe

signal

to

be

connected by coaxial cable (type RG58)

V.TRSF Simulated voltage transformer signal to

be connected to the voltage transformer

adapter (optional accessory)

  • CURRENT

By connecting an electrical wire between

the two black connectors, a current loop

simulating total arrester leakage current is created

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LCM 500 Communication Ports
LCM 500 Communication Ports
LCM 500 Communication Ports  USB, RS232, Ethernet By connecting data cables to one of above
  • USB, RS232, Ethernet

By connecting data cables to one of above ports, the instrument can communicate with a PC using the enclosed Windows based data

management software LCMViewer.

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LCM 500 Wireless probes
LCM 500 Wireless probes
1
1

1-Field probe FP500 (antenna):

the

capacitive

current

Measures

from the electric field surrounding

the arrestor.

2
2

2-Clip-on current transformer CCT500:

Measures the total current in the

grounding cable of surge arrester.

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Performing self-test of LCM 500 Circuit diagram
Performing self-test of LCM 500
Circuit diagram

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Performing self-test of LCM 500
Performing self-test of LCM 500
Leakage Current Monitor LCM500 Meas Setup Dbase Test
Leakage Current
Monitor
LCM500
Meas
Setup
Dbase
Test
Performing self-test of LCM 500 Leakage Current Monitor LCM500 Meas Setup Dbase Test Measurement System Test

Measurement System Test

Teast : verify system Simul. : generate test

signals

Test Simul.

Main

Measurement System Test

Connect

arrester

and

antenna

test

signals

to

probe

before

start

Start

Main

Performing self-test of LCM 500 Leakage Current Monitor LCM500 Meas Setup Dbase Test Measurement System Test
Performing self-test of LCM 500 Leakage Current Monitor LCM500 Meas Setup Dbase Test Measurement System Test

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Performing self-test of LCM 500
Performing self-test of LCM 500
Performing self-test of LCM 500 Measurement in progress Aquisition started PLEASE WAIT! > LCM 500 Measurement

Measurement in progress

Aquisition started PLEASE WAIT!

>

Performing self-test of LCM 500 Measurement in progress Aquisition started PLEASE WAIT! > LCM 500 Measurement
LCM 500 Measurement System Test Succeeded Start Main
LCM 500
Measurement System Test
Succeeded
Start
Main

LCM 500

Measurement System Test Failed CONTACT MANUFACTURER Measured:

Ir:205 +/- 8µA

It:332 +/- 5µA

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Performing self-test of LCM 500
Performing self-test of LCM 500
TROUBLE SHOOTING: - Be sure that all connections between field test cable “crocodile” clips are fasten
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
-
Be
sure
that
all
connections
between
field
test
cable
“crocodile”
clips
are
fasten
properly to Field Probe
- Observe that current loop is not in
vicinity
or
not
around antenna

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Preparation of surge arrester in LCMViewer
Preparation of surge arrester in
LCMViewer
Preparation of surge arrester in LCMViewer www.doble.no

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Preparation of surge arrester in LCMViewer
Preparation of surge arrester in
LCMViewer
surge arrester transfer this to automatically will you to Instrument tab.
surge arrester
transfer this to
automatically will
you to Instrument tab.

and

the LCM

500, use Add to LCM Queue button. Software

move

Define database of your

If you don’t rated voltage, system voltage arrester type.
If
you
don’t
rated
voltage,
system
voltage
arrester type.

a proper value based on

and

know the

the

software will recommend

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Preparation of surge arrester in LCMViewer Use Send Data to LCM button in order send data
Preparation of surge arrester in
LCMViewer
Use Send Data to LCM
button
in
order send
data
to
LCM
500
instrument.

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Getting connection between PC and LCM500 Go to Instrument=>Setup, Log tab 1. Choose correct ComPort for
Getting connection
between PC and LCM500
Go to Instrument=>Setup, Log tab
1. Choose
correct
ComPort for LCM 500
instrument.
2.
Use
Test
button
to
check
status of your
connection
in
Log
area.

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Grounding of the LCM 500
Grounding of the LCM 500
The LCM 500 can be grounding in two ways:
The LCM 500 can be grounding in two ways:

1.In laboratory testing or during charging battery by using

the power supply cable. Power supply plug has to be

connected to the local earth.

Grounding of the LCM 500 The LCM 500 can be grounding in two ways: 1.In laboratory

2.During field measurements grounding cable has to be connected to local earth system in the substation.

Grounding of the LCM 500 The LCM 500 can be grounding in two ways: 1.In laboratory

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Grounding of the LCM 500
Grounding of the LCM 500
Grounding of the LCM 500 www.doble.no
Grounding of the LCM 500 www.doble.no

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Deployment of LCM 500 accessories
Deployment of LCM 500 accessories

2

1 3 4 5 7
1
3
4
5
7

The

Field

Probe

should

NEVER exceed this limit

Deployment of LCM 500 accessories 2 1 3 4 5 7 The Field Probe should NEVER
9
9
  • 1. Gapless MOSA

  • 2. Insulated base

  • 3. Grounding wire

  • 4. Clip-on CT500

  • 5. Counter

  • 6. Field probe FP500

  • 7. Arrester pedestal

  • 8. Field Probe Rod

  • 9. LCM 500 unit

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Deployment of LCM 500 accessories
Deployment of LCM 500 accessories
Deployment of LCM 500 accessories www.doble.no

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LCM 500 Set-up Mode From Main Menu
LCM 500 Set-up Mode From Main Menu
Leakage Current Monitor LCM500 Meas Setup Dbase Test
Leakage Current
Monitor
LCM500
Meas
Setup
Dbase
Test

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LCM 500 Set-up Mode From Main Menu
LCM 500 Set-up Mode From Main Menu

Language: only English.

Leanguage

: English

<

 

Dump mode : OFF

Dump

mode:

”ON”

is

for

use

in

Time

: 10:30:45

continuous

measurements.

The

Date

: 2011.06.14

measurements

will

be

dumped

Backlight

: 40

continuously to the serial port. When

Baudrate

: 57600

a PC with proper software

is

Serial #

: 205039

connected the measurements can be

Netw.

Radio

Main

downloaded.

 

Time: battery backed real-time clock.

Backlight: time in sec. the light in the LCD display is turned on.

Baudrate:

baudrate

defines

the

data

transfer

speed

during

communication with a PC and can be set to 9600 bit/sec. or 57600

bit/sec.

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LCM 500 Measuring mode
LCM 500 Measuring mode
Leakage Current Monitor LCM500 Meas Setup Dbase Test
Leakage Current
Monitor
LCM500
Meas
Setup
Dbase
Test

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LCM 500 Measuring mode
LCM 500 Measuring mode

Station/Loc/Arrester:

No station chosen

<

No location chosen No arresrer chosen Installation #

Run

Auto

Setup

Main

By pressing the “MEAS”

button in

the

main

menu,

the

screen

presented on the left appears.

When database is transferred from the software, you will get access to

it in this menu.

If you press ”Setup” in the above menu, you will enter the measuring set-up mode

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LCM 500 Measuring set-up mode
LCM 500 Measuring set-up mode

Station/Loc/Arrester:

No station chosen No location chosen No arresrer chosen Installation #

<

Run

Auto

Setup

Main

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LCM 500 Measuring set-up mode
LCM 500 Measuring set-up mode

Mode

: 3-phase

<

Temp

: Auto 24 C

Line

: Man 245 kV

Transf

: 1:1000

Meas

Main

Mode: In field test 3-phase mode should be set. 1-phase mode is for use in lab tests.

Temp: Choose

between

manual

or

automatically setting of the temperature.

Line: The line-to-line operating voltage. Choose between manual or automatic. Manual setting is the most common. Automatic is for connection to a PT combined with an adapter.

Transf: This ratio defines the voltage divider ratio of the voltage transformer that can be connected for automatic voltage measurements. The ratio can be set from 1:1 up to 1:10000 in steps.

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LCM 500 Auto measurement
LCM 500 Auto measurement

Station/Loc/Arrester:

No station chosen No location chosen No arresrer chosen Installation #

<

Run

Auto

Setup

Main

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LCM 500 Auto measurement
LCM 500 Auto measurement

Start

Auto measurement :2011.02.10 <

 

STA A1 PH R

 

16:11:25

198µA ±5µA

Interval

:

00:00:15

Ir corr. It : 567 µA

Ir:172µA

90005

24 C

68kV

STA A1 PH R

 

AUTO, next measurement

 

2011.02.10

16:11:40

Abort

Run

Main

Abort

Function allows performe long-term monitoring of an surge arrester. The time and date for the first measurements can be set than by press button ”Run” subseqent measurements will begin.

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LCM 500 Perform a Measurement
LCM 500 Perform a Measurement

Station/Loc/Arrester:

No station chosen No location chosen No arresrer chosen Installation #

<

Run

Auto

Setup

Main

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LCM 500 Perform a Measurement
LCM 500 Perform a Measurement

If the measurement runs ok, the measuring result will be shown in the LCD display like the example below.

90005

STA A1 PH R

Ir corr:

 

159µA

Ant. 3rd

harm. :

 

0.8%

It:

587 µA

Ir:

89 µA

24

C

68 kV

Run

Store

 

New

Main

Ircorr-total corrected resistive leakage

current with standard deviation (corrected value with regard to ambient

temperature and line voltage).

It-total leakage current

Ir-total uncorrected resistive leakage current.

In addition the ambient temperature and the line voltage used during the measurement are displayed.

To save your measurement, press the Storebutton

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Download the measurements
Download the measurements
Go to Instrument=>Measurement from Instrument tab 1. Click the Read Measurements from LCM to make the
Go to Instrument=>Measurement from Instrument tab
1.
Click
the
Read
Measurements
from
LCM to make the
transfer take place
2.
Mark
your
Surge
Arrester
than
use
Apply Measurements
(Auto
only),
all
performed
measurement will be
add to existing Surge
Arrester data.

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Structure and data analysis
Structure and data analysis
Structure and data analysis Leakage Current Plot The LCMViewer lets you create a graphical statistical presentation

Leakage Current Plot

The LCMViewer lets you create a graphical statistical presentation of your Surge Arrester measurements. Easy way
The LCMViewer lets you
create a graphical statistical
presentation of your Surge
Arrester measurements.
Easy
way
to
compare
measurements
for
groups
of arressters.

Test Conditions

You can observe factor of temperature, voltage and containing of 3th harmonic from taken measurements.
You can observe factor of
temperature, voltage and
containing of 3th harmonic
from taken measurements.

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Structure and data analysis
Structure and data analysis
Structure and data analysis Arrester Test Reports • LCMViewer will generate an arrester report in either

Arrester Test Reports

LCMViewer will generate

an arrester

report

in

either Excel or pdf files.

You can select content of information to be included in the report.

You can use your company logo.

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Doble LCM - Your best choice!  You should choose:  A simple in-service method 

Doble LCM - Your best choice!

  • You should choose:

    • A simple in-service method

      • Doble LCM takes less then 5 minutes per arrester, in service

    • Reliability method verified by independent sources

      • LCM method recommended by arrester IEC standard

    • Convincing references

      • Developed together with ABB!

      • Now in Siemens surge arrester monitoring catalog!

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Risk Assessment
Risk Assessment

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Evaluation of the Arrester Condition
Evaluation of the Arrester Condition

Based on the level and development of resistive leakage current Ir over time:

Trend analyses

  • In general look for increasing trend

  • Perform a baseline reading when the arrester is new. If Ir increases by 3- 4 times(typically), it is indicating severe aging

Compare the value to maximum recommended leakage current values

given by arrester manufacturers

  • ABB and Siemens provide max values

  • Compare Ir to arresters of same design and type

  • The three phases in a line or bay

  • All similar arresters in the grid

Test interval

  • In beginning once a year to get knowledge about trend.

  • Later on each 3-5 year

  • It depends on age of the arresters, the regional lightning activity, the situation of overvoltages, quality of the apparatus etc.

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Eliminating possible sources of error

Eliminating possible sources of error Some steps to consider in the final evaluation: 1. If total

Some steps to consider in the final evaluation:

  • 1. If total current It and resistive current Ir are unrealistically high:

Check if the arrester base and the arrester grounding is in

order. Circulating currents??

  • 2. If Ir is higher than expected:

Temporary heating of the ZnO-blocks inside?? Consider to re- test in approximately 1 day to confirm the value.

If surge counter is present: is the clip-on CT connected above

it?

  • 3. If high reading is stable and confirmed, consider monitoring continuously or proceed with step 4.

  • 4. Contact the arrester manufacturer and consider replacing

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Leakage current trend

Excample

200 % • Three different arresters with almost the same leakage current 150 % •Which of
200
%
• Three different
arresters with almost
the same leakage
current
150
%
•Which of them is the
most dangerous?
100
%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Years with measurements

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Leakage current trend

Excample

200 % 150 % 100 % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
200
%
150
%
100
%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Years with measurements

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The same three arresters as above,

with measurements

over 8 years.

Which of them is

most dangerous?

The yellow has increased its leakage current from ~85% to

95% in 8 years

The red one from 65% to 100% in 8 years

The blue from 25% to 95% the last 3 years!